Surnames/tags: GARDNER_U106_DNA GARDNER GARNER
The goal of this project is to compare and collate Y-DNA results from individuals with the surname GARDNER or variants who have tested positive for the R-U106/S21 sub-clade of R-M269.
Here are some of the tasks that I think need to be done. I'll be working on them, and could use your help.
- Analyze results from the FamilyTreeDNA Gardner Surname Project.
- Identify and differentiate Gardner/Garner/Gardiner lines between haplogroups and match to individual WikiTree profiles.
- Encourage more testing and search for other data sources and analyses.
- Improve family trees with source documentation and match potential cousins with autosomal DNA testing.
- This sub-clade is defined by the presence of the SNP U106, also known as S21 and M405. It appears to represent over 25% of R1b in Europe. In terms of percentage of total population, its epicenter is Friesland, where it makes up 44% of the population. In terms of total population numbers, its epicenter is Central Europe, where it comprises 60% of R1 combined. 
This is an attempt to summarize some of the Y-DNA genetic tests performed by individuals with the Gardner surname and it's variations and to tie them to individuals with profiles in WikiTree. The goal is to match the different Gardner lines with their "founder" haplogroup and subclade. Tree development and testing individual's Y-DNA are ongoing processes so anyone with interest in Gardner families and genetic genealogy are welcome to expand or contribute to this page.
FamilyTreeDNA is a major DNA testing company and supports user groups called "projects" for those who share a surname or haplogroup. The Gardner Surname Project has 508 contributions as of April 2020. Initially FamilyTree offered a 12-STR Y-DNA test to get people started. Unfortunately, this didn't provide enough genetic information to be useful. Today the minimum is the 37-STR test but many are forking out the $450 for the "Big-Y" test that provides a complete profile. It is possible to take the 37-STR test which may identify probable terminal SNiPs that can be tested at a lower cost currently $40 per SNP.
The Gardner Surname Project results are provided in a table with individual results grouped together by the administrators using matching STRs. Many of the tests have too few STRs to be useful or lack information about the earliest known ancestor. As more people get tested and existing tests get upgraded more data will become available.
Rob Spencer, a scientist and genealogist, has put together some useful tools for analyzing Y-DNA data directly from the project tables and made them available on his website Tracking Back. The clustering and dendogram generator that helps to visualize the relationships of the many individual testers. Check the images for both the circular and linear forms of the dendogram performed with the Gardner Surname Project data.
Again, these results focus on the R-U106 subclade but includes information about the R-P312 subclade since in comprises a large portion of R1b branches and testers in the Gardner Surname Project. Haplogroups have different names or labels such as R-U106 = S21 and R-P312 = S116 but the labels used by FamilyTreeDNA are used here.
- Note: Links are to potential ancestors within a haplogroup and are based on current testers who have a paper trail or other knowledge about their earliest known ancestor or based on close matches to current WikiTree profiles. Ancestor info provided by members of FTDNA Gardner Surname Project in results table.
- Sub-clade -- Ancestor
- U198; DF94
- Gardner, James Calder - 1782, Gloucestershire, England
- L48; Z331
- L48; L46
- Gardner, Luke, 1776
- L48; Z30
- L48; L44
- Gardiner, Thomas, 1695
- Sub-clade -- Ancestor
- L21; DF23
- Gardner, John
- Gardiner, William, 1797, Antrim, Ireland
- Gardner, Percy Willis, 1894-1974
- Garner, James Madison, 1854, Conecuh, Alabama
- L21; DF13
- L21; DF19
- Gardiner, Henry, Orcop, Hereford
- Gardiner, Isaac, 1677-1730
- Gardner, Daniel, 1796
- L21; DF27
- Gardner, Matthew, 1775, Wishaw, Lanarkshire, Scotland
- Gardner, Thomas, 1810
- Garner, Walter E., 1860-1947
- Gardner, James A.
- Garner, Jacob, 1740, Virginia
- Garner, Wiley B. 1807, Georgia
- Gardner, John, 1624-1682, Isle of Wight, Virginia
- Gardner, William, 1791, Sutton, Surrey, England
- Gardner, Samuel, 1810-1862, New Jersey
Other Haplogroups with Gardner Ancestors
Haplogroup I1 (I-M253)
- Sub-clade -- Ancestor
- DF29; L22
- Gardiner, Lieut. Lion, 1599-1663
- Gardner, George, 1599-1677
- Gardner, Jacob, 1729-1812
- Gardner, Robert, 1740-1799
- Gardner, Samuel, 1787-1864
Haplogroup J2 (J-M172)
- Sub-clade -- Ancestor
- M102; M205
- Gardner, Thomas, 1591-1674 , Dorsetshire, England
- Garner, William, 1745-1823, Northampton, NC
- Gardner, William, 1745-1800
- Gardner, Richard, 1800-
- Gardner, William Willis, -1883, KY
Some Useful DNA Terminology
From: International Society of Genetic Genealogy. Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2019, Version: 15.58, Date:18 April 2020, http://www.isogg.org/tree/ [Accessed 20 June 2020].
Y-DNA: The DNA in the Y chromosome that can be passed by a male only to his sons. This DNA can be tested to determine both haplotype and haplogroup of the individual.
Genetic Genealogy: The tracing of human lineage within the time frame of historical records through DNA testing and comparison of haplotypes.
Genealogical Time Frame: A time frame within the last 500 up to 1000 years since the adoption of surnames and written family records. An individual's haplotype is useful within this time frame and is compared to others to help identify branches within a family.
Haplogroup: A population descended from a common ancestor, as evidenced by specific SNP mutations. Haplogroups are not cultural groups, although a haplogroup can be strongly represented by a cultural population such as American Indians. The Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) has assigned hierarchical alphanumeric labels, which can be presented graphically in the form of a phylogenetic or haplogroup tree.
Haplogroup Tree: A diagram showing evolutionary lineages of organisms. See also Phylogenetic Tree.
Haplotype: Broadly, the complete set of results obtained from multiple markers located on a single chromosome. For the Y chromosome, the term is restricted by convention to allele values (number of repeats) obtained from microsatellite (STR) markers, as described by the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC).
Short Tandem Repeats (STR - pronounced ess-tee-are): Patterns in the DNA sequence which repeat over and over again in tandem, i.e., right after each other. Typically the repeat motif is less than six (6) base pairs long. By counting the repeats, one gets an allele value which is given in an individual's haplotype. They are also called microsatellites and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs).
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP which is pronounced 'snip'): Variation in the nucleotide allele at a certain nucleotide position in the human genome. When the change occurs it is called a polymorphism, and polymorphisms accumulate over time. A polymorphism can be very common (found in a significant fraction of global or localized populations) or very rare (found in a single individual). Common variations are used to track the evolution of the human genome over time (population genetics) and can be graphically represented in a haplogroup or phylogenetic tree.
Clade: From the Greek word klados, meaning branch. A clade on the Y chromosome tree is also called a haplogroup.
Subclade: A term to describe the relationship between two clades with the subclade being downstream. See also Sub-branch.
- ↑ Wikipedia contributors, "Haplogroup R-M269," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Haplogroup_R-M269&oldid=953862722 (accessed May 1, 2020).
- Comments on Gardner Y-DNA Name Study May 4, 2020.