Surnames/tags: Jacobus Jacobs Jacob
This is a One Name Study to collect together in one place everything about the surname JACOBUS. The goal of this study is to link as many JACOBUS family lines & variants as possible (ex. JACOB, JACOBS, JACOBES, KAUFMANN). The hope is that other researchers like you will join our study to help make it a valuable reference point for people studying lines that cross or intersect.
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Origins of the Surname Jacobus
The JACOBUS surname is a patronymic of the given name Jacob, from the Latin Jacobus, itself coming from the Hebrew personal name Yakoov, which is traditionally interpreted as deriving from the Hebrew akev meaning "heel" or "following-after".
"Jacobus is a Latin form of Jacob, the third patriarch, was the younger twin son of Isaac and Rebekah. However, it was not originally a Jewish surname. Like most Hebrew and biblical names, it enjoyed a great burst of popularity in the 12th century. This was during the time of the great Crusades to free the Holy Land from the Saracens. All were unsuccessful, but the returning soldiers and pilgrims made it a fashion to call their children by names associated with the early days of the Christian church." 
The earliest examples of surname recordings are usually to be found in England, the first country to adopt both hereditary surnames, and to register them around the mid-13th Century. This is around the time that Jacobs started to gain popularity. In England these were part of poll tax records.
However, Jews often did not take surnames until the late 1700s and early 1800s. German-Jews tended to adapt Biblical names in varying forms. In 1784, 1 out of every 63 Alsatian Jews had the surname Jacob. In 1878, 1 out of every 78 German-Jews were named Jacob and Jacobs. 
Jacobus Surname Variants
The last name Jacobus originates from the biblical first name Jacob, which has several variants around the world:
Italian: Jacobo, Jacopo, Giacobbe / Spanish: Yaaqov / French: Jacques / Romanian: Iancu / German: Jakob / Shuadit (Judeo-Provencal): Jacoub / English: Jack / Hungarian: Jakab / Russian: Yaakov
"Biblical names took on different forms "in various countries when used as Jewish surnames". For example, Jacob is also known as:
Benjacob, Jackson, Jacob, Jacobi, Jacobs, Jacobson, Jacobus, Jacoby, Jacof, Jainof, Kaplan, Kaplin, Kaplowitch, Kaufman, Kaufmann, Kopinski, Koppel, Koppellmann, Koppelvitch, Leppok, Marchant, Merchant, Scobeleff, Yokelson. 
James is the English equivalent for Jacobus (Ιάκωβος), also known as Giacomo in Italian. "James was the first one of the apostles to suffer a martyr's death (Acts xii. 2)."  For example, the book by Friedrich Spitta, "Der Brief des Jacobus" (1896) translates to English as The Letter of James.
"In Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviations and diminutives of Jacob originated entire groups of new names based on its two constituent syllables such as, on the one hand, Yekel, Jekelin, and Jaecklin, and, on the other hand, Copin, Koppelin and Koppelman.
Cob, the second part of Jacob, also appeared in the forms Kopf (literally German for "head") and Kauf (German for "buy"). This developed into Kaufmann (German for "merchant"), which may be a combination of Jacob and the biblical Manasse or Menachem."
The first recorded Jacobus is from The Protevangelium Jacobi's where the "author calls himself Jacobus ... [but] there are difficulties in the way of admitting a single authorship for the text." 
The next record is of Ibrahim Ibn Jakub, a Spanish Jew who traveled through Germany up to the Baltic Sea in the year 965. 
In the year 1124, Bishop Cosmas reports that J. Jacobus, who had converted to Christianity, turned a synagogue into a church, and then, became Jewish again and disowned the church. 
One of the first recorded spelling of the family name Jacobs is shown to be that of Agnes Jacobes which was dated 1244, in the register of the abbey of Ramsey, Huntingdon ("Cartularium Monasterii de Rameseia"), during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman", 1216 - 1272.
According to Hans Lichtenstein's (translation by [Venegas-49], The accusation of hostile defilement and the first appearance of the Jews in the Mark Brandenburg: On April 30, 1294, the Frankfurt council made a settlement between the Christian slaughterers and the Jews, allowing ten named Jews to slaughter cattle on three days of the week. The names listed are: Mosco, Jacobus, Jacobus apud Johannem de Hoghenwalde, Zamson, Glomeke, Dauit, Jacobus apud Hughonem, Josep, Samel, Habram. On October 28, 1295, the Berlin Council forbade the sale of yarn to Jews in a privilege for the clothiers. On April 4, 1297, the margraves [sic] Otto V and Konrad issued a Jewish ordinance for the city of Stendal, "one of the most interesting and humane orders from the Mark Brandenburg of the Middle Ages" which again shows that they encouraged the immigration of Jews.
In the 20th century, Jacobus is recorded as a Jewish family name with Adolf Jacobus of Berlin, Germany, who disappeared in the German death camp at Auschwitz during World War II. 
Notable Jacobus Family Members
Dr. Adolf Jacobus
Dr. Adolf Jacobus was a Jewish who lived in Germany during WWII. He published "Plato and Sensualism" (Plato und der Sensualismus) in 1914. He also wrote "The Theocracy" or "The State of God" (Der Gottesstaat) about Judiasm, Zionism and politics in 1923. 
Jacobus Family Tree Lines
- The Jewish Jacobus Family of Prussia: Hans Jacobus Jacobus-163 was born in Zempelburg, Flatow, Prussia, Germany and was living in Berlin, Germany when he had to flee due to the Holocaust. He arrived in California and migrated to Bogota, Colombia. His father, Adolf Jacobus Jacobus-191 sold all his property to fund his son's voyage across the sea. Adolf and his wife Helene Salomon are said to have been killed in Auschwitz. However, to-date, their records have not been found. Adolf's father was Aron Jacobus.
- 'The Jacobus' family from Western Germany, (Schiffstadt -- spelling?) were Catholics.
- Keep adding as needed
Question and Mysteries
Does anyone know what apud means?
Does anyone have the ancestry of the first Jewish Jacobus in Europe?
How can we connect Jacobus' to the big tree?
- Add more details to the surname history
- Translate Latin texts into more readable English/Spanish/Hebrew/German (see below)
- Find the personal story (personengeschichte) of Adolf Jacobus (Note: There are at least two Adolf Jacobus' born in Zempelburg in different years.)
Transcriptions and Translations Mentioning Jacobus
(Note: [Venegas-49 Kat Venegas] transcribed these manually and used Google translate for interpretation. Are you able to translate Latin? If so, please try to improve the transcriptions and translations below.)
 Exercitatio historico-theologica de peregrinationibus religiosis Judaico - ethnico pontificiis. Quam ... Praeside ... Michaele Frotsch ... Ventilandam exhibet author et responden Johannes Jacobus Seeling. Jenae 1705. 4. Diss. Fi. 1181. 1215
Rough translation: In 1705, Johannes Jacobus Seelig was recorded as part of an entry that says "the historical and theological Jewish religious pilgrimages - ethnic Catholics" in Latin.
 Judaeus Apella
Transcription: Zwei empfindliche Irrtumer in Publikationen der letzten Zeit geben Anlabss, kurz auf das Material zu der Bezeichnung Judaues Apella hinzuweisen. Dubnow IV S 318 nennt den aus Cosmas von Prag, bekannten getauften und spaterzum Judentum zuruckgekehrten Juden Jacob, dort Jacobus Apella genannt, mit einem merkwurdigen Missberstandnis Jacob Apelles. -- In dem neu Lexikon schreibt A Lewinsky , Apelles von Alexandrien sei nicht zu verwechseln with Apella, einem angeblich judischen Maunername. Er ubersetzt an der einschlagigen Horaz-Stelle Apella mit "leicht glaubig" und meint: "vielleicht bedeutet Apella nur beschnitten". Es ist wohl von Interesse, die verwendung des Wortes Apella als Bezeichnung fur Juden kurz nachzuprufen. Der Ausgangpunkt ist bekanntlich Horaz Sat. Credat judaeus apella, non ego. Die vollkommen sinnlose und sprachwidrige Etymologie Apella asl a-pellis erwahnen bereits die Horax-Choliasten Acros und Optatianus Porfyris
So bleibt als erster Fall Judaeos Apellas in der Chron #12 des Thietmar (Bischof von Merseburg 976-1018) Mon germ. SS III 809. Hieran schliessen sich zwei Stellen bei Cosmas Chron de Bohm ... Judeus credat Apella und III eben die erwahnte Stelle Jacobus Apella. Die Stelle macht unzweifelhaft, dass nur Horaz der Ausgang dieser Anwendung ist.
Rough translation: Jewish Maternal Surnames Two sensitive errors in recent publications indicate that the material on the designation Jewish Apella should be briefly referred to. Dubnow IV, p. 318, names the Jacob, baptized from Cosmas of Prague, known and later returned to Judaism, there named Jacobus Apella, with a peculiar misunderstanding of Jacob Apella. In the new lexicon, A Lewinsky writes that Apelles of Alexandria should not be confused with Apella, a supposedly Jewish maid's name. He translates Apella as "slightly believable" at the definitive Horace point and says: "maybe Apella means only circumcised".
It is probably interesting to briefly recall the use of the word Apella as a term for Jews. The starting point is known Horace Sat. Credat judaeus apella, non ego. The completely meaningless and linguistic etymology Apella asl a-pellis already mentions the horax choliasts Acros and Optatianus porfyris
So remains as the first case Judaeos Apellas in the Chron # 12 of the Thietmar (Bishop of Merseburg 976-1018) Mon germ. SS III 809. This is followed by two passages in Cosmas Chron de Bohm ... Judeus credat Apella and III just the mentioned place Jacobus Apella. The passage undoubtedly makes that only Horaz is the outcome of this
 Resource: Welsmann, Christian Eberhard. Separatio fidelium ex X. Tribubus ab ecclesia Judaica quam praeside ... publice ventilandus proponet respondens Philippus Jacobus Beck. Tubingae 1740.
Translation: Welsmann, Christian Eberhard. The separation of the faithful from the President of the Jewish tribes X ... aired publicly display the corresponding Nikanorus Beck. London 1740.
Text and link missing -- See Volunteer Tasks for more details
 Jewish Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedic Handbook of Jewish Knowledge in Four Volumes by Georg Herlitz pg 1415
Rough translation: In the MA Jews were often accused of R. Much to blame for this delusion may have had the fact that high dignitaries pledged gold and silver church utensils to Jews in gold notes or they gave them to melt down. Thus Pope Anaklet II was accused by his opponent in 1130, he had used ecclesiastical treasures for himself and the sacred devices, which Christians did not want to break, for that purpose were sent to him, similarly lamenting. * Bernard of Clairvaux in 1146 in a letter to Louis VI, who bought every one of the stolen sacred vessels, goblets and smoke grenades. The fact that the jews at the most mattered for the material value is undoubtedly; In any case, the purchase of church goods encouraged the accusation and was later strictly forbidden. Gregor of Tours already reports of r'en that a Jew has stolen and scourged a picture of a church from a church; it blood flowed from them and on the traces of blood one recognized the criminal. Depp has to report another crime, according to which a Jew in Paris in 1181 to escape the investigation of pledged church objects, a golden cross and a precious Gospel book in the cloaca Hidden Kimplilationen of the Bohemian chroniclers Hajek and Neplack make Prague Jews commit 1070 and 1071 Kitchendiebstahle; but these reports carry the stamp of clumsy inventions. In the year 1124, Bishop Cosmas reports that J. Jacobus, who had converted to Christianity, turned a synagogue into a church, and then, became Jewish again and disowned the church.
Citations: Lit Cassel, kind of "Jews", in Ersch-Gruber; Depping, Jews in the MA, Stuttgart 1834; Stobbe.M. Remach s. Commandments and Prohibitions of the Torah, BD II, Sp 914; see. Bd. IV Sp 13
 Hans Lichtenstein. Der Vorwurf der Hostienschändung u das erste Auftreten der Juden in der Mark Brandenburg
Transcription: Am 30. April 1294 fällte der Rat zu Frankfurt einen Vergleich zwischen den christlichen Schlächtern und den Juden und erlaubte zehn namentlich genannten Juden, an drei Tagen der Woche Vieh zi schlachten. 20
- 20 Riedel A XXIII 6. Die Namen sind: Mosco, Jacobus, Jacobus apud Johannem de Hoghenwalde, Zamson, Glomeke, Dauit, Jacobus apud Hughonem, Josep, Samel, Habram
Am 28 Oktober 1295 verbot der Rat zu Berlin in einem Privileg fur die Tuchmacher den Verkauf von Garn au Juden. Am 4 April 1297 erliessen die Markgraften Otto V. Und Konrad eine Judenordnung fur die Stadt Stendal, "eine der interessantesten und humansten markischen Judenordnungen des Mittelalters" was abermals zeigt, dass sie die Einwanderung von Juden ermutigten.
Translation: Hans Lichtenstein. The accusation of hostile defilement and the first appearance of the Jews in the Mark Brandenburg. On April 30, 1294, the Frankfurt council made a settlement between the Christian slaughterers and the Jews, allowing ten named Jews to slaughter cattle on three days of the week. *20
- 20 Riedel A XXIII 6. The names are: Mosco, JACOBUS, Jacobus apud Johannem de Hoghenwalde, Zamson, Glomeke, Dauit, Jacobus apud Hughonem, Josep, Samel, Habram
On October 28, 1295, the Berlin Council forbade the sale of yarn to Jews in a privilege for the clothiers. On April 4, 1297, the margraves Otto V and Konrad issued a Jewish ordinance for the city of Stendal, "one of the most interesting and humane marist orders of the Middle Ages" which again shows that they encouraged the immigration of Jews.
-  Name Origin Research "Jacobs" www.surnamedb.com 1980 - 2014
-  [www.surnamedb.com/Surname/Jacobovitz#ixzz39RtmjZcI Name Origin Research "Jacobowitz" 1980 - 2014 ]
-  Hans Lichtenstein. The accusation of hostile defilement and the first appearance of the Jews in the Mark Brandenburg
-  Lit Cassel, kind of "Jews", in Ersch-Gruber; Depping, Jews in the MA, Stuttgart 1834; Stobbe.M.
-  Remach s. Commandments and Prohibitions of the Torah, BD II, Sp 914; see. Bd. IV Sp 13
- JACOBUS Name Study Results Jan 23, 2018.
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Jones apud Smith means that the original source is Jones, but that the author is relying on Smith for that reference.