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Medieval England: Frowyk

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Contents

Origins

St Osyth on the East coast of England, in the county of Essex is recorded as Chich in the Domesday Book of 1086, and is said to be the location of a C7th convent founded by Acca, Bishop of Dunwich. Its first Abbess was [Osgyth] (or Osyth; died c700). The circumstances of her death are unclear but as a result, the village was renamed as St Osyth, although it continued to be known also as Chich into the post-medieval period. [1]

Gatehouse at St Osyth's Priory (Late C15th)

The nearby settlement of Frowick was also noted in Domesday Book. It had a recorded population of 3.8 households in 1086 when Count Eustace of Boulogne was tenant in chief. The priory at St Osyth which became one of the largest religious houses in Essex, would have been a place of awe to the Frowyks in their small vill. The priory was founded c. 1121 by Richard Belmeis, Bishop of London,. The gatehouse is the most significant remnant of the original monastic structures still standing. [2][3]

The name Frowyk, likely to be Scandinavian in origin was recorded as Froruuicā in 1086 [4] and it’s original pronunciation is probably the reason behind the variety of ways in which the name is spelled. Frowyk, Frowyke and Frowick are the more common occurrences but Frowicke, Frowyck, Frowik, Frowycke, Frowewyk, Frowich, Frodwick, Frodwyke, Frothewyke, Frothewick, Frothewic, Frewyk and others are also found.
Frowyk is the most common variant in literature and historical usage so this is used throughout, at least for medieval records.

St Giles Church. South Mymms

After settling in Frowick the family gradually established strong trading links in London whilst maintaining a foothold in Frowick and later at Old Fold near Barnet, just north of London, and later still at Gunnersbury. They became a gentry family, one part of which had long association with the parish of St. Giles, South Mymms (Mimms), Middlesex, lasting for some ten generations. It was rare for a merchant family to establish such lengthy association with one parish, their estates passing from father to son (and one grandson) in an unbroken line for nearly three hundred years. [5]

Noteworthy Frowyk’s

Throughout this document the unique identifier is appended to Frowyk profiles eg [[Frowyk-40|Ralph Frowyk]]-40 . Henry and Thomas in particular are well used christian names and it is useful to be able to differentiate.

Ralph Frowyk -40 (abt.1175-aft.1227) and brother William-42 are the earliest recorded Frowyk’s they flourished in the late C12th and probably originated in Frowick but became established in London by 1197. They were goldsmiths, as were a number of early Frowyk’s. Ralph was also warden of the mint.
Thomas Frowyk-1 (abt.1203-aft.1271) The most notable thing about Thomas is that although he heads most on-line pedigrees, he may be mythical. He may also not be a son of Ralph but it is reasonable to connect him until better evidence arrives. It may never, but his presence will at least serve to add caution to this part of the family. If removed, he will get added back at some point!
John Frowyk-47 (abt.1224-aft.1278) was Rector of the church of Great Horkesley.
Roger Frowyk (abt.1260-abt.1329)-8 A goldsmith he was also in public office dealing with currency of the realm. An alderman, warden of the exchequer and controller of the mint. He was commissioned by Edward II on several occasions to produce silverware and jewellery.
Thomas Frowyk-16 (abt.1264-aft.1310) A talented artisan he was commissioned to make a golden crown for Queen Marguerite (Capet) de France the wife of Edward I.
Henry Frowyk-4 (abt.1294-1378) He was unceremoniously abducted and married against his will. He became a tax collector and carried out a number of other public functions.
John Frowyk-54 (abt.1325-aft.1360) Prior of the Irish chapter of the Order of Knights Hospitaller

Peasants Revolt 1381
Henry Frowyk-2 (abt.1345-1386) He was an MP and JP and quelled angry rioters over seigniorial oppression by St. Albans Abbey during the peasants revolt.

Henry Frowyk-13 (abt.1380-bef.1460) was a successful merchant with an international reach, He was mayor of London 5 times.
Henry Frowyk-22 (abt.1408-1484) MP for Middlesex
Thomas Frowyk-5 (1423-1485) He was an MP and part of a literary circle, authors of the so called Frowyk’s Chronicle.
Thomas Frowyk-6 (abt.1460-1506) He was an eminent lawyer, a serjeant-at-law and Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.

Nameless tomb. South Mymms. Probably Henry Frowyk
Henry Frowyk-35 (abt.1478-bef.1527) Henry marked the beginning of the end for the Frowyk’s. Although he married Anne Knolles from another influential family in North Mymms, this branch of the Frowyk’s were already in financial trouble, having sold off many properties to meet debts.

Properties

Manor of Frowick

Frowick manor was the ancestral home of the Frowyk family, possibly as far back as domesday, though nothing remains of any original structure.

1363 the manor of Frowick along with its Villes was conveyed by John Cavendish and Leo de Bradenham, which they had by feoffment of John Frowyk -54 to Thomas de St Clare. John therefore ended the ownership of Frowick manor by the Frowyk family.[6]

Frowick Hall exists today as a grade II listed building but the earliest parts of it are around C16th. It sits on Frowick Lane.[7]

Manor of Old Fold

Purchased from Ernulf de Mandeville (Probably a descendant of Ernulf de Mandeville) by the Frowyks, shortly after 1271, it descended in the direct male line of the family until 1527. In 1308 Henry Frowyk-4 was kidnapped by Thomas Lewknor, William Pouns, his son Richard, and John of Felstead. Henry married William Pouns's daughter, Margaret against his will, and died in 1377, having outlived his son Thomas-3. His grandson Henry-2 married Alice Cornwall, whose second husband Thomas Charlton had the manor in 1397, during the minority of Thomas-15 their son. Thomas-15 was the husband of Elizabeth Ashe, heir to the manor of Weld. His son and heir Henry-22 married Joan Lewknor but was sued for debt by Roger Lewknor and imprisoned. Accordingly Henry-22 sold the manor of Weld and lands in Shenley, Aldenham, and St. Albans (Herts.) in 1473 and sold the manor of Durhams and land in London to his cousin Thomas-5 of Gunnersbury two years later, although he retained Old Fold. In 1501 his grandson Henry-35 who married Anne Knollys, daughter and coheir of Robert Knollys though distrained for the non-payment of Old Fold for many years brought the manor of north Mymms into the Frowyk family through the Knolles. Henry’s-35 son Thomas-36 married Mary, daughter of Sir William Sandys, and died without issue. By will proved in 1527, Henry’s-35 therefore left his estates to his daughter Elizabeth-33 and the children of her first husband John Coningsby. It was not until 1547, however, that Elizabeth recovered Old Fold from John Palmer and his wife Mary, whose first husband had been Thomas-36. In 1551 Elizabeth-33 and her husband William Dodd conveyed the manor to Thomas White. [8]

Manor of Acton

By 1462 all or part of John Holmes's lands had passed to the Frowyk family. Henry Frowyk-13, and his son Thomas-5 bought various estates in 1446 and 1458 in Acton, Ealing, and Willesden. Land once of John Scorier and formerly of John Holmes may have formed part of them. Thomas-5 bought more property in Acton in 1484. At his death in 1485 he held 6 houses and land in Acton and Willesden. His elder son Henry-62, died in 1505 leaving sons Thomas-64 and Henry-65, (d. 1520), childless, and daughters Elizabeth wife of Sir John Spelman and Margaret wife of Sir Michael Fisher. Thomas’s-5 younger son, Thomas-6, held some of the property and was succeeded by his daughter Frideswide, first wife of Sir Thomas Cheyney. Frideswide's grandson Thomas Parrott, the Spelmans' sons Henry and Erasmus and the Fishers' granddaughter Agnes, wife of Oliver St. John, each held portions. Most of the Frowyks' land seems to have passed to two families, the Vincents of Harlesden and the Garraways or Garways.[9]

The Manor of Alkerton

c. 1448 Alkerton passed to John Danvers's son Sir Robert Danvers. In 1473 two of Sir Robert's daughters and coheirs quitclaimed their thirds, probably as part of a settlement on another daughter Joan Danvers who married Henry Frowyk-62 of Gunnersbury. Their daughter Margaret-63, wife of Sir Michael Fisher inherited. (The Fisher's son died before them and their grand-daughter Agnes Fisher succeeded to their property. She married Oliver St. John of Bletsoe (Beds.). [10]

All Hallows Honey Lane

By c. 1284 the property passed from Andrew de Karlton or his successors to Henry Frowyk-7, who in his will proved that year left his houses in Milk Street and Honey Lane to his son Renald-9. Henry's widow Isabel was seised of the Milk Street tenements when Renald-9 made his will leaving all his lands to his wife Agnes for life. Renald’s heir was his son Henry-4. Agnes, and Henry-4 granted the tenements in Milk Street and Honey Lane to John de Charleton, by 1332. Henry Frowyk-4 survived his son Thomas-3 (d. 1374-5), but the latter seems to have been in possession of these tenements in 1353. After the deaths of Henry-4 and Thomas-3, the property came to Henry-2, Thomas' son. He died leaving his rents in the parishes of Milk Street and Honey Lane to his wife Alice for life, to Henry-13, his son. By this time the Frowyk family seems to have been resident at South Mymms and the tenements probably let or leased. In 1438 Thomas-15, granted to Henry-13 his brother, two tenements, one in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street and the other in Honey Lane. Henry-13 died before 1460 and his son Thomas-5, died before 1485, and in 1492 the latter's widow Dame Jane and his son and heir Henry-62 leased the messuage to John Hawe for 30 years. Henry-62 died in 1505, having granted the tenements in Milk Street and Honey Lane to John Legh of Stockwell, Edmund Denny, and Ralph Legh, to hold to the use of himself and his wife Margaret and their heirs. His heir was his son Thomas Frowyk-64, aged 14 in 1508. The tenant at about this time was Robert Imber, mercer. By c. 1518 the tenement had passed to Henry-65 son of Henry Frowyk-62. In 1518-19 he sold his 2 tenements, one in All Hallows Honey Lane and the other in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street, to Sir Thomas Exmew.[11]

Manor of Batchworth

The manor of Batchworth in the parish of Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, was in 1309/10 conveyed to Roger Frowyk by Isabel, wife of Roger de Oxford. Roger de Frowyk, was called 'le orfeure' or the goldsmith, and Idonea his wife, and John their son. Richard de Bachesworth put in a claim, but in 1311/12 he renounced it to Roger and Idonea. In 1314/15 Roger granted the manor to his son John and Isabel his wife. It would seem that Isabel, or perhaps one of her daughters, married Robert de Ashele, for in 1324/5 the reversion after the death of Isabel, wife of Robert de Ashele, was granted to John de Latimer and his heirs by John Merlyn. [12]

Manor of Bencham

The first mention of the manor appears to be in 1229, when it was conveyed by Peter de Bedenges to John de Kemsing and Idonia his wife, who in 1230 sold it to Geoffrey Frowyk-44. In 1258 it was evidently held by Walter (probably his son), who in that year granted 12 marks rent in Benchesham to Adam de Basings and his wife Joan. [13]

Manor of Bibbesworth

In 1502 Edward Hastings, leased it to Sir Thomas Frowyk, whom he made steward and bailiff. After Frowyk's death in 1506 the lease was held by his widow Elizabeth, who by 1508 had married Thomas Jakes. In 1515 Elizabeth surrendered the lease to Lord Hastings.[14]

The manor of Durhams

The manor of Durhams or Derehams (Now Dyrham Park, a golf club) derives its name from John Durham, who in 1340 acquired part of the estate, the remaining interest granted by Margery, wife of Richard Pouns, in 1341. John's daughter and heir, Margaret, married Thomas Frowyk-3 of Old Fold and after John Durham's death in 1368 the manor descended with Old Fold until its sale in 1473 to Thomas Frowyk-6 of Gunnersbury. [8]

Manor of Brockham

Owned in the 13th century by the de Warenne family . Later in its history Thomas Niger left a widow, Agnes, who married John son of Adrian, as in 1242–3 John Adrian who after some years held it. John grandson of John Adrian seems to have married Margaret-12 daughter of Henry-4, and in 1348 a settlement was made by which the manor was to revert to Henry-4 and by 1377 the manor had come into his possession. He made a settlement just before his death in 1377/8 by which the reversion was granted to his grandson Henry-2 son of Thomas-3 who pre-deceased him. Henry-2 the grandson died in 1386, leaving two sons, the elder of whom, Thomas-15, continued the senior branch of the family, holding Oldford in Middlesex, land in Hertfordshire, and then or later South Mimms, while from the younger-13 descended the Frowyks of Gunnersbury. The manor of Brockham remained in the elder branch of the family, as the will of the elder son Thomas-15, proved in 1448, states that the manors of Oldford and Brockham were to remain in the hands of feoffees for a year, after which Brockham was to remain to his wife Elizabeth for her life, reverting to his son Henry-22 who was succeeded by his son Thomas-28, and the latter by his son Henry-35, who married Ann Knolles and died in 1527, leaving as sole heir his daughter Elizabeth-33, wife of John Coningsby, who held it with her husband in 1530. In 1547 Elizabeth-33 settled an annuity on Mary, widow of her brother Thomas-5, who had predeceased his father. Elizabeth Coningsby-33 married William Dodd as her second husband, but at her death she was succeeded in the lordship of Brockham by Henry Coningsby her son.[15]

Manor of Gunnersbury

In 1373 Alice Perrers owned Gunnersbury when it was seized by the crown then held by Thomas Charlton and Alice his wife in 1390. The estate passed to her son Henry Frowyk-13 in 1422 It passed to Thomas-5, who died in 1485, and was buried at Ealing. His second son Thomas-6, was born at Gunnersbury. His elder brother Henry-11 inherited Gunnersbury, which then descended to his daughter and coheir Elizabeth-10, who married John Spelman, grandfather of Sir Henry, the celebrated antiquary, and ancestor of Clement Spelman?, who died seised of the manor of Gunnersbury in 1607.[16]

Muscovy Court

Around 1303 Roger Frowyk-8 purchased an imposing house adjacent to Muscovy court in central London from Richard Boundy of Tottenham. It’s boundary ran along a route to the Crutched Friars and it fronted on Seething Lane, partly in All Hallows, partly in St. Olave's parish. In 1329 Walter le Hurer granted it to William Curteys, he having purchased it from the executors of Roger-8. [17]

Manor of Palingswick

Associated with Gunnersbury, ownership followed the same pattern. Certainly Henry Frowyk-62 inherited Palingswick and died in 1505, seised "in his demesne, as of fee, of the manors . . . of Gonelbury, Palynswyke and Butelers...” Henry Frowyk-62 married twice, his first wife being Jane Danvers , and his second Margaret Leigh. By the former he left a daughter, Margaret-63, who married Sir Michael Fisher; and by the latter two sons, Thomas-64 and Henry-65, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Mary-66. Thomas-64 , was 14 at his father's death. [Note that at this point Bird and Norman misquote Cass suggesting that Agnes Strickland married first the elder Brother Thomas, then Henry] The younger son Henry-65 married Agnes one of the daughters of Humphrey (Or Walter) Strickland whose widow Elizabeth remarried to Sir Richard Cholmeley. (This could not be established elsewhere) In 1547 a division of the Frowyk property was made and Palingswick came into the hands of Elizabeth (Frowyk) Spelman who passed it to John Payne, the end of Frowyk ownership.[18]

Manor of Shalbourne

Maud wife of Robert Willoughby de Eresby sold the manor of Shalbourne in 1473/4 to Thomas Frowyk-5 of London and Joan his wife. Thomas died seised of the manor in 1485, when his heir was his son Henry-62. It is uncertain whether Henry inherited this manor or whether it passed to his brother Thomas-6, who died seised of it in 1506, leaving it to his wife Elizabeth for life, with remainder to his daughter Frideswide-38. Elizabeth took as her second husband Thomas Jakys, who died in 1514, and she died about a year later. Frideswide-38 married Sir Thomas Cheney.

St Mary Colechurch

In 1271 Hugh de Rokingham granted to John Frowyk, son of Geoffrey-44, the right to distrain in his tenements including 5 shops in the parish of St. Mary Colechurch in fronte towards Cheapside.

St. Pancras Soper Lane 145/1A

In 1425 Walter Cotton and Thomas Aleyn quitclaimed part of the property to brothers Henry Frowyk-13 and Thomas-15. Additionally to John Fray, recorder of London, William Estfeld, mercer, and Robert Warner. Thomas-15 d1449, William Estfeld, and Robert Warner died. John Fray then quitclaimed in the property to Henry-13, who in 1454 granted it to his son Thomas-5 and his son's wife Joan, daughter of Richard Sturgeon. In 1472 Thomas and Joan granted the property, described as lands, tenements, and rents with houses, shops, solar(s), and cellar(s), to their son Henry-62, his wife Joan daughter of Sir Robert Danvers. Joan died in 1487? and the entail on this property was broken in 1493, when Edmund Denny and Richard Legh recovered possession against Henry-62, esquire, of 3 messuages in the parish of St. Pancras. On his death in 1505, the property passed to his daughter Margaret, wife of Michael Fyssher.[19]

Manor of Weld

Edmund Peacock the manor left his sister, the wife of John de Somersham, his heir. John de Somersham had two daughters, Margery the wife of William Ashe, and Alice the wife of John Swanborne. At the death of Alice without issue the manor went to William and Margery, who left an only daughter, Elizabeth the wife of Thomas Frowyk-15 . Henry-22 , their son, was holding the manor in 1476 and left a son Thomas-28 who died in 1485, leaving a son Henry-35, who married Anne Knolles and died in 1527, when his daughter Elizabeth, wife of John Coningsby, succeeded to the manor.[20]

Other Families

Durham

John Durham came from an affluent mercantile family, two members of which rose during the late 13th and early 14th centuries to become aldermen of the City of London. Thanks to the financial success of his ancestors, Durham’s father was able to live the life of a country gentleman at the manor of Derehams or Durhams (Now Dyrham Park, a golf club) derives its name from John Durham, who in 1340 acquired part of the estate, the remaining interest granted by Margery, wife of Richard Pouns, in 1341. John's daughter and heir, Margaret, married Thomas-3 of Old Fold and after John Durham's death in 1368 the manor descended with Old Fold until its sale in 1473 to Thomas-6 of Gunnersbury.[21]

Knolles

The Frowyks were neighbours of the Knolles, having owned the South Mimms manors of Old Fold (which comprised 132 acres) since 1271, and Durhams (comprising 350 acres) since 1368, and whose memorials are to be found in the church at South Mimms. [22]

Henry Frowyk-34 married Anne Knolles c1495

Gloucester and Cornwall

Henry Frowyk-4 completed transactions in 1346 and 1347 with the Gloucester and Cornwall families of Middlesex which were possibly a preamble to the eventual marriage of his grandson Henry-2, to Alice Cornwall the heiress of both the Gloucesters and the Cornwalls. In 1346 John de Gloucester, son and heir of Henry de Gloucester, released to Henry-4 all his right and claim to lands in the parishes of St. Giles without Crepulgate , St. Botolph without Aldrichesgate, and the towns of Soresdich (Shoreditch), Hakyneii (Hackney) and Isildone (Islington), which Henry-4 held by his grant. This document was dated at South Mimms and acknowledged by John de Gloucester in Chancery. In 1347 John de Cornwall recovered these same lands from Henry-4 by a judgment rendered in the king's court, and Henry-4 released them to him. [23][24].

Sources

  1. Historic England St Osyth's Priory
  2. Open Domesday Frowick
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "St Osyth's Priory," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=St_Osyth%27s_Priory&oldid=960526755 (accessed December 12, 2020).
  4. Survey of English Place-Names Frowick Hall
  5. The Merchant Class of Medieval London, 1300-1500 By Sylvia L. Thrupp
  6. The Ancestry of Mary Isaac, c. 1549-1613 Page 197ff W G Davis 1955.
  7. Historic England, Frowick Hall
  8. 8.0 8.1 A P Baggs, Diane K Bolton, Eileen P Scarff and G C Tyack, 'South Mimms: Manors', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 5, Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham, ed. T F T Baker and R B Pugh (London, 1976), pp. 282-285. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol5/pp282-285 [accessed 22 November 2020].
  9. Diane K Bolton, Patricia E C Croot and M A Hicks, 'Acton: Manors and other estates', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 7, Acton, Chiswick, Ealing and Brentford, West Twyford, Willesden, ed. T F T Baker and C R Elrington (London, 1982), pp. 16-23. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol7/pp16-23 [accessed 12 December 2020].
  10. 'Parishes: Alkerton', in A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 9, Bloxham Hundred, ed. Mary D Lobel and Alan Crossley (London, 1969), pp. 44-53. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol9/pp44-53 [accessed 11 December 2020].
  11. D J Keene and Vanessa Harding, 'All Hallows Honey Lane 11/4', in Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane (London, 1987), pp. 24-29. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/london-gazetteer-pre-fire/pp24-29 [accessed 12 December 2020].
  12. 'Parishes: Rickmansworth', in A History of the County of Hertford: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1908), pp. 371-386. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/herts/vol2/pp371-386 [accessed 27 November 2020].
  13. 'Croydon: Borough, manors, churches and charities', in A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4, ed. H E Malden (London, 1912), pp. 217-228. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/surrey/vol4/pp217-228 [accessed 11 December 2020].
  14. A P Baggs, Diane K Bolton, M A Hicks and R B Pugh, 'Finchley: Manors', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6, Friern Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey With Highgate, ed. T F T Baker and C R Elrington (London, 1980), pp. 55-59. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol6/pp55-59 [accessed 9 December 2020].
  15. 'Parishes: Betchworth', in A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3, ed. H E Malden (London, 1911), pp. 166-173. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/surrey/vol3/pp166-173 [accessed 22 November 2020].
  16. Daniel Lysons, 'Ealing', in The Environs of London: Volume 2, County of Middlesex (London, 1795), pp. 223-240. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-environs/vol2/pp223-240 [accessed 22 November 2020].
  17. 'Muscovy Court', in Survey of London: Volume 15, All Hallows, Barking-By-The-Tower, Pt II, ed. G H Gater and Walter H Godfrey (London, 1934), pp. 4-6. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol15/pt2/pp4-6 [accessed 27 November 2020].
  18. 'Ravenscourt Park (Palingswick)', in Survey of London: Volume 6, Hammersmith, ed. James Bird and Philip Norman (London, 1915), pp. 98-113. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol6/pp98-113 [accessed 8 December 2020].
  19. D J Keene and Vanessa Harding, 'St. Pancras Soper Lane 145/1', in Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane (London, 1987), pp. 645-656. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/london-gazetteer-pre-fire/pp645-656 [accessed 2 December 2020].
  20. 'Parishes: Shenley', in A History of the County of Hertford: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1908), pp. 264-273. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/herts/vol2/pp264-273 [accessed 22 November 2020].
  21. A P Baggs, Diane K Bolton, Eileen P Scarff and G C Tyack, 'South Mimms: Manors', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 5, Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham, ed. T F T Baker and R B Pugh (London, 1976), pp. 282-285. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol5/pp282-285 [accessed 12 November 2020].
  22. A short history of the Knolles and Frowick families, North Mymms History Project. Rosie Bevan
  23. The Ancestry of Mary Isaac, c. 1549-1613 Page 208 W G Davis 1955.
  24. Calendar of the close rolls 1346-49 Page 67

See also

  • Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Volume 41 1990 Medieval buildings and property development in the area of Cheapside John Schofield, Patrick Allen and Colin Taylor Pages 39-239




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