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Jillaine's Dream Source Help Page

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This is my draft of what I'd like to see replace all the different pages we have about sources, including Sources, Sources Style Guide, Footnotes (yeah! merged with Sources) and the new Source_Citations_Formatting (now merged with Sources Style Guide.

UPDATE: While the four different pages have now been merged into two -- Sources, Sources Style Guide -- I still prefer it all in ONE page. So I'm leaving this "dream" page here. Smith-32867 09:21, 4 February 2016 (EST)


Why Sources are Important

If you're a Wikitree member, you signed the Honor Code, which includes among other things:

"We cite sources. Without sources we can't objectively resolve conflicting information."

It is required that we add sources for the information we include on Wikitree profiles.

Sources are critically important for genealogy. Some even say that genealogy without sources is mythology.[1] Even if you're just a casual family historian recording modern family history, you will be helping future genealogists by listing where the information you've added came from.

A source enables anyone reading a profile to judge the accuracy of the information found there, and also helps them independently verify the information by providing sufficient information that the reader could find the source themselves.

What is a Source?

A source is simply the identification of where you obtained the information you've provided on a profile. Sources might include anything from family legend, personal direct knowledge, an interview with a family member to original vital records-- birth certificates, marriage records, last will and testament records and anything in between.

Much has been written about assessing the quality of sources, and analyzing the evidence contained in them. The best include:

  • Elizabeth Shown Mills, Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co.; 3rd edition (May 22, 2015). See also the author's blog by the same name: Evidence Explained.
  • Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof, National Genealogical Society (2013)

But you don't have to be perfect; the point is to provide sufficient information to help others assess the validity of the information and be able to find the source themselves.

How to add Sources to Profiles

When a profile is created-- either manually or via a GEDCOM upload-- it automatically creates a section at the bottom of the profile narrative that reads (when looked at in Edit mode):

== Sources ==

<references />

See also:


(What follows "See also:" should be a list of related materials not specifically cited in the narrative.)

NOTE: You may notice old profiles where "Sources" or "Footnotes" is surrounded by three === signs. "Sources" should be updated to level-two (==) headlines. "Footnotes" as a heading should be removed all together.

Immediately below the == Sources == header should be placed the following tag: <references />

This code will generate a list of specially formatted source citations that have been placed within the text. See below.

You have a couple of options for adding sources to a profile you're working on:

List them at the bottom of a profile

Underneath the Sources header (and below <references />), list the sources:

  • John Smith's birth information is from his birth certificate, a copy of which is in the collection of Jillaine Smith

Embed them into the narrative

Start to flesh out the narrative. See the Biographies style guide. After each fact for which you have a source, include a citation in the following general format:

<ref>Author, Title, Place:Publisher (year), page #: pertinent quote</ref>

The text between the "ref" tags will appear below the "Sources" header.

For example, if you type:

Samuel Adams emigrated to Boston in 1630.<ref>Robert Charles Anderson, ''The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633,'' Boston, MA: NEHGS (1995); volume I, pp 126-130.</ref>

the following will appear under the Sources heading:

Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Boston, MA: NEHGS (1995); volume I, pp 126-130.

Examples: Source Citations

Here are just a few examples of how to cite various sources:


Book citations should ideally include the Author, Title, Edition, Publisher, Publication Date, and page numbers. For newspaper and magazine articles be sure to include the title of the article as well as the title of the publication. If it's a rare book you might also include where it can be found, such as in the collection of a certain person or library.

For example:

  • Joe Schmoe, "Schmoe Origins in Eastern Europe," in Eastern European Genealogy, Warsaw, Poland: A-1 Publishers, April 1911, page 15. This issue is rare but Chris Whitten has a copy of it and will scan the page on request.

Census Records

1930 U.S. census, Laclede County, Missouri, Hooker Township, Enumeration District 53-6, sheet 1-B, dwelling 13, family 14, John Peppers household; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 28 June 2012), citing National Archives microfilm publication T626, roll 1207.[2]

NOTE: familysearch.org has free access to US census records. It’s preferred to Ancestry.com, which requires paid membership to access the same records.

Web Sites

You can usually find the URL in the address bar at the very top of your web browser. For example, the address for this page is [[Space:Jillaine%27s_Dream_Source_Help_Page|Space:Jillaine%27s_Dream_Source_Help_Page</nowiki>]]

When citing a web page you can create a link by using brackets "[ ]" around both the URL and a descriptive phrase (“birth record” in the example below):

For example:

Some genealogy web pages include source citation information that you can copy then paste into your profile. For example, at the time of this writing, FamilySearch (the location of the source above) has a "Show citation" in the lower left corner that will generate a partial citation for this record:

"Massachusetts, Springfield Vital Records, 1638-1887," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-267-12057-150658-66?cc=1865477 : accessed 14 June 2015), 004375673 > image 389 of 439; Springfield City Hall.

If you're an Ancestry.com subscriber, looking at the image of a source, just type "s" and a source box will appear that you can also copy and paste into the profile. (These typically need editing as they contain too much information.)

Family Bible

If the source is a unique family heirloom or clipping, consider uploading a photo of it or create a free-space profile (more info).

For example, this:

* The birth and death dates are written in the [[Space:Whitten_Family_Bible|Whitten Family Bible]], apparently in the hand of [[Lorman-1|Mary Olive (Lorman) Whitten]].

Creates this link:

Cemetery Headstone

Include the location of the cemetery, who visited it, and when. If you have a photo of a headstone upload it to the individual's profile page. Do not upload a photo you found on, say, find-a-grave.com without express permission from its photographer.

Second-hand Information

Often genealogical information is provided by other family members.

It's a good idea to include who said certain information, and if you remember, when and where they said it. You may also want to include a link to the person's WikiTree profile page.

For example, this:

* [[Whitten-20|Edward Whitten]] related the story about his childhood to [[Whitten-1|Chris Whitten]] on Christmas Day 1979.

creates this:

Advanced Sourcing

Repeated use of the same source on a given profile page (without page #s)

Here's how to use the same source citation multiple times. The first time you use it, include a "name" inside the ref tag, like this:

<ref name="birth certificate">Birth Certificate of George Russell Beebe, Registration 398-5554-428 (1920), Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services - Bureau of Vital Records, Personal copy in the files of [[Beebe-655|Barbara Beebe]]</ref>

In all following references you can just use this: <ref name="birth certificate" />

Done this way, all subsequent footnotes for this same source will point to the same footnote at the bottom of the page.

CAVEAT: this approach doesn’t work well when you want a subsequent use of the source to include a different page number of quote.

Repeated use of the same source on a given profile page (WITH page #s)

NEW of of 1 June 2016:

See this g2g thread for how to use the SPAN tag to do what the above does AND be able to include different page numbers and other details that REF NAME above does not support.

Citation Styles

There are a number of common styles used for citing material and creating bibliographies. The following list includes some of the more common formats:

  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) which has specialized derivatives:
    • American Anthropological Association (AAA)
    • Evidence Explained (EE)
    • Turabian
  • Columbia Style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA)
  • Modern Language Association (MLA)

Within genealogy the EE format is perhaps the most commonly used.

Citation and Source Templates

In WikiTree, citation templates can be used to make it easier to reformat a citation as a source or vice verse, and to translate between different styles without having to rewrite all the information in the desired format.

In order to achieve this we must use a consistent set of parameters so that each format can take the information it requires and display the appropriate elements. Unfortunately because there are so many different types of sources and so many different styles we cannot create one 'universal' template that will handle every case. When changing styles some manual editing may be required to have a citation or source display correctly.

Current Wikitree Templates:

  • For books, periodicals, journals, newspapers, and websites.
  • For census data (uses separate parameters, see template page for details)



  1. Still trying to track down the first mention of this phrase. Might be this: Lorine McGinnis Schulze, "Genealogy without Sources is Mythology," article on Olivetree.
  2. Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 9: Census Instructions? Who Needs Instructions?” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-9-census-instructions-who-needs-instructions : Accessed 4 Feb 2016).

  • Login to edit this profile and add images.
  • Private Messages: Send a private message to the Profile Manager. (Best when privacy is an issue.)
  • Public Comments: Login to post. (Best for messages specifically directed to those editing this profile. Limit 20 per day.)

On 26 May 2018 at 01:19 GMT Anonymous C wrote:

Advanced Sourcing

<ref name="birth certificate">Birth Certificate of George Russell Beebe, Registration 398-5554-428 (1920), Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services - Bureau of Vital Records, Personal copy in the files of Barbara Beebe</ref>

In all following references you can just use this: <ref name="birth certificate" />

the above doesn't show this can be use to it's full potental..

I guess I do Advanced Sourcing.

  • Birth of (Name of person here)<ref name="Birth Certificate">[linkhere]Information or Citing, normally both</ref>

On 27 Apr 2018 at 15:02 GMT Kathy (Prestegaard) Schleicher wrote:

Thanks, this is sooo much better than the "official" directions. I've made myself a sticky note so I can refer to your instructions as I work & not have to jump page to page. I'm new to wiki tree & passionate about sources but ... if something is too dificult it doesn't get done!

On 7 Mar 2018 at 01:56 GMT David Clark wrote:

simply wonderful advice.

Dave Clark

On 26 Jul 2017 at 16:06 GMT Will Gerlach wrote:

Thank you for your source info page! I have many ancestors with legitimate sources but little time to source all the ancestors that I enter into Wiki. I have the sources listed in Ancestry.com and need the most efficient way to transfer sources to the ancestors in WikiTree.

On 17 Jul 2017 at 21:20 GMT Alice Knopp wrote:

This will be really helpful. Just one question. When I have a family lineage in all my family paperwork and some of it is prior to 1700, do I not enter it if I don't have an official source? I'm trying to preserve the lineage but can't provide a solid source. Thanks!

On 31 Mar 2017 at 02:10 GMT Darcie (Rae) Light wrote:

Thank you - I was looking for something like this and a FB resource directed me here. I would love to see something similarly simple for Biographies - a basic format guide with syntax for headings, italics, bold, internal and external links.

On 27 Mar 2017 at 13:36 GMT Debby (Barton) Black wrote:

This page is really excellent, Jillaine!

On 19 Mar 2017 at 17:48 GMT Joy (Newcomb) Uhrin wrote:

Thanks I needed this help. Still learning on here.

On 8 Jan 2017 at 21:04 GMT Elizabeth Whittle wrote:

"Some even say that genealogy without sources is mythology" - what a great quote. I hope, someday and with time and help, to move my mythological geneology to a well-sourced and documented work. Thanks for the inspiration and wonderful page.

On 16 Nov 2016 at 13:04 GMT Bob Keniston Jr. wrote:

Great page, Jillaine. It's pointed me to some new information for dealing with sources.


more comments

Categories: Sources