Hannah_Carter_1638_-_1702_Research_Notes.jpg

The Origins, Life and Family of Hannah Carter (abt 1655 - Aft 1701)

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Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: Henrico, Virginiamap
Surnames/tags: Crewes Carter Sewell
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Contents

Purpose and Objectives

Hannah Carter (1655 - 1702) Biographical and Genealogical Essay with Research Notes and Sources

Biography

Research and documentation by Dennis Stewart

The following essay on Hannah Carter provides compelling facts, some new, some already known, that she was indeed the natural daughter of James Crewes, a prominent merchant, planter and political leader (burgess) in Henrico Co. Va. during the mid to late 1600's.
James Crewes was christened in England on Dec. 7, 1623, a younger son of wealthy spice merchant Robert Crewes of Soper Lane in London. [1]. The identity of James Crewes father was discovered by Wikitree Leader, Ranger and researcher David Douglas of Dallas, Tx. in 2018.
On Dec. 1, 1652, James Crewes, merchant, was in London to give a deposition in a matter of debt, and being a witness for a Mr. Martin. In the course of testimony relevant to the case, James Crewes stated that he did very well know a Francis Gyles who lived over a year at Jordan's in Va. (This is Charles City Co. Va.). Crewes added that Gyles died at Jordan's in Va. about Aug. or Sep. 1651.
Crewes is now 28 years old. Crewes seemed to state that he knew Gyles in both Va. and in England. This would place James Crewes in Charles City Co. Va. in 1651 or before.
James Crewes had moved to Henrico Co. Va. by 1661 as proven by land

record research conducted by Mike Carter of Centerville. Ga. Crewes plantation was a 560 ac. farm, on the James River in Henrico Co. called "Turkey Island".

James Crewes had a particular lady friend in Charles City Co. named Hannah Aston, who later became Hannah Hill of Shirley Plantation, which seems to have adjoined the Crewes property on its north side. Hannah was married twice. In Aug. 1656 James Crewes witnessed a power-of attorney for the widow Hannah Aston to transfer land to her imminent husband Edward Hill, I, of Shirley. Hannah also bought cattle from her son-in-law Wm. Batt and the instrument was witnessed by James Crewes and his current or future father-in-law Daniel Lewellen. It might ? be possible that Crewes named a daughter Hannah (Carter) after his friend Hannah Aston Hill.
On Sep. 14, 1661, the Charles City Co. Court permitted James Crewes to keep an Indian. The record does not give the name, age or gender of Crewes Indian servant. However one of Crewes Indian servants is identified later in the will and estate file as "Tero".
Giles Carter came to Va. at close to the same time that James Crewes did. His headright record is dated Apr. 7, 1653. However, this is only the recording date. Giles more likely came to Va. by 1652 (Crewes 1651 or before). According to a 1680 Henrico Co. court deposition Giles Carter said that he was born in 1634, meaning he was about 18 years old when he arrived in Va. to begin his indenture.
Giles Carter's baptism record was discovered in Gloucestershire, England, in the Parish of Cirencester. It revealed that he was baptized Apr. 24, 1635, and named his father as Theodor(ick) Carter. Giles would later name his first apparent son in Va. Theodorick Carter. According to the book, "Giles Carter of Virginia.." by Army General Wm. Giles Harding Carter of Nashville, Tn. (pub. 1909), the Carters and Crewes had close ties in Gloucestershire (p. 104). Matthew Crewes, the nephew, and later estate executor of James Crewes, was the husband of a Esther Trotman in 1672. She was a direct descendant of the first Giles Carter of Gloucestershire of 1623.
Indentures in Va. were not always 7 years and did not always denote hard

manuel labor. W.G.H. Carter in his 1909 book, "Giles Carter of Virginia", writes on page 89, "...colonists comprised many men whose social station was attested by the addition of 'Gentleman' to their names and who engaged to remain for periods of from two to seven years in the colony. The word servant of the Virginia Company, so often used, did not imply that the person referred to was a menial." Even the great William Randolph served as a headright for a Thomas Wells in 1677. We doubt that Randolph was a gardener for Wells for seven years ! Giles Carter could write his name which was some indication that he was educated. Though his social status seems to have been that of a yeoman, or class one below the gentry. They were the most respected section of the common people and without heraldic arms. The apparent oldest children of Giles Carter of Va. were Mary Carter and Susan Carter, who may have been born in the late 1650's to 1662 ? In Crewes 1676 will he provided for the elder girls an impressive legacy which would indicate that they were getting near the age of marriage.

There is evidence that Giles Carter was married at least twice. The will of John Rowen, dated 1662 in Henrico Co. Va., seems to stipulate that Carter had married a sister or relative of Rowen. The land of John Rowen seemed to adjoin, or was near, the land of James Crewes. One of the witnesses to the will was Margaret Crewes, so we know she was married by 1662. We know that Margaret was a daughter of Daniel Lewellen because in his will of 1664 recorded at Chelmsford, in Essex, England, he mentions "Margaret Cruse...and her husband".
The Rowen will states, "To Giles Carter use of house & ground for this year (1662) upon this plantation."
Notice that Carter got the house and parcel for only "this year". This might imply that Carter's wife had died, and knowing that he would remarry, gave him time to make the transition. If Carter's wife were still alive then it would make no sense to give them a temporary home after Rowen's decease, especially if children were involved. Carter and his wife were seemingly renting their home on Rowen's place.
One researcher suggested that the first wife died from childbirth complications, which explains the gift of the cow to help wean a surviving infant. If Giles Carter's first wife died by 1662 then she is not the second or later wife Hannah who appears in James Crewes will 14 years later in 1676. If the first wife would have been born circa 1635-1640, then the later wife, Hannah, would have been born circa 1650-1655.

Another theory. Rowan was not a blood relative to Giles wife at all. Had he been then he never would have had the Carter's vacate his property in 1662 as mandated by his will. Especially since Giles had at least two children at the time. The Carter's were already living there and there was still ample room for both the Carter's and young Henry Rowen. Compare this to James Crewes later willing the Carter's a life estate on his property. It seems likely that Giles first wife, name unknown, died on the Crewes place by c1672, he then married c1673 his second wife Hannah, whom we think was Crewes daughter, and their first son Theodorick was born c1674 / 75, a small child in Crewes will.

Margaret Lewellen came to Va. in 1654 according to her headright record. On Aug. 10, 1654 she is still unmarried when she signs her name as Margaret Lewellen when she and her father Daniel Lewellen witnessed a deed for Samuel Woodward. As noted, Hannah was born before 1654. Therefore, James Crewes married Margaret no earlier than 1655. We know that he was born in 1623 (baptismal & deposition), therefore in 1655 he would have been about 32 years old. Who, in their right mind, would think that someone like James Crewes would be sexually abstinent until he was 32 years old, or after ? That explains Hannah in his will, and her family being provided for. She was his illegitimate daughter, possibly named after family friend Hannah Aston. It explains why Crewes relatives in England broke the will. If Hannah were not the legal daughter of Crewes, then Giles Carter was not a legal son-in-law. This explains why in Crewes will that Carter was called "loving friend". It explains why it was Giles Carter who presented the will in court operating as next-of-kin. Giles Carter was the de facto son-in-law.
In a court petition a lawyer wrote "that Capt. James Crewes...dec'd, left no widow or lawful child." It would have been more simple just to write, "..left no widow or children." However, the attorney added that Crewes left no "lawful child", implying that Crewes had an unlawful child, we think Hannah. Since

illegitimate children had no legal claim to inheritance there is no reason to mention them in a court proceeding. James Crewes in his will had leased a life estate to Giles and Hannah Carter on his plantation. In 1684 they sold the tract to Wm. Randolph. Since it was never a warranty deed but a contract giving Giles the right to sell through the estate he never actually owned the tract. Hannah's name would have been on the original lease which is the reason she signed the deed ("H") when the land was later sold to Randolph. This indicating her special inclusion in the land from James Crewes. Since the 50 ac. tract was a lease this allowed Giles Carter to avoid paying the land tax. Plus a life lease as opposed to fee simple might help prevent the will from being contested since Hannah was likely illegitimate. It did not. Once Matthew Crewes and Sarah Whittingham managed to break James Crewes will, Giles Carter was compelled to sell his property right to the new owner Wm. Randolph.

Now, let us take a closer look at the 1676 will of James Crewes. He gave to Mary Carter 10,000 pounds of tobacco, 1 feather bed, 2 blankets, one rug, "...the interest here of to be towards her clothing." Notice here that James Crewes was concerned over Mary's clothing. Sounds pretty paternal to me. Susan Carter also received 10,000 pounds of tobacco and the same items. In 1676 10,000 pounds of tobacco could purchase a fully furnished plantation house. The girls would receive the warehouse interest total of 20,000 pounds of tobacco which was an enormous sum of wealth at the time. The above is something you give to relatives, not random favorite neighbors. Mary and Susan were mentioned first in the will indicating that they were the older children of Giles Carter by his first wife. This seems to mean that the girls were Rowens, or Rowen relatives on their mother's side. It also might ? imply that their mother's maiden name was Mary Rowen? or Susan Rowen ? Its even chronologically possible that Giles could have had a wife between Miss Rowen and Hannah. Theodorick Carter did not receive much in the will perhaps because he was very young in 1676. There might have been plans for

Theodorick to succeed his father in running the plantation. However, that would end when the lease / life estate was sold to Randolph in 1684 when Theodorick would have been about 10 years old. Crewes likely gave more to Mary and Susan because they were nearing marriage. After his death the Crewes estate was appraised at 19,500 Ibs. of tobacco. He willed the Carter girls 20,000 Ibs. of tobacco which was over the value of his entire Turkey Island estate !

Crewes gave to Hannah his negro maid Keate (Kate), "..and if she (Keate) hath any children they to be at her (Hannah's) disposing who she will give them to."

The anticipation was that Hannah would receive more slaves with Kate's "natural increase" and that the progeny would later go to son Theodorick. Mike Carter of Centerville, Ga. pointed out that slaves were worth in value at about 1000 Ibs. tobacco each. Crewes might have offered the 20,000 Ibs. of tobacco to Hannah first, but she declined and wanted it to go to the girls because they were nearing marriage. James Crewes also gave Giles and Hannah Carter his manor house on the plantation to live in, plus, Giles did not have to pay the Crewes estate what he owes "by bill or book." Crewes seems to have anticipated that his relatives in England might challenge the will. And knowing that the Carter's did not have the resources to engage the more affluent collaterals in Britain seems to have devised a type of compromise. Matthew Crewes would own the home tract in fee simple but the Carter's would get to remain on the plantation for life. This may explain why Crewes did not will the entire Turkey Island farm to the Carter's. In this way the Carter's could avoid litigation and stay on the home place. The trade-off ultimately did not work. There was litigation and the Carter's later lost their life tenure on the land as Crewes seems to have feared. Crewes could have willed the whole 500 plus acre plantation to the Carter's whether they were related or not. However, the kin living abroad opted to test the will. The main interloper was a niece of Crewes, Sarah Whittingham, who successfully petitioned a court in England to be added as an "heir" of Crewes. Matthew Crewes then turned on his late uncle and joined with the Whittingham faction. As legal owners of the Turkey Island place they proceeded to sell the land out from under the Carter's. The Crewes, Whittingham, and Randolph party even attempted to defraud Giles Carter out of tobacco assets and even threaten the 20 acres given to Tero based on the Crewes will. Fortunately, an appeal to the Governor of Virginia ruled in favor of Giles Carter, and the local Henrico Court allowed Tero to keep his small parcel of land. If the Crewes / Whitingham / Randolph faction went after Tero's humble 20 ac. can you imagine them not going after the Carter's had Crewes given them the 500 plus ac. plantation in fee simple ? Whether before or in the will ? Son Theodorick Carter was born c1674. When the war began in 1675 Hannah apparently delayed having any more children. After the war she began having children again.

During Bacon's Rebellion, of which Crewes was a leader, he apparently wanted Giles to stay out of the war for Hannah's sake. This is evidenced by the fact that Crewes wrote his will in a manner as if he expected Giles to still be around after the conflict.
The Crewes estate file mentions "One good Indian man named Tero." Another part of the estate calls him "Turro". Crewes will gave to Tero both land and livestock. This debunks the assertion of some that Crewes was an "Indian hater." (see Wikitree profile on Tero Tero). Crewes gave a legacy to an Indian, but left nothing to his white English maid servant Mary Herringer ! James Crewes made his nephew Matthew Crewes his executor. However, Matthew betrayed his uncle, and joined with his cousin Sarah Whittingham to break the will. This resulted in Giles Carter being forced to protect his interests. In an entry found in the Crewes estate inventory, and recorded by Henry Randolph, it reads, "1682, Giles Carter. ordered per the Governor and Council his legacy being 20,000" (pounds tobacco). The Carter's lived with James Crewes about 13

years (1663-1676). It might also be possible that Crewes gave benefits to the Carter's before and outside the will. Giles and Hannah Carter and children Mary, Susan and Theodorick were even in the will given James Crewes manor house. That sounds family to me.

The above evidence strongly states that Hannah was the illegitimate ("unlawful") daughter of James Crewes. Plus, no other family ever directly claimed Hannah. Only Crewes claimed her. Or to put it another way, Giles Carter married the boss's daughter.
Governor Berkeley had taken away the settlers right to vote, had imposed very high taxation, and had no urgency over Indian attacks because it would adversely effect his monopoly of the fur trade. These basic factors eventually sparked Bacon's Rebellion of which Crewes played a major role as Bacon's public spokesman. Crewes was later captured but "...pleading nothing in his defence", I believe because he knew that any critical remarks might cause the tribunal to retaliate against Giles and Hannah. So Crewes remained silent. At

the time of the Green Springs tribunal there was no Bill of Attainder to secure his legacies to his heirs. Crewes would have known this and made no adverse comments at the proceeding.

General W.G.H. Carter wrote, "Colonel Crewe was a patriotic, self-respecting gentleman. He was officially slain by the verdict of a court-martial assembled to do the bidding of an irascible and vindictive governor, who appeared willing to sacrifice the lives and property of the English planters that his own interests in the Indian trade might continue undisturbed." Right on W.G.H. When James Crewes Turkey Island Plantation was later inventoried it was thus described, "...a very good plantation with several dwelling houses with brick chimneys for fires...and good orchard...one good Indian man named Tero, sold by Sir William Berkeley to Maj. William White for 2000 pound...One sable horse taken when James Crewes was taken and given to Col. William Farrow by Sir William Berkeley...". The following is from the book, "The Ties That Bind...Siblings,

Family, and Society in Early Modern England", by Capp, p. 108,

"For most, however, illegitimate children remained a sensitive issue. John Smyth, a wealthy merchant and former mayor of Bristol, left 40 marks in 1555 to an illegitimate daughter in London. It was a tiny sum in the context of his huge estate (with money and goods totaling over L2,000, besides landed property), and he minimized embarrasment for his family by concealing her name and address." Well, at least Crewes gave Hannah's name in his will. Final point here. If Crewes were not related to the Carters then why give them anything at all ? Why not just give 100 % of the estate to Crewes collateral family still in England ? What Crewes gave the Carter's implies more than just mere friendship. Yet Hannah's family did receive much from the colonel. Hannah may have died c1735, age about 80, because shortly thereafter her son Giles Carter, Jr. moved to NC, this being based on the Varina Parish procession records. Written by D.C. Stewart of Etowah, Tn., a descendant of Hannah.

Research notes by Michael Carter

Mr Carter states, "I disagree on several issues there is another side of the story here. The deposition you refer to a town deposition in London (which I have been unable to find the original of) in 1651 only states that James Crewes knew Francis Giles not where he knew him. I did find Francis Giles 2 brothers and his mother. They owned property at Boughton Aulph South East of London. I believe James Crewes who was a tobacco merchant trading va. tobacco thru the East India house that he was buying From Virginia I speculate from Francis Giles. When Francis Giles Died James Crewes then moved to Virginia. I believe James Crewes knew Francis Giles in England before Giles went to Va and was doing business with him so he would know when he died and where and not necessarily be in Va at that time.
We do know James Crewes was in VA in the mid 1650's by court Records and he did borrow a sword for a return trip I doubt he made over one return trip which could take 2 months. What was the date of the sword loan? James Crewes was an heir in his older brother's estate I suspect he returned for the settlement of that about 1656. James was to inherit 200 lbs sterling and was an alternate for the Soper lane property which later sold for some 800 lbs sterling. The Turkey Island property sold for 75 lbs sterling to Randolph about 7 acres per lb. Giles sold his interest for 3 acres per lb. so got a better deal.
I was wrong about James Crewes being the youngest son too . I recently found another son was born after the death of Robert Crewes I have his name as Denorax Crewes born in 1626 to Elizabeth widow of Robert Crewes.
You know of course the amount of land is not correct right? James Crewes Bought land formerly owned by Ann Llewellyn he bought it with Bullington in 1661 each bought a bit over 200 acres Crewes later buying Bullingtons share so wound up with about 560 acres and he leased about 50 to 60 acres to Giles Carter with a house and gave John Tero 20 acres for life. James Crewes will was followed with the exception of Giles Carter getting to run the plantation for life and a few misplaced beds.
Who got all of James Crewes land His Heirs namely Mathew Crewes and Sarah Whittingham his legal heirs right. They then sold all this land to William Randolph which was a little over 500 acres for 3 Score and 15 lbs sterling (60+15=75lbs). Randolph bought Giles Carters life use of the land Crewes had rented him later giving it to him as a life use in the form of a lease for a grain of corn per year in his will. I have seen the 6141 figure before and consider it perhaps a transcription error or possibly including property siezed by William Berkley from Bacon's neighboring Curles plantation maybe even from other members of the Rebellion....which I believe Randolph may have also later bought. Even with record losses 6000 acres of land over 9 square miles is too much to lose so completely most of the land grants are still known. Crewes was fairly well off but not in the Berkley or Randolph circle. Ann Llewellyn didn't even have as much some 300 acres from her first husband and 1000 from a patent to herself and Daniel Llewellyn's land some 1537 acres.

Birth and Origins

Birth Date and Place
Q: When and where was Hannah born ?
A: Evidence assembled by Stewart suggests that Hannah was born no later than 1655. Her place of birth would seem to be Charles City Co. Va. which is where Crewes was apparently living at the time. (Dennis Stewart)
Native American Ancestry ?
Q: Is there any evidence of Native American Ancestry for Hannah Carter ?
A: Stewart's research opinion is that there was. Charles City Co. Va., which was the first place in Va. where young James Crewes settled, was home to the Weyonoke Indians. One of their ancient trading paths ran right through the property of Crewes merchant friend Edward Bland. The identity of Hannah's mother has been problematic. For all we know, Hannah may have been raised by her mother, not her father. That perhaps she became a part of her father's life as an older child or young woman ?
Some researchers have suggested that Hannah was a natural daughter of James Crewes and a Native American consort. James Crewes and his father-in-law Daniel Lewellen did in fact keep Indian servants. Plus Crewes seems to have been in Va. before he got married. In 1655 when he is listed as a merchant in Charles City Co. Va. he would have been 32 year old. The mathematical odds are good that he visited Va. long before age 32. Giles Carter came to Va. at age 18.
But the most compelling evidence that Hannah's mother was Native American comes from an unexpected source, the book, "Captain Tod Carter--Confederate States Army", by Rosalie Carter (1978). Ms. Carter was a direct descendant of Giles and Hannah Carter. On page 4 of her booklet is a picture of Hannah's 3rd great grandson Fountain Branch Carter. In the photo he looks strikingly Amerindian. There does exist a genetic condition called "Atavism" where a person physically resembles a remote ancestor. Plus, a number of Hannah's descendants have shown traces of Native American in their DNA testing.
But, if James Crewes had a Native American female partner then I might offer the following candidate. Crewes died in 1677. In 1679 a mysterious woman appeared on the tax list of Henrico Co. Va. The document listed her name as "Sallie Indian". She was living on the Curls Plantation adjacent to James Crewes former home (see Wikitree profile for Sallie Indian).
She is the only Indian on the 1679 tax list and she is living near Crewes former male neighbors. Two of her neighbors were Benjamin Hatcher and John Woodson who helped inventory the Crewes estate. Sallie Indian must have been a woman of some status to be enumerated with the counties leading men.

However there may be another possible dimension to the obscure ancestry of Hannah Carter. One of her male Carter descendants showed a trace of Middle Eastern ancestry in his DNA testing. James Crewes had a merchant friend in Charles City Co. Va. named Edward Bland. This is the same historically famous Edward Bland who lead a small expedition into NC in an attempt to find surviving descendants of the "Lost Colony". In 1650 Bland owned land on Chippoakes Creek in what is now Surry Co. Va. adjoining Charles City Co. Living on the same creek as Bland and at the same time was a group of families later called "Melungeons"(a people of Middle Eastern ancestry). These people also interbred with local Indians. Could Hannah have been descended from them through her mother ? But as tempting as it may be we are forced to leave Hannah's mother as unknown. It is also of interest to note that the Colonial Dames of The 17th Century Society do recognize Hannah Carter as Hannah Crewes Carter.

Giles Carter made his will in Henrico Co. Va. in 1699. He named wife Hannah as full and sole executor which is attesting to her integrity and intellect. The will was proved in 1701/ 1702 so we know that Hannah died sometime after that year. There is, however, evidence that Hannah Carter was still alive in 1711. In

that year Giles, Jr. sold the home place to a Mr. Cole. The tract was 59 ac. but only 50 ac. was sold. This missing 9 ac. was likely Hannah's dowry portion which she declined to sign off, as it would have included her main house and family cemetery. This would be good evidence that Hannah was alive in 1711 (see Wikitree profile for William Sewell, c1648-1725). Here is one possible bit of evidence that Hannah may have been part Native American. In 1676 she had her son Theodorick then she seems to have stopped having children during the years of war and political upheaval (1676-c1680) as there appears to be longer than normal gaps in the children's ages. At that time Indian women had a form of birth control by drinking bitter tea from certain indigenous plants. This was a method passed down from mother to daughters. Written by D.C. Stewart, descendant of Hannah.

Parents

Moriah Bland
Q: Was Hannah Carter's mother an Native American named Mariah Bland ?
A: No. :Moriah Bland is a fictional character that some believe had her origins in fact. There is a supposition that Hannah is a illegitimate child of James Crewes and an unspecified Indian maiden. This is based on circumstantial evidence and has never been proved. What is known is that the person that came to be called Moriah Bland never existed, A reference to Moriah Bland can be found in the largely unsourced work, "Shawnee Heritage" by Don Greene, who is self-styled as "Chief Don Spirit Wolf" This book has been largely discounted as being a serious work because of Greene lack of credible sources. Don Greene was contacted about his source(s) for Moriah Bland but could not not provide one. We are left with no sources to support her parent-child relationship to Hannah, and none to support her existence. There is, however some evidence to support Indian ancestry for Hannah. [2]

Unknown Sewell

TBD

James Crewes

TBD

Other possible Parents

Because of Hannah's young age it would appear that some evidence of her parentage in Virginia might exist. At least a will naming her as a heir of her deceased parents. A thorough search of existing Henrico and neighboring county records so far has failed to provide any additional candidates as her parents.

Marriage

Children

Other Family

Sources

  1. "England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:JWDP-X2Y : 6 December 2014), James Crues, 07 Dec 1623; citing SAINT PANCRAS SOPER LANE,LONDON,LONDON,ENGLAND, reference ; FHL microfilm 845,242.
  2. Shawnee Heritage Fraud, WikiTree Member Page (Space:Shawnee_Heritage_Fraud)

See Also:

  • Colonial Wills of Henrico County, Virginia: 1654-1737, Part 1 of Colonial Wills of Henrico County, Virginia, Benjamin B. Weisiger, 1976
  • "Henrico County, Virginia Deeds 1677-1705", by Weisiger.
  • "Extracts from the Records of Henrico County, Virginia 1677-1771", by Stanard.
  • "England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975", data base family search.
  • Original Estate File of James Crewes, inventoried by Henry Randolph, microfilm Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va,
  • "Virginia Colonial Abstracts" (Charles City Co. series), by Fleet.
  • "Cavaliers and Pioneers, 1623-1666", by Nugent.
  • "Giles Carter of Virginia: Genealogical Memoir", by Carter, pub. 1909.
  • "Captain Tod Carter--Confederate States Army", by Carter, Franklin, Tn. Battlefield Museum.
  • World Connect Project, by Kenneth Wills, 2007, notes on James Crewes.
  • "Hannah as the 'Unlawful' daughter", net, by Richard Zieman & Bill Husler.
  • Chancery Records - Town Deposition, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Survey Report Number 10005, Virginia State Library (James Crewes deposition, Dec. 1, 1652).
  • The Family of Joseph Alston and Caroline Green Hatcher, net, (Giles Carter baptismal record and research by Shawn Potter on Hannah Crewes Carter and Native American ancestry).
  • Reynolds Friends and Families and All Points Beyond, net, immigrant James Crew. Includes excellent study of causes of Bacon's Rebellion.
  • History Matters, net, Bacon's Declaration (1676).
  • The Lost Colonists and Edward Bland's 1650 Expedition, Native Heritage Project, net.
  • Will of Daniel Lluellyn, died 1664, Chelmesford, Essex, England.
  • BPG Family History, James Crews, 2010 (Use with caution, some errors exist)
  • "Surry County, Va. Court Orders, 1652-1671", by Haun (sections on Edw. Bland).
  • "Early Virginia Families Along The James River", vol. 1, by Foley.
  • "Documenting The Melungeons, Indian Traders Part II" (Net).
  • "Henrico County, Virginia Land Patent Abstracts With Some Plat Maps",

Vol. I, page 76 (rich William Randolph as a headright).

Bibliography





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