Location: New South Wales, Australia
Surnames/tags: New_South_Wales governors
|Badge of the Governor of New South Wales|
The Governor of New South Wales is the vice-regal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales; and performs constitutional and ceremonial functions. The office is established by the New South Wales Constitution Act, 1902.
When the eleven ships of the First Fleet anchored in Sydney Cove on 26th January 1788, the king's proclamation regarding the founding of the penal colony of New South Wales was read and Captain Arthur Phillip RN commissioned as the colony's first vice-regal governor. Of course, then New South Wales encompassed the land from the northern tip of Cape York, Queensland to the southern extremity of Tasmania. And it was just weeks before the colony's boundaries were stretched to include places such as Norfolk Island. As time marched on, Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania), Port Phillip Bay (Victoria), Moreton Bay (Queensland) and Norfolk Island became independent of New South Wales.
List of Governors of New South Wales
|No.||Photo||Name||Birth-place||Spouse||Years as Governor||No. years||Notes|
|1||Captain Arthur Phillip RN||Allhallows, London, England||-||1788-1792||4yrs 11mths||encouraged exploration, emancipation and self-sufficiency|
|2||Captain John Hunter RN||Leith, Midlothian, Scotland||-||1795-1800||5yrs||encouraged exploration, emancipation and Christianity|
|3||Captain Philip Gidley King RN||Launceston, Cornwall, England||Anna Josepha Coombe||1800-1806||5yrs 11 mths||encouraged exploration, emancipation and agriculture|
|4||Image:Bligh-45.jpg||Captain William Bligh RN||St Tudy, Cornwall, England||daughter, Mary Putland||1806-1808||1yr 5 mths||was subject to a military coup led by ex-NSW Corps officers|
|5||MAJ GEN Lachlan Macquarie CB||Island of Ulva, Inner Hebrides, Scotland||Elizabeth Henrietta Campbell||1810-1821||11yrs 11 mths||encouraged exploration and emancipation, built infrastructure and sited towns|
|6||MAJ GEN Sir Thomas Brisbane GCH GCB, Bt||Noddsdale, Ayrshire, Scotland||Anna Maria Hay Makdougall||1821-1825||5yrs||worked to improve the land grants system and to reform the currency, agriculture|
|7||LT GEN Sir Ralph Darling GCH||Ireland||Elizabeth Dumaresq||1825-1831||5yrs 10 mths||education, female convicts, promote Christian teaching, and protect indigenous population|
|8||MAJ GEN Sir Richard Bourke KCB||Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland||Elizabeth Jane Bourke||1831-1837||6yrs||trial by jury and civil juries in criminal cases; economic growth; religion and education|
|9||Major Sir George Gipps||Ringwould, Kent, England||Elizabeth Ramsay||1838-1846||8yrs 5mths||exploration; equality for all; partial representative government|
|10||LT COL Sir Charles Fitzroy KCH KCB||England||Mary Lennox||1846-1855||8yrs 5mths||constitution providing for an elected lower house in a bicameral legislature; Sydney Uni.|
|11||Sir William Denison KCB||London, England||Caroline Hornby||1855-1861||6yrs||education; orphanages; Christianity|
|12||The Rt Hon. Sir John Young GCMG KBE, Bt||Bombay, Mahārāshtra, India||Adelaide Tuite-Dalton||1861-1867||6yrs 7mths||charities; Christianity|
|13||The Rt Hon. Sir Somerset Lowry-Corry GCMG PC, Earl Belmore||London, England||Anne Gladstone||1868-1872||4yrs 1mth||-|
|14||The Rt Hon. Sir Hercules Robinson GCMG||Rosmead, Westmeath, Ireland||Nea Annesley||1872-1879||6yrs 9mths||responsible government|
|15||The Rt Hon. Sir Augustus Loftus GCB, Lord Loftus||Bristol, Gloucestershire, England||Emma Greville||1879-1885||6yrs 3mths||Sudan War|
|16||The Rt Hon. Sir Charles Wyn-Carington GCMG PC, Lord Carrington||Whitehall, London, England||Cecilia Harbord||1885-1890||4yrs 11mths||-|
|17||The Rt Hon. Sir Victor Child-Villiers GCB GCMG PC, Earl of Jersey||Berkeley Square, London, England||Margaret Leigh||1891-1893||2yrs 2mths||-|
|18||The Rt Hon. Sir Robert Duff GCMG||Fetteresso, Kincardineshire, Scotland||Louisa Scott||1893-1895||1yrs 10mths||-|
|19||The Rt Hon. Sir Henry Brand GCMG, Viscount Hampden of Glynde||Devonport, Devonshire, England||Susan Cavendish||1895-1899||3yrs 4mths||-|
|20||The Rt Hon. Sir William Lygon KCMG PC, Earl Beauchamp||London, England||Lettuce Grosvenor||1899-1901||1yr 11mths||Boer War; federation|
|21||Admiral Sir Harry Rawson GCB GCMG RN||Walton-on-Hill, Lancashire, England||Florence Shaw||1902-1909||7yrs||the first naval officer since William Bligh to hold the post|
|22||The Rt Hon. Sir Frederick Thesiger GCSI GCMG GCIE GBE, Lord Chelmsford||London, England||Frances Guest||1909-1913||3yrs 8mths||had been governor of Queensland from 1905|
|23||The Hon. Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG, Count della Catena, Lord Strickland||Valletta, Malta||Edeline Sackville||1913-1917||4yrs 7mths||supported efforts during The Great War|
|24||Sir Walter Davidson KCMG||Valletta, Malta||Dame Davidson, nee Margaret Feilding||1918-1923||5yrs 7mths||died in office|
|25||Admiral Sir Dudley de Chair KCB KCMG MVO||Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada||Enid Struben||1924-1930||6yrs 2mths||-|
|26||Air Vice Marshal Sir Philip Game GCB GCVO GBE KCMG DSO||Streatham, Surrey, England||Gwendolen Hughes-Gibb||1930-1935||4yrs 8mths||dismissed the NSW government in May 1932|
|27||Brigadier Sir Alexander Hore-Ruthven VC GCMG CB DSO, Earl of Gowrie||Windsor, Berkshire, England||Zara Pollok||1935-1936||12mths||was appointed Governor General of Australia|
|28||Admiral Sir David Anderson KCB KCMG MVO||Newton by Chester, Cheshire, England||Dame Anderson, nee Edith Teschemaker||1936-1936||2mths||died in office|
|29||The Rt Hon. Sir John de Vere Loder KCMG, Lord Wakehurst||Chelsea, London, England||Margaret Tennant||1937-1946||8yrs 9mths||the last non-Australian-born governor of NSW; supported the war effort|
|30||LT GEN Sir John Northcott KCMG KCVO CB||Creswick, Victoria||Mary Paton||1946-1957||10yrs 11mths||first Australian-born (Victoria) governor of New South Wales|
|31||LT GEN Sir Eric Woodward KCMG KCVO CB CBE DSO||Hay, New South Wales||Amy Weller||1957-1965||8yrs||first NSW governor to have been born in New South Wales|
|32||Sir Arthur Roden Cutler VC KCMG KCVO CBE||Manly, New South Wales||Helen Morris||1966-1981||14yrs 365 days||NSW's longest-serving governor|
|33||Air Marshal Sir James Rowland AC KBE DFC AFC||Armidale, New South Wales||Faye Campbell||1981-1989||8yrs||a 'man of the people': opened Government House on a more frequent basis and invited a broader range of society to official functions|
|34||Rear Admiral Sir David Martin KCMG AO RAN||Sydney, New South Wales||Suzanne Millear||1989-1990||1yr 7mths||-|
|35||Rear Admiral Peter Sinclair AC RAN||Manly, New South Wales||Shirley McLellan||1990-1996||5yrs 7mths||living as of 2019|
|36||The Hon. Gordon Samuels AC CVO QC||London, England||Jacqueline Kott||1996-2001||5yrs||-|
|37||Professor The Hon. Dame Marie Bashir AD CVO||Narrandera, New South Wales||Sir Nicholas Shehadie||2001-2014||13yrs 7mths||living as of 2019|
|38||General The Hon. David Hurley AC DSC||Wollongong, New South Wales||Linda McMartin||2014-2019||4yrs 7mths||living as of 2019|
|39||The Hon. Margaret Beazley AO QC||Sydney, New South Wales||Dennis Wilson||2019-||incumbent||-|
The Role of the Governor
As Australia's, and therefore New South Wales', monarch lives predominantly outside New South Wales' borders, the governor's primary task is to perform the sovereign's constitutional duties on his or her behalf, acting within the principles of parliamentary democracy and responsible government as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and as a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. For the most part, however, the powers of the Crown are exercised on a day-to-day basis by elected and appointed individuals, leaving the governor to perform the various ceremonial duties the sovereign otherwise carries out when in the country; at such a moment, the governor removes him or herself from public, though the presence of the monarch does not affect the governor's ability to perform governmental roles.
The first ten governors of New South Wales, covering the colony's first 67 years, were primarily overseeing the running of a penal settlement, or settlements. The early colonial governors held a virtual autocratic power due to the distance from and poor communications with Great Britain, until 1824 when the New South Wales Legislative Council, Australia's first legislative body, was appointed to advise the governor.
Between 1850 and 1861, the governor of New South Wales was titled governor-general, in an early attempt at federalism. During that time all communication between the Australian colonies and the British Government was meant to go through the governor-general, and the other colonies had lieutenant-governors. As South Australia (1836), Tasmania (1855), and Victoria (1855) obtained responsible government, their lieutenant-governors were replaced by governors. Queensland (1859) went directly to governor and independence. It is from this time that New South Wales became as is known today.
The six British colonies in Australia joined together to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. New South Wales and the other colonies became states in the federal system under the Constitution of Australia. The New South Wales Constitution Act 1902 confirmed the modern system of government of New South Wales as a state, including defining the role of the governor as the monarch's representative, who acts by and with the advice of the Executive Council.
On his arrival in Sydney in 1788, Arthur Phillip resided in a temporary wood and canvas house before the construction of a more substantial house on a site now bounded by Bridge Street and Phillip Street, Sydney. This first Government House was extended and repaired by the following eight governors, but was generally in poor condition and was vacated in 1845.
|Government House Sydney c1809|
From 1845, Government House has been the house designed by Edward Blore and Mortimer Lewis and built in Macquarie Street overlooking Farm Cove and the Sydney Harbour.
|Government House Sydney|
With the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, Government House was leased to the new Commonwealth Government to serve as the secondary residence of the new Governor-General of Australia. The NSW Government leased the residence of Cranbrook, Bellevue Hill as the residence of the governor. This arrangement lasted until 1913 when the governor-general moved to the new Sydney residence of Admiralty House. The governor from 1913 to 1917, Sir Gerald Strickland, continued to live in Cranbrook and on his departure his successor returned to Government House.
In an attempt to 'force' republicanism on the nation, on 16th January 1996, the premier, Bob Carr, announced that the (then) next governor, Gordon Samuels, would not live or work at Government House. Infact, Carr turned the office of governor into a part-time affair. In October 2011, the new premier, Barry O'Farrell, announced that the governor, Dame Marie Bashir, would move back into Government House.
In 1790, Arthur Phillip had a secondary residence built in the township of Parramatta. In 1799, John Hunter, established a more permanent building erected on the same site - the oldest surviving public building in Australia - and now known as Old Government House, a National Trust of New South Wales managed property. This residence remained occupied until the completion of the primary Government House in 1845.
|Old Government House Parramatta|
From 1868, The Earl Belmore and his successor, Sir Hercules Robinson, used Throsby Park at Moss Vale in the Southern Highlands as his summer residence. In 1879 it was decided that the colony should purchase a house at Sutton Forest for use as a permanent summer residence, and in 1881 the NSW Government purchased for £6000 a property known as Prospect that had been built by Robert Pemberton Richardson (of the firm Richardson & Wrench). This was renamed Hillview, and became the primary summer governor's residence from 1885 to 1957; when, seen as unnecessary and expensive, Hillview was put up for sale.
|Hillview, Sutton Forest|
The governor is but one person in the vice-regal household; managed by the Office of the Governor. He or she is helped in the execution of constitutional and ceremonial duties by the Official Secretary and Chief of Staff, currently Colonel Michael Miller RFD. Other support staff include aides-de-camp, press officers, financial managers, speech writers, event managers, protocol officers, chefs and other kitchen employees, waiters, various cleaning staff, as well as tour guides. In this official capacity, the entire household is usually referred to as Government House.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Wikipedia: Governor of New South Wales; accessed 14 Oct 2019
- ↑ National Trust: Old Government House; accessed 14 Oct 2019