upload image

German-English Glossary

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: [unknown]
Surnames/tags: glossary translation
This page has been accessed 1,255 times.

Go to Germany Project main page
Go to Germany Project Resources

German-English Glossary

This is a German-English glossary for genealogical terms developed by Dieter Lewerenz. It is a work-in-progress and will be expanded. It primarily serves English-speaking users of WikiTree to better understand German terms in old German documents such as church records, wills, civil registers etc.

Suggestions for improvements and additions of specific terms are welcome: please post a comment below and they will be added.

Click this link for information on and tips and tricks for deciphering old scripts: Germany Project Resources: Writing, Language and Translation Resources

Deutscher Begriff (auch Kirchenlatein aus Kirchenbüchern) English term (including Latin terms which are used in parish records)
Abbauer farmer on a section split off from the original farm, perhaps a later-born son
Abdecker knacker, knackermann
Abend evening
Abendmahlsgast communicant
abends in the evening
Abenteurer adventurer, jewel trader
Abnahmemann retired farmer living on a life estate
Abschiedsmann retired farmer living on a life estate
Abt abbot
Äbtissin abbess
Abzehrung emaciation, wasting
Achtelbauer farmer who owns / leases 1/8 of a standard-sized farm
Achtelhufner, Achtelhüfner, 1/8-Hufner farmer who owns / leases 1/8 of a standard-sized farm
Achtermann farmer on a farm which is placed on the land of another farm
Ackerbauer farmer
Ackerbürger farmer
Ackerer farmer
Ackerknecht farmhand
Ackersmann farmer
Ackerwirt farmer
Adel aristocracy, nobility
adoptiert adopted
Adulescens adolescent (mostly younger then 18/20 years old, but not married before)
Ahnen ancestors
Ahneneltern great(*11)grandparents
Ahnengroßeltern great(*12)grandparents
Ahnenurgroßeltern great(*13)grandparents
Altbauer old, established farmer, possibly retired
Alteltern great-great-grandparents
Altenteiler retired farmer
Altenteilerin retired farmer's wife
Altgroßeltern great-great-great-grandparents
Althufner, Althüfner retired farmer
Altsitzer retired farmer
Alturgroßeltern great(*4)grandparents
Amme wet nurse
Amita sister of the father
Amman, Amtmann bailiff, magistrate
Amt office, bureau
Amt collective municipality (administrative unit between the municipalities and the rural districts)
Amtsbezirk rural district, county
amtsfreie Gemeinde independent municipality
Amtshauptmannschaft rural district, county
Amtsmeier farmer with a large estate and special rights
Anbauer farmer of a very small farm
angeheiratet related by marriage (stepson, stepdaughter), in-law
Angestellter white-collar worker
Anmerkungen remarks
Anspänner farmer of a standard-sized farm who has to do soccage for the landlord
April april
Aprilis april
Arbeiter labourer, worker
Archiv archive
Aröder new settler on a farmland belonging to an estate
Artmann farmer
Artmeier farmer
Arzt physician, doctor
Aschenbrenner ash burner
Auenhäusler cottager, free villager with a small house, garden, and some livestock
Aufenthaltserlaubnis residence permit
Aufenthaltsort residence
Augfgebot marriage banns
August August
Augustus, Augusti August
Ausdinger retired farmer
Ausrufer bellman, town crier
Ausscheller bellman, town crier
Auswanderung emigration
Auszehrung consumption or emaciation (especially from TB)
Auszügler retired farmer
Auxiliarbischof auxiliary bishop
Avunculus brother of mother
Bäcker baker
Bad spa
Bader barber surgeon
Band volume
Bandbereiter trimming-maker
Bandnäher trimming-maker
Bankert Bastard, illigitmate child
Baptist baptist
Barber shaver, barber, barber surgeon
Baron baron
Base cousin (female)
Bastard bastard, illigitmate child
Bauer peasant, farmer
Bäuerle, Bauerli peasant, farmer
Bauernknecht farmhand
Bauknecht farmhand
Baumann farmer, can also be a builder
Beamter civil servant
beerdigt, bestattet, begraben buried
Beerdigung burial, funeral
Begräbnis burial
Behandinge feudal tenure
Beibauer farmer on a new farm, officially recognized, but with few privileges
Beichte confession
Beisasse landless renter without citizen rights in the community
Beiwohner rental inhabitant without citizenship
Bekehrung conversion
Bemerkung remark
Bergmann miner
Bergäscher ore dresser
Beruf occupation, profession
Besatzmacher trimming-maker
Beständer farmer on a small farm
Bestanderlasser landlord let out a small farm
Bestandwirt farmer leasing farm land
Bestattung burial
Bettler beggar
Bevölkerungsregister population register
Bezirk, Regierungsbezirk governmental district (administrative district between state and rural/urban district)
Bezirk, Stadtbezirk borough
Bezirksamt office or bureau of an administrative district or a borough
Bezirksamt rural district, county
Bierbrauer brewer
Biografie biography
Bischof bishop
Bistum diocese
Blattern smallpox
Blühmond, Bleuet May
Bödener cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Bolsmann, Bohlsmann farmer with a standard-sized farm
Bootsführer boatman
Bootsmann bargeman, bosun
Bortenwirker trimming-maker
Böttcher cooper, barrel maker
Brachmond, Brachmonat June
Brämelmacher trimming-maker
Brauer brewer
Bräune diphtheria
Braut bride
Bräutigam groom
Breiser (Breisler) trimming-maker
Brinker cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Brinkkötter cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Brinklieger cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Brinkmann cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Brinksitzer cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Bruder brother
Bruder, Ordensbruder brother, friar
Bub boy
Buch book
Büdner cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Buhmann, Bumann farmer
Bundesland state
Burg castle, fortress
Bürger burgher, citizen, citizens
Bürgerbuch citizen register
Bürgermeister mayor
Buschpächter tenant farmer who clears the land prior cultivating it
Chalupner small-scale farmer
Chirurg surgeon
Christmond, Christmonat December
Commis clerk, assistant or commercial employee
Copulation marriage
copuliert married
Cousin/Cousine cousin (male/female)
Cribrarius sieve maker
Dachdecker roofer
daselbst residing in this place, there, the previously mentioned place
Datum date
December (10ber, 10br., Xber, Xbr.) December
Decembris (10bris, 10br., Xbris, Xbr.) December
Deern girl
Dekanat deanery, decante
Departement department
derselbe the same
Dezember December
Diakon deacon
Diener servant
Dienst service, employment
Dienstag Tuesday
Dienstmagd maid, handmaid, serving maid, female servant
Distrikt district
Domäne domain
Donnerstag Thursday
Doppelhufner, Doppelhüfner farmer who farmer who owns / leases two standard-sized farms
Dorf village
Dotale, Dotalbauer farmer who leases church-income property
Dote, Dote {m.}, Dotin, Dota {f.} godparent, godfather {m}, godmother {f.}
Drilling, Drillinge triplet, triplets
Dritter Herbstmond November
Duplikat duplicate record
Durchfall diarrhea
Dustermond December
ebenda at the same place
Ehe marriage
Ehebrecher adulterer
Ehebruch adultery
Ehefrau wife
Ehegatte spouse
Ehegaumer person who has to watch about religion, morals and order
Ehehindernis hinderance to marriage
eheleiblich legitimate
Eheleute married couple
ehelich (ehel.) legitimate
eheliches Kind (Sohn / Tochter) legitimate child (son / daughter)
ehemals formerly
Ehemann husband
Ehepaar married couple
Ehepartner spouse
Ehescheidung / Ehescheidungsklage divorce / petition for divorce
Eheschließung marriage
Ehestand marital status, wedlock
Eheverkündigungen marriage banns, proclamation
Eheversprechen, Eheverspruch betrothal, engagement, promise of marriage
Eidam son-in-law
Eigengärtner cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Eigenkäthner cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Eigenkötter cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Eigentümer proprietor, property owner
Einbürgerung naturalization
Einheitsgemeinde independent municipality
Einlieger landless farm laborer
Einmacherin woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Einsender informant, declarant
Einspänner farmer with one horse
Einwanderer immigrant
Einwanderung immigration
Einwilligung permission
Einwohner inhabitant
einzige only
Eisenbahn railroad
Eismond January
Eiterbeule abscess
ejusdem (ejd) at the same date
Eltern parents
Enkel grandson
Enkelin granddaughter
Enkelkind grandchild
eodem (eod.) (die, mense, anno) at the same day, month, year
Epilepsie epilepsy
Erbbauer farmer on a standard-sized farm with inherited lease rights
Erben, Erbe {m.}, Erbin {f.} heirs
Erbpächter farmer with a hereditary land lease
Erbschaft, Erbe inheritance
erhalten received, receive
Erlassung dispensation, permission
Ermächtigung authorization
Erntemond, Erntemonat, Ernting August
erschien appeared
Erster Herbstmond, Herbstmonat September
erstgeboren firstborn
ertrank, ertrunken drowned
Erzahnen-Großeltern great(*21)grandparents
Erzahnen-Urgroßeltern great(*22)grandparents
Erzahneneltern great(*20)grandparents
Erzbischof archbishop
Erzdiakon archdeacon
Erzeltern great(*17)grandparents
erzeugen beget
Erzgroßeltern great(*18)grandparents
Erzpriester archpriest
Erzurgroßeltern great(*19)grandparents
evangelisch Protestant, Lutheran
Exner poor framer who used oxen
Fabrikant manufacturer
Fallkind illegitimate child
Familie family
Familienbuch family register
Familienforschung genealogical research
Familienname family name, last name, surname
Familienregister family register
Färber dyer
Faßbinder cooper, barrel maker
Fäule cancer
Fayencenhändler porcelain merchant
Februar February
Februarius, Februarii (auch:-ij, -y, -ÿ) February
Fehlgeburt miscarriage
Feldscher army surgeon, barber surgeon
Festtag feast day, festival day, holy day
Festung fortress
Feuerstättler cottager (whose dwelling has a fireplace)
Fieber fever
Findling foundling
Firmung religous confirmation
Fischer fisher
Flecken hamlet, also measles or spots or as part of the place name also larger village with marketplace (marketrights)
Fleckfieber spotted fever, typhus
Fleischer butcher
Fleischhauer butcher
Flüchtling refugee, deserter
Fluß river
Forst forest
Förster forester
Fourier quartermaster
Fraisen convulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms
Frau Mrs., wife, woman
Fräulein Miss, unmarried woman
Freibauer free farmer with only small rent payments
Freigärtner free farmer
Freiherr baron
Freistaat free state (today name of some "Bundesländer", in former times state within Germany without monarch
Freitag Friday
fremd foreign, strange
Freund friend
Friedhof cemetery
Fröhner subject performing unpaid labor (soccage) for the lord of the land (as part of the taxation system)
Fruchtmonat September
früh early (a.m.)
Frühlingsmond, Frühlingsmonat March
Fürst prince, count
Fürstbischof prince bishop
Fürstentum principality
Ganzlechner, Ganzlehner farmer who leases a standard-sized farm
Gärtner farmer
Gärtner gardener
Gastwirt innkeeper
Gatte husband
Gattin wife
Gebiet region, area, zone
geboren (geb.) born
Gebühren fees
Geburt birth
Geburtsort place of birth
Geburtsschein birth certificate
Geburtsurkunde birth certificate
Geistlicher clergyman, cleric
Gelbgießer brass founder
Gelbsucht jaundice
Geld money
Gemahl spouse
Gemahl {m.}, Gemahlin {f.} husband, wife
Gemeinde municipality, town, community,
Gemeinde, Kirchengemeinde parish
Gemeindemann village official, village resident
Gemeindeverwaltungsverband municipal association
Gemeindsmann citizen with full rights
gemelli twins
genannt named, alias, called
Genealogie genealogy
Gerber tanner
Gericht court
Gerichtsmann juryman
Gerichtsschreiber court clerk
Gerichtsverwandter member of the judicial court
Geschichte history
geschieden (gesch.) divorced /div.
Geschlecht gender, sex, lineage
Geschlechterbücher lineage books
Geschlechtsname surname
Geschwister siblings
Geschwulst swelling, tumor
Geselle journeyman, fellow of the guild, fellow guild member
Gesellschaft society, group
Gesetz law
gesetzlich legal
Gesinde male or female servants (in husbandry), (farm)hands
gestern yesterday
gestorben (gest.) died
getauft (get.) christened, baptized, baptised
getraut (getr.) married
Gevatter, Gevatter {m.}, Gevatterin {f.} godparent, godfather, godmother
Gewerbe trade, occupation
Gicht gout, arthritis
Gilbhart October
Gilde guild
Glaube belief, faith
Glauben religious affiliation
Goldschmied goldsmith, jeweller
Gorler trimming-maker
Gorlnäher trimming-maker
Gote, Gote {m.}, Gotin, Gota {f.} godparent, godfather {m}, godmother {f.}
Grafschaft county
Grasmond April
Greis old man, geriatric
Greisin aged woman, old woman
Grenze border
Grenzaufseher border guard
Grenzkontolleur border inspector
Großeltern grandparents
Großerzbischof major archbishop
Großmutter grandmother
Großvater grandfather
Grundbuch land register
Gürtelwirker trimming-maker
Gürtler maker of straps and belts
Gut property, estate
Gutsbezirk estate district
Gutsdistrikt, Güterdistrikt district of several estates
Häker small farmer who must perform unpaid labor for the landlord as part of his obligations
Halbbauer farmer who owns / leases half of a standard-sized farm
Halbhufner, Halbhüfner farmer who owns / leases half of a standard-sized farm
Halbkätner cottager with half a cottage and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Halblechner, Halblehner farmer who leases half of a standard-sized farm
Halbmeier farmer who owns / leases half of a standard-sized farm
Händler trader, merchant, peddler
Hartmonat, Hartung January
Hausfrau wife
Häusler cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Hausmädchen housemaid
Hauswirt house owner
Hebamme midwife
Heiligenmonat December
Heilquelle spa, healing spring
Heimat home, native place, homeland
Heimatort home town, home village, place of origin
Heimatschein domicile or residency certificate
Heimbürgin woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Heirat wedding
Heiratsantrag marriage proposal
Heiratskontrakt prenup
Heiratsprotokolle marriage records
Heiratsschein marriage certificate
Hektar hectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Helfer a helper, but in East Prussia a worker in a malt brewery
Heraldik heraldry
Herkunftsort place of origin
Herr Mister, Lord, lord
Herrschaft dominion
Herzog duke
Herzogtum duchy
Heuerling day laborer, dayworker, hireling
Heumond, Heumonat, Heuet July
heute today
hiesiger Ort this place
Hinterbliebene surviving dependants
hinterlassen two meanings: is "being survived by" and "to bequeath"
Hintersasse, Hintersättler, Hintersiedler cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock; in the Middle Ages also used for peasants dependent on the landlord
Hirte herdsman
Hitzemonat August
hitziges Fieber burning fever, high fever
Hochzeit wedding
Hof courtyard, farm, yard, estate
Hofer farmer
Hofgänger farmhand
Hofmann farmer
Hofprediger court chaplain
Hofstädtler farmer
Hofwirth farmer
Höker merchant, shopkeeper
Holländer Dutchman, dairykeeper
Holzmond, Holzmonat, Holzing September
Hoppenplöcker farmer who is obligated to do “hand service”
Hornung February
Hortulanus farmer
Huber farmer
Hübler farmer, expression comes from “Hube”
Hufner, Hüfner farmer who owns / leases a farm from which he and his family can live (standard-sized farm )
Hufschmied blacksmith
Hügel hill
Hurkind Bastard, illigitmate child
Hüttenmann Worker or employee in a metallurgical plant
Hüttler, Hitler cottager
Inlieger farmhand with a room in the farmer‘s house without own property
Innung guild
Inste, Instmann farmhand with a room in the farmer‘s house without own property
Interimswirt becomes farmer by marrying the widow of a farmer or the heiress of a farm
Jäger hunter, rifleman in the military
Jahr year
Jahrestag anniversary
Jahreszeit season
Jahrhundert century
jährlich annual, yearly
Jahrzehnt decade
Jänner, Jenner January
Januar January
Januarius/ Ianuarius, Januarii/ Iannuarii (auch:-ij, -y, -ÿ) January
Johannismond June
Jude, jüdisch Jewish
Juli July
Julius/ Iulius, Julii/ Iulii (auch: -ij, -y, -ÿ) July
Julmond December
Junge boy
Jungfrau, Jungfer virgin (not married before), maiden
Junggeselle bachelor, celibate (not married before)
Juni June
Junius/ Iunius, Junii/ Iunii (auch: -ij, -y, -ÿ) June
Juvenis bachelor, celibate (mostly between 18 and 45 years old, but not married before)
Kammerfrau lady-in-waiting
Kampheuerling tenant of a farm belonging to the nobility
Kanton canton
Kantor cantor, reader
Kaplan chaplain
Kardinal cardinal
Karpe carpenter
Karrer carter
Karte map
Kartei card index
Katholik, katholisch Catholic
Kätner, Käthner, Köthner cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Kaufmann merchant, shopkeeper
Keller cellar, basement
Kellerer (wine) steward, cellarer
Kellner waiter, receiver of revenues, steward
Kessler kettlemaker
Keuchhusten whooping cough
Kiefer cooper, barrel maker
Kind, Kinder child, children
Kindbetterin woman in or shortly after childbirth
Kindbettfieber childbed fever
Kindermutter midwife
Kirchdotale farmer who leases church-income property
Kirche church
Kirchenältester churchwarden, church elder, vestryman
Kirchenbuch church record
Kirchengemeinde, Kirchspiel, Pfarrei, Kirchsprengel parish
Kirchenkreis pchurch district
Kirchenpfleger churchwarden
Kirchenrat member of a church council
Kirchenrodel parish register
Kirchenvorsteher churchwarden
Kitzmann rents from a farmer
Knabe boy
Knecht farm hand, farm labourer, servant
Knöpfelmacher trimming-maker
Kölmer farmer who is "half free"
Kolon farmer on a farm with hereditary tithe
Kolonist new settler in the area; most, but not all were farmers; colonist
Kolupner small-scale farmer
Kommis clerk, assistant or commercial employee
Kommunikant communicant
Kommunion communion
Konditor confectioner
Konfirmation religous confirmation
König king
königlich royal
Königreich kingdom
Kossate, Kossäth cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Köter, Kötter cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Kotsass, Kotasse cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Krämer grocer, small retailer
Krämpfe cramps, convulsions
Krankheit disease, sickness
Krebs cancer
Kreis, Landkreis rural district, county
kreisfreie Gemeinde district-free municipality
kreisfreie Stadt district-free town, urban district
Krieg war
Kröger, Krogmann innkeeper
Küfer cooper, barrel maker
Kuhhirte cowherd
Kupferschmied coppersmith
Kurort spa (town), health resort
Kusin {m.} / Kusine {f.} cousin (male/female)
Kutscher coachman
Land land, country
Landarbeiter farmhand
Landdrostei governmental district
Landgemeinde municipality, rural municipality (as a distinction from an urban municipality)
Landkarte map
Landkreis rural district, county
Landmann farmer
Landratsbezirk comparabale with a collective municipality (administrative unit between the municipalities and the rural districts)
Landsknecht lansquenet, mercenary
Landschaftsverband area association
Landwirt farmer
Launing April
ledig single, unmarried
legitimiert made legitimate, legitimized
Lehner farmer who leases a farm
Lehrer teacher
Lehrling apprentice
Leiche corpse, body
Leichenfrau woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Leichenpredigt funeral sermon
Leichenwäscherin woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Leinenweber linen weaver
Leichenweib woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Lenzmond, Lenzmonat, Lenzing March
letzte Ölung last rites, extreme unction
letzte Salbung last rites, extreme unction
letzter Wille last will
letzter Wintermonat February
Lichtfrau woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Lichtjungfer woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Lichtmutter woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Limbolarius trimming-maker
Lungenentzündung pneumonia
Lungenschwindsucht consumption, tuberculosis
Lutheraner, lutherisch Lutheran
Mädchen girl, maiden
Mädel girl
Magd female helper on a farm, maiden, maid, servant girl
Mägdlein young maid, young girl
Mai May
Majus/ Maius, Maji/ Maii (auch: -ij, -y, -ÿ) May
Maler painter
Mama mother
Markt market
Markt, Marktflecken larger village with market place (market rights)
Martius, Martii (auch: -ij, -y, -ÿ) March
März March
Masern measles
Mater mother
Matertera sister of the mother
Matrikel register
Maurer mason, bricklayer
Meier farmer, farm overseer, manager
Meister, -meister master
Mennoniten Mennonites
Metropolit metropolitan bishop
Metzger butcher
Militär military
Mittag noon
mittags at noon
Mitternacht midnight
mitternachts at midnight
Mittwoch Wednesday
Mönch monk
Monat month
Montag Monday
morgen tomorrow
Morgen morning
morgens in the morning
Mühle mill
Muhme, Möhne sister of the mother
Mullnäher cheesecloth (gauze) stitcher (sewer)
Mutter mother
mütterlicherseits maternal
N.N. / NN = nomen nescio name not known
Nachbar neighbor
Nachbarschaft neighborhood
nachgeboren (posthum) posthumous
nachgelassen surviving
Nachlass estate, inheritance
nachmittags in the afternoon
Nachname last name, surname
Nacht night
nachts at night
Näherin seamstress
Name name
natürliches Kind Bastard, illigitmate child
natus, nata (nat.) born
Nebelung November
Nebenfrau concubine
Nervenfieber nervous fever
noch lebend(e) still living
Nonne nun
Notizen note, memorandum
Nottaufe emergency baptism
November November
November (9ber, 9br., IXber, IXbr.) November
Novembris (9bris, 9br., IXbris, IXbr.) November
Nummer number
Oberamt rural district, county
Obereltern great(*5)grandparents
Obergroßeltern great(*6)grandparents
Oberin matron
Oberurgroßeltern great(*7)grandparents
Ochsner poor farmer who used oxen
October (8ber, 8br., VIIIber, VIIIbr.), October
October (8bris, 8br., VIIIbris, VIIIbr.) October
Oheim brother of the mother
Ökonom farmer
Oktober October
Oma grandmother
Onkel uncle, brother of the father
Opa grandfather
Ordensbruder brother, friar
Ordensschwester, Ordensfrau nun
Ort, Ortschaft location, place, village
Ortsamt local office in a town/city
Ortsbezirk local district (part of a municipality)
Ortsgemeinde municipality
Ortsteil local district, part/district of a municipality, part of a town/city district, suburb, township
Ostermond, Ostermonat April
Pachtbauer farmer who leases his land (often an inheritable lease)
Pächter leaseholder
Päger farmer who ploughs with horses
Papa father
Papst pope
Parentes parents
Pastor pastor, reverend
Pate, Pate {m.}, Patin {f.} godparent, godfather {m}, godmother {f.}
Pater father, pater
Patriarch patriarch
Patruus brother of father
Pest plague
Pfarramt parish office
Pfarrbuch parish register
Pfarrdotale farmer who leases church-income property
Pfarrei parish
Pfarrer pastor, reverend
Pfingsten Pentecost
Pflasterer paver, paviour
Pflegekind foster child
Pflegesohn foster son
Pflegetochter foster daughter
Pocharbeiter halvaner; a halvaner is a miner who dresses or washes halvan-ore
Pochsteiger foreman in a stamp mill or stamp battery
Pocken pox, smallpox
Posamentierer (Posamenter) trimming-maker
Pottaschbrenner potash burner
Prediger preacher
Priester priest, reverend, prebyter
Primas primate
Prinz prince
Prinzessin princess
Prior prior
Priorin prioress
Privatbeamter white-collar worker
Probst provost
Probstei church district
Proclamation marriage banns, proclamation
Protestant, protestantisch Protestant
Provinz province
Puella daughter, girl
Quastenmacher trimming-maker
Rabbiner rabbi
Räbbe rabies
Räcke stiffness of the limbs
Racker renderer
Rademacher, Radmacher wheelwright
Radhauer wheelwright
Rathaus city hall
Ratsherr alderman
Ratsmann councilman, town councilor
Rebmonat February
Rechnung account, bill
Rechtsanwalt lawyer
reformiert, Reformierter Reformed, Calvinist
Regierungsbezirk governmental district (administrative district between state and rural/urban district)
Region region
Regionalverband district association
Register index, register (a book or list)
Reich empire, kingdom
Reifer ropemaker, rope merchant
Reiter rider, cavalryman
relictus, relicta (rel., Rx) widower, widow
renatus, renata (ren.) baptized, christened
Rentner retired person
Rheuma rheumatism
Richter judge
Robotgärtner unfree farmer / farm laborer
Rodel register
Röseler whitewasher
Rössler horseman, tanner
Rössner farmer who ploughed with horses
Röt measles, bloody diarrhea
Rotgerber red tanner
Rufname first name, given name
Ruhestand retirement
Ruhr dysentery
Rusticus farmer
Sackhuhn sailmaker
Säger sawyer
Salbung anointing
Salzmesser a salt weigher
Salzvogt salt works overseer
Samstag Saturday
Samtgemeinde collective municipality (administrative unit between the municipalities and the rural districts)
Sarkhauer stonemason
Satertag Saturday
Sattler saddler, leather worker
Schacherer peddler
Schäfer shepherd
Schaffer worker, laborer, administrator
Schaffmann worker
Schaffner conductor
Schäfler cooper
Schalck, Schall servant
Scharknecht farmhand
Scharlach, Scharlachfieber scarlet fever
Scharnemann merchant in a market
Scharrmacher wagon builder
Scharwerker day laborer on a farm
Schatter, Schattmann tax assessor
Schatzmann moneychanger, treasurer
Schatzmeister treasurer
Scheibenreisser glazier
Scheibler salt carrier
scheiden, sich scheiden lassen to divorce, to get divorced
Scheidler knife-blade maker
Schein certificate
Schenkungen donations
Schenkwirth innkeeper
Scherer barber, beardcutter, cloth cutter
Schichtmeister mine paymaster
Schiffbauer shipbuilder
Schiffer shipper, seaman
Schiffmann sailor
Schiffsmakler shipbroker, shipping agent
Schilderer sign painter
Schindeldecker roofer of shingle roofs
Schindelmacher shingle maker
Schinner renderer, skinner
Schirmmacher umbrella maker
Schirrmacher wagon maker
Schirrmeister master wagon maker
Schlachter, Schlächter butcher
Schlachtmann butcher
Schlachtmond November
Schlachtwanter clothing wholesaler
Schlafbaas innkeeper
Schlaganfall stroke, seizure
Schlagfluss stroke
Schleiermacher trimming-maker
Schlieper knifemaker, cutler
Schlieter merchant
Schloss castle
Schlosser locksmith
Schlotfeger chimney sweep
Schlotthauer locksmith
Schmied smith, blacksmith
Schneider tailor
Schnitzer, Schnitzler woodcarver
Schnur daughter-in-law
Schnürmacher trimming-maker
Schopper ship's carpenter
Schornsteinfeger chimney sweep
Schösser tax collector
Schosserheber tax collector
Schotte peddler
Schottilier turner, carpenter
Schottler turner, key maker
Schreiber scribe, clerk
Schreiner cabinetmaker, joiner, carpenter
Schriftsetzer typesetter
Schroder, Schröder tailor
Schröer tailor
Schröter tailor, carter, driver, cooper
Schubarth, Schuberth, Schubring shoemaker
Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert shoemaker
Schuhmacher shoemaker, cobbler
Schule school
Schullehrer, Schulmeister school teacher
Schultheiß, Schulze village mayor, head of town council
Schüssler bowl maker
Schuster shoemaker, cobbler
Schuwarte shoemaker
Schwäche weakness
Schwager brother-in-law
Schwägerin sister-in-law
Schwaiger shepherd
schwanger pregnant
schwarzer Tod black death, plague
Schwarzgiesser iron smelter
Schweinehirt pigherd
Schweißer welder
Schweizer dairyman. milker
Schwendimann settler on recently burned woodland
Schwerdtfeger armorer
Schwester sister
Schwiegermutter mother-in-law
Schwiegersohn son-in-law
Schwiegertochter daughter-in-law
Schwiegervater father-in-law
Schwindsucht consumption
Schwippschwager husband of sister-in-law
Schwippschwägerin wife of brother-in-law
Seelenregister church membership list
Seelnonne woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Seelschwester woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Seelsorger minister, chaplain
Seelweib woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Seemann sailor
Segner fisherman
Seifensieder soap maker
Seigner fisherman
Seiler rope maker
selig deceased
September September
September (7ber, 7br., VIIber, VIIbr.) September
Septembris (7bris, 7br., VIIbris, VIIbr.) September
Setzhufner temporarily house/property/farm owner
Setzwirt temporarily house/property/farm owner
Sibber sieve maker
Sibmacher sieve maker
Sieder soap maker
Siedler settler
Sigrist sexton
Silberschmied silversmith
Socer father-in-law
Socrus mother-in-law
Sohn son
Söhnlein young son
Söhnlein, Söhnchen young son
Soldat soldier
Söldner mercenary, day laborer
Söldner small farmer, cottager
Sonnabend Saturday
Sonntag Sunday
spät late (p.m.)
Spengler plumber, tinsmith
Sponsa bride
Sponsus groom
Spuria, spurius (spur.) illigitmate daughter, son
Staat state
Staatsangehörigkeit citizenship, nationality
Staatsarchiv national archive
Stadt city, town
Stadtbezirk borough
Stadtgemeinde urban municipality
Stadtkreis urban district
Stadtstaat city-state as a German "Bundesland"
Stadtteil city/town district as area of a town, city district as area of a city borough
Stammbaum family tree, pedigree
Stammeltern great(*8)grandparents
Stammgroßeltern great(*9)grandparents
Stammurgroßeltern great(*10)grandparents
Standesamt civil registry office
Steinhauer stonecutter
Steinleger paver, paviour
Steinmetz stonemason
Steinsetzer paver, paviour
Stellmacher wheelwright
Steuer tax
Stickfluß asthma
Stiefbruder half brother, stepbrother
Stiefkind stepchild
Stiefmutter stepmother
Stiefschwester half sister, stepsister
Stiefvater stepfather
Straßenkötter cottager living next to a road
Stunde hour
Sucht sickness, mania, rage
Suffraganbischof suffragan bishop
Superindend provost
Superindendentur church district
Tabelle index, table
Tag day
Tagelöhner, Taglöhner day laborer
Tagner day laborer
Tante aunt, sister of the father
Tapezierer (wall)paper hanger
Taufe baptism, christening
Taufpate, Taufpate {m.}, Taufpatin {f.} godparent, godfather {m}, godmother {f.}
Taufschein baptismal certificate
Taufzeuge, Taufzeuge {m.}, Taufzeugin {f.} godparent, godfather {m.}, godmother {f.}
Taumond February
Tauner day laborer
Testament last will
Testes witnesses (godparents)
Tischler cabinetmaker, furniture maker
Tochter daugther
Töchterchen, Töchterlein young daughter
Tochtermann son-in-law
Tod death
Töpfer potter
Totenfrau woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
Totengräber grave digger
Totenweib, Totenweibchen woman who washed and dressed deceased; she also informed the relevant authorities about the death of the person
totgeboren stillborn
Totgeburt stillbirth
Trauhandlung wedding ceremony
Trauung wedding
Trennung separation, divorce
Tressenwirker trimming-maker
Tuberkulose tuberculosis
Tuchmacher cloth maker, draper
Tumor tumor
Uhr o’clock, clock, watch
Uhrmacher watchmaker, clockmaker
unehelich illegitimate
ungefähr about, circa, approximately
Unterleibsentzündung abdominal inflammation, peritonitis
Unterleibstyphus typhoid fever
Unterleibsverhärtung abdomenal hardening
Unterrichter judge
unverheiratet unmarried
Urahnen-Eltern great(*14)grandparents
Urahnen-Großeltern great(*15)grandparents
Urahnen-Urgroßeltern great(*16)grandparents
Urgroßeltern great-grandparents
Urkunde record, document
Uxor (ux.) wife
Vater father
väterlicherseits paternal
Verbandsgemeinde collective municipality (administrative unit between the municipalities and the rural districts)
verehelicht/verheiratet married
Verkäufer seller, vendor
Verkündung marriage banns
verlobt engaged
Verlobte fiancée
Verlobter fiancé
Verlobung engagement, betrothal
Vermieter landlord, lessor
Verpächter landlord, lessor
verrichten perform
verstorben deceased
Verwaltung administration
Verwaltungsdistrikt administrative district
Verwandte relatives
Verwandtschaft relatives, kin
verwitwet widowed
Verzeichnis register, list, index
Vetter cousin (male)
Vidua, viduus (vid.) widow, widower
Viertelbauer farmer who owns / leases ¼ of a standard-sized farm
Viertelhufner, Viertelhüfner, 1/4-Hufner farmer who owns / leases ¼ of a standard-sized farm
Viertellehner farmer who leases ¼ of a standard-sized farm
Vikar vicar
Virgo virgin (not married before)
Vogelfänger bird catcher, fowler
Volkszählung census
Vollbauer farmer of a standard-sized farm
Vollhufner farmer of a standard-sized farm
Volllehner farmer who leases a standard-sized farm
Vollmaier farmer of a standard-sized farm
Vollspänner farmer of a standard-sized farm
vorgestern the day before yesterday
Vormittag morning
vormittags in the morning
Vormund guardian
Vorname first name
Wagner cartwright
Waise orphan
Wald forest, woods
Wappen coat of arms
Wase sister of the father
Wasenmeister knacker, knackermann
Wassersucht dropsy, edema
Weber weaver
Weduwe widow
Wehmutter midwife
Weib (Eheweib) wife
Weidemonat May
Weihbischof auxiliary bishop
weiland deceased
Weiler hamlet
Weingartknecht farm hand in a vineyard
Weingärtner wine grower, vin dresser, vintner
Weinmod, Weinmonat, Weinlesemonat October
Weinzettel farm hand in a vineyard
Weißgerber tanner
Weltpriester a secular priest
Widumer farmer settled on church property
Windmond, Windmonat November
Windpocken chicken pox
Wintermonat November
Winzer wine grower, vine dresser, vintner
Wirt farmer
Witwe(r) widow(er)
Wochenbett childbed
Wohnplatz dwelling place
Wonnemond, Wonnemonat May
Wundarzt surgeon, barber surgeon
Zahnkrämpfe teething
Zahnung teething
zehrendes Fieber consumptive fever
Zehrung consumption
Zettelmann farm hand
Zeuge witness
Ziegler brick maker
Ziehmutter, -sohn, -tochter foster mother, son, daughter
Zimmermann carpenter
Zivilstandsamt civil registry office
Zöllner publican, tax collector
Zuname surname, last name
Zweispänner farmer who owns two draft animals
Zweiter Herbstmond October
Zwilling, Zwillinge twin, twins

  • Login to edit this profile and add images.
  • Private Messages: Contact the Profile Managers privately: Dieter Lewerenz and Catharina Lewerenz. (Best when privacy is an issue.)
  • Public Comments: Login to post. (Best for messages specifically directed to those editing this profile. Limit 20 per day.)
Comments: 13

Leave a message for others who see this profile.
There are no comments yet.
Login to post a comment.
This glossary is a very good idea.

Maybe Chirug is a writing error?

May I suggest:

  • Zwilling, Zwillinge / twin, twins
  • Gelbgießer / brass founder
  • Hintersaß, Hintersasse / ... (not sure, how to translate)
posted by Siegfried Keim
Einer meiner Vorfahren war als "Pflasterer" (auch "Steinleger" genannt) beim Stadtrat von Arnstadt angestellt (1579-95). Da ich in dieser Liste nur "Steinmetz" und "Steinhauer" fand, konsultierte ich ein Wörterbuch; das englische Äquivalent lautet "paver" (NICHT "plasterer'). Ich bitte um Aufnahme in die Liste.
posted by Oliver Stegen PhD
A member of my McConnell family found a document that they think is for our family but is in German, (apparently old German). I live in Australia and have sent it to a firm that supposedly translate german documents but have not had reply for 6 months. So, if i attach it to your web site is there someone who may be able to translate or advise if it is possible to do that? It is from Holy Trinity German Church but that is all i know. The person who posted it had family try to transcribe it but as it was old they only knew a few words. Is there anyone to do the translation or a web site?

I will check again with family to see where the church is but many lived in PA. Others Connecticut and New York. Any suggestions?

posted by Barbara McConnell
Hi Barbara, I sent you a mail to your PM.
posted by Dieter Lewerenz
Fantastic resource Dieter. May I suggest the following: Ehegammer/Ehegamer (early marriage counsellor), Wundartzt (doctor), Feldschärer/Feldsher (field surgeon or barber-surgeon). They are mainly from Swiss German resources but most likely also found in Germany.
posted by Andrea Staub
Thanks Andrea for the suggestions.

Ehegammer is new for me, but Feldscher we have in Germany as well. I will add them.

posted by Dieter Lewerenz
I request the occupation "Grenzaufseher" be added. I came across this when researching Ripke descendants and it appears that it means "border guard", which I see that you have "grenze" for border.
posted by Steven Greenwood
Done Steven. I added Grenzaufseher and Grenzkontrolleur (border guard and border inspector)
posted by Dieter Lewerenz
Outstanding work, Dieter! I am going to link to this for research and as I am learning German.
posted by Steven Greenwood
It is great if the glossary is used and if it helps you
posted by Dieter Lewerenz
Thanks for this great glossary. I have one addition for the verb "hinterlassen". It can have several meanings. One of the meanings relevant in the field of genealogy is "being survived by". This should be included in addition to the other meaning "to bequeath" already in the glossary.

Here is an example: "Mr. Henry Thomas hinterlässt eine Frau und zwei Kinder." "Mr. Henry Thomas is survived by his wife and two children." cf. https://www.linguee.de/deutsch-englisch/uebersetzung/hinterlie%C3%9F+frau+und+kinder.html


posted by Gudula (Retz-Schmidt) Suskin
edited by Gudula (Retz-Schmidt) Suskin
Thanks for the tip. I added the second meaning.
posted by Dieter Lewerenz