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John Crawford of Ayrshire, Scotland and Virginia, United States

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Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: Virginia, United Statesmap
Surname/tag: Crawford
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This page studies the lineage and mysteries surrounding John Crawford (abt.1600-1676) and his relationship to the Crawford name in Scotland and the cadet branches of the ancient clan.



John Crawford is reported as the father of David Crawford in an article from 1903 [1], and is variously reported in other derivative sources that may have used the article as their reference [2]. We will discuss the merits of each of the following family legends below, but John and son David reportedly:

  1. emigrated from Scotland to Virginia in 1643, generally acknowledged as a widower [3][4][5][6], for reasons unknown but speculated upon as being the younger son with no inheritance, and possibly seeking his fortune after losing his wife and ties to home. [7] Others have speculated that he was escaping an unwanted marriage to Mary Cunningham [8].
  2. obtained a grant to develop land in what would become Richmond, Virginia
  3. became prominent members of local society, and
  4. John was killed in Bacon's Rebellion.

We do know and have documentation of the life and descendants of David Crawford, but there is not yet a satisfactory source documenting a link to John Crawford or his ancestors in Scotland.

DNA Research

that show

  1. This John Crawford is sometimes confused with John (Crawford) Craufurd (abt.1600-abt.1629) (whose descendants fall into haplogroups R-CTS4179 (aka R1a1a1b1a3a1) or R-DF13) who is claimed by several testers who only have documentation up to grandsons of David (b.1625). These testers furthermore show an I2 haplogroup (I2-BY3099) differing from all known Crawford cadet branches at this time.
    1. this lineage is distinct from the known clan lines, but this should not be a surprise, per Crawford publication "The House of Crawford, Volume II: New Perspectives on Crawford Heritage"[9] Article 5 Part I, adoption of orphans and widows was commonplace, as was changing names due to allegiance or possibly location of residence
    2. outreach to Clan Crawford DNA participants from this line and
      1. check for paper histories, see how they compare?
    3. phylogeny of haplogroup I2
      1. [1]
      2. Henry Crawford states that he is a descendant and falls into I2-CTS6433, a sub-group of I2-L801,[10] and direct phylogenetic parent of I2-BY3099[11]
  2. There are two branches under I2-BY3099 currently tracked in FTDNA, showing
    1. 3 connections under I2-Y32632 via DNA to be found in the Crawford Y-DNA project within the surname of Crockett, indicating there may be a common ancestor, and this may be a fruitful direction for research on John of Virginia's true ancestry.
      1. At least one tester in the Crockett study is surnamed Crawford, and a descendant of David II per the published genealogy Laurus Crawfurdiana, published in 1883[12].
    2. 2 other connections are found under I2-FT404463 within the Crawford Y-DNA project, with the surname of Crawford, in Ireland and Scotland

Disproven Claims

John is the son of Malcolm, Clan Crawford Chief

  • see explanation of why this is false on his profile, basically Malcolm was never the Clan Crawford Chief, so this may just be confusion about Malcolm's role.

John was genetically descended from the paternal Kilbirnie branch of Clan Crawford (Y-DNA)

  1. see John Crawford of Kilbirnie at John (Crawford) Craufurd (abt.1600-abt.1629)
  2. See the DNA research section for further explanation, but summarized:
    1. Descendants of John (b.1600) and David (b. 1625) have Y-DNA haplogroups falling under I2-BY3099, subdivided into two further groups
    2. Descendants of the Kilbirnie cadet branch fall into different haplogroups (R-cts4179 aka R1a1a1b1a3a1), so cannot be genetically related along the Y-DNA lines
    3. None of the known Crawford cadet lines show this I2 haplogroup
    4. Descendants of John and David may still be related through Jane Ann Crawford (abt.1633-abt.1710) (David's wife) and possibly other ancestors, but not directly through John's paternal line. Y-DNA was not passed from Jane Ann Crawford to her descendants.

John is the John Crawford who married Winifred and lived in Massachusetts

Claim: John's ancestry is tied to cadet branches of the ancient clan

  1. Merits:
    1. published genealogies claim this to be true
  2. Arguments against:
    1. those were published over 200 years after the fact
    2. DNA Research section shows this not to be true

Current conclusion: False

Along the Y-DNA (surname) line, this is false. See DNA Research section. Descendants of John may still be related through :

  1. Jane Ann Crawford or other relatives, note: Jane's lineage is also under investigation, as she may be conflated with a Jane Douglas
  2. Adoption at some point at or before John (although this does not seem to be documented in the Kilbirnie line at least) but not from direct genetic heritage along the paternal line.
  3. Research needed:
    1. need to find documentation of where John actually came from that is supported by alternative events (adoption/allegiance/etc.) or, find DNA evidence supporting a currently unknown branch that matches I2-BY3099 haplogroup

Claim: John of Kilbirnie/Ayrshire was actually the genetic father of David

  1. Merits:
    1. timeframes do not really overlap, both could be possible (but keep reading)
  2. Arguments against:
    1. DNA research
    2. John of Kilbirnie has documented marriage and children distinct from David
    3. contemporary source (Laurus Crawfordiana by George Crawfurd) on John of Kilbernie says he passed away and was succeeded by his son John[13], with no mention of a son heading off to the New World (author was an accomplished historian and genealogist and would have been meeting with family members only one or two generations removed from John, so this probably would have been mentioned)

Current conclusion: False

This is extremely unlikely, unless John was adopted or adopted David as his son, as shown via DNA research.

  1. Research needed:
    1. As it pertains to Kilbirnie descent, none, search of all births in Ayrshire during that timeframe and any adoption covered under other topics, and DNA renders this line of thought moot.

Unproven Claims, Merits, Arguments and Conclusions

  • Note: Please use this worksheet to track the places you have searched for information for this profile, and the progress that you have made (if any). This will help all of us to avoid re-work. However if searches have not been made for a year or so in online resources, it may be beneficial to re-visit as additional information is being digitized all the time. Thank you for your help!

Claim: John Crawford b. 1600 exists

  1. Merits: claimed by many, purportedly by family members, bible and oral records
  2. Arguments against: No definitive documentation exists yet

Current conclusion: Unproven but possible

  • While absence of evidence is not evidence of absence, the assumption must be made that John Crawford was not named John Crawford, or that David's father was someone else. See DNA Research section for data showing that those claiming descent from David Crawford fall into haplogroups distinct from the known Crawford cadet lines[14].
  1. Research needed:
    1. Birth records circa 1600 in Lanarkshire or Ayrshire or anywhere in Scotland for John Crawfords (and other known spellings)
      1. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTK8-LZG : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for Johne Crawfurd, 1677. Timing is after supposed immigration, and David here is the father of Johne
      2. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XBGV-NQG : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for Marione Crawfurd, 1673. David father of Marione (daughter) in Ochiltree, after the supposed immigration
      3. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XBGV-NQ5 : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for Marione Crawfurd, 1682.
      4. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTKZ-Y2Q : 11 February 2020), David Crawfuird in entry for Hew Crawfuird, 1679.
      5. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTK8-M8W : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for George Crawfurd, 1670.
      6. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XBGV-N2Z : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for Mary Crawfurd, 1682.
      7. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTKZ-YYD : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for James Crawfurd, 1676.
      8. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XBGJ-LJ2 : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for Agnes Crawfurd, 1646.
      9. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XY27-XYF : 11 February 2020), David Crawfurd in entry for David Crawfurd, 1690.
      10. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTVD-MBN : 11 February 2020), Craufurd in entry for Quintine Craufurd, 1653.
      11. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XY29-TP2 : 11 February 2020), Craufurd in entry for Jeane Craufurd, 1654.
      12. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XY3B-2M2 : 11 February 2020), Craufurd in entry for Robert Craufurd, 1650.
      13. "Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XBGJ-JNT : 11 February 2020), Crawfurd in entry for Margrat Crawfurd, 1650.
    2. Virginia colony records citing John Crawford
      1. Jamestown, Virginia Colony, Genealogy Resources - review all sources listed here
    3. Virginia colony records citing David Crawford that might mention his father

Claim: John emigrated from Ayrshire, Scotland to Virginia in 1643

  1. Merits:
    1. lineage stated in article published 1903 (260 years after supposed immigration) [1]
    2. claimed in family history Laurus Crawfurdiana[12], published in 1883 (240 years after supposed immigration)
  2. Arguments against:
    1. these were published 240 and 260 years after immigration, and cannot be currently supported with other sources.
    2. if the claimed reason for lack of records is the destruction of the revolutionary and/or civil wars in the United States, the sources used in both would also be compromised.
    3. Laurus Crawfordiana [13] does not mention a son John Crawford in the Kilbirnie line that went to Virginia at this time, and the likelihood that two sons would have the same names is low.

Current conclusion: Unproven but possible

If John came over, he would have come with his son most likely. It appears that David may have a ship list sourced (mentioned but not linked), but John's profile does not list this. At the moment, then, there is no evidence that John emigrated at this time other than the publications over 200 years after the fact.

  1. Research needed:
    1. all birth records from supposed area of Ayrshire need researched for any mention of
      1. John Crawfords in the range of 1580-1620 (or any John's regardless of surname)
      2. David Crawford b. 1620 - 1630 and parents
    2. Does David Crawford have
      1. documentation that supports John as father?
      2. documentation that supports his own arrival?
      3. Documents grant of land? were they to John or David or both? (Seems to have been of some importance to receive such a grant.)
      4. Ship passenger lists from 1643 (or times surrounding) arriving in Virginia?
        1. verify passenger list that includes David, does it include any other Crawford?

Claim: John was killed in Bacon's Rebellion

  1. Merits:
    1. stated in article published 1903 (260 years after supposed immigration)
  2. Arguments against:
    1. well after the fact
    2. not listed in the known lists of Bacon's Rebellion
    3. timing may not be correct for John's death date to be within the rebellion
    4. family history during that time was often romanticized unduly

Current conclusion: Unproven and unlikely

There is no provable support for this assertion, and it should be treated as a family legend

  1. Research needed:
    1. actual documentation of death and or burial?
    2. source what documents do exist in relation to Bacon's Rebellion so we can see where he is not named

Claim: John adopted David II

  1. Merits: Explains the DNA findings
  2. Arguments against:
    1. untestable via DNA, since we do not have John's DNA
    2. no record found indicating adoption

Current conclusion: Unproven, Conjecture

While interesting to contemplate, this remains unknowable at this time

  1. Research needed:
    1. any documentation indicating adoption or mention of adoption in Scotland
    2. proof would need to be found that John actually came from the Kilbirnie line if that connection were to remain valid

Claim: John was adopted into the Kilbirnie branch of Crawfords prior to emigration

  1. Merits: Explains the DNA findings
  2. Arguments against:
    1. untestable via DNA, John and David's DNA would then not match the Kilbirnie descendants
    2. no record found indicating adoption

Current conclusion: Unproven, Conjecture

While interesting to contemplate, this remains unknowable at this time

  1. Research needed:
    1. any documentation indicating adoption or mention of adoption in Scotland
    2. paper proof would need to be found that John actually came from the Kilbirnie line if that connection were to remain valid

John or David came from a different family of Crawfords in Scotland (or elsewhere)

Descended from known cadet lines of Clan Crawford, connection heretofore unknown

  1. Merits:
    1. There is one mention of a grandson of one of the Crawford families that is currently "living in a good condition in Virginia" within Laurus Crawfordiana: "I apprehend that William Crawfurd who toke out a coat of armes from the register of the Lyon office in the 1670 and who has a son ____ Crawfurd living in a good condition in Virginia as from a letter to me by Andrew Spreul Mercht in 1738 who was nephew to Sir George Crawfurd of Lefnorris. I say he is of Mr Mathew Crawfurd of Tarringen brother to Sir George and his wife Anne Kennedy daughter to Thomas Kennedy of Barginy had this William that went abroad whose son lives in Virginia and Thomas Crawfurd who was a Mercht in Edinbrugh and Dean of Gild who left his estate to Patrick Crawfurd son to Drumsoy who married his nice by his sister who was of the name of Gordon and lived at Turnberry in Carrick as am surely informed" ~ George Crawfurd[13] f.70v, p142
      1. should "William Crawfurd who toke out a coat of armes from the register of the Lyon office in the 1670 " be Henry Crawford from Easter Seaton? [15]
        1. Crawford FTDNA seems to indicate Easter Seaton descendants are not I2
    2. Sir George Crawfurd of Lefnorris in relation to Mathew is mentioned as part of the Dalmagregan branch as follows: "[...] and had issue Sir George his successor. Mathew who acquired the lands of Drongan from his brother Sir George in the 1619. He married Anne daughter of Thomas Kennedy of Bargany and had a son Mr Thomas Crawfurd who was Dean of Gild of the City of Edinbrugh. He had a sister who was married to Mr Gordon in Turnbery, had a daughter marr'd to Patrick Crawfurd Messn'r who purchased Achnames his first wife" [13]f.14v, p45
    3. Patrick Crawfurd that purchased Auchenames from his neice as follows "Archibald Crawfurd of Achinames had also three daughters

Anne married to Bruce of Powfoulis and had issue

Jean to Patrick Crawfurd Merchant in Edinbrugh son to Drumsoy andhad issue

Margrat to James Young of Kilicanty Esq." [13]f.31r, p76

"To Archibald Crawfurd of Auchinames succeeded his grandchild Helen Crawfurd but the estate being under great burthen,she with consent of her husband Patrick Edmonston of Newton dispond and alienated the estate to her unkle in law Patrick Crawfurd Mrcht in Edinbrugh who is now Laird of Achinames and will give that estate to his eldest son of his second wife Jean daughter of Archibald Crawfurd of Achinames wherby the family will be preserved in the name tho not in the line of the Crawfurds of this race" [13]f.31v, p76

"The heir male of the House of Achinames is Mr Patrick Crawfurd a Counsellor at Law in London who is the only son of James Crawfurd second son of Patrick Crawfurd of Achinames by Jean Crawfurd his wife. " [13]f.32r, p76-77

    1. By the above quotes, we can see that
      1. Mathew (brother of Sir George) married Anne.
        1. They had William who went abroad, and
          1. William had a son, unknown name, living in good condition in Virginia
        2. Mathew and Anne had Thomas (Dean of Gild of the City of Edinbrugh), who had
            1. <unknown first wife> (daughter of Thomas) who married Patrick (Craufurd) Craufurd of Auchinames and Drumsoy (abt.1690-1733), merchant in Edinburgh 'This unknown wife would be the relative (first cousin possibly) of John/David of Virginia, linked via marriage (and purchase) back to Auchenames/Kilbirnie, and Patrick Crawford (Laird of Auchenames) would not be from the same Y-DNA line as Sir George & Mathew of Drongan>William>unnamed son
        3. Mathew and Anne also had a daughter married to "Mr. Gordon in Turnbery", or possibly this is a statement referring to Patrick's neice (and 2nd wife), unclear
    2. Separately from this family, Archibald of Auchenames had a son
      1. William (Archibald's heir) who died untimely, leaving no male heir, and the estate went to William's daughter
        1. Helen, who had to sell to Patrick her uncle (a.k.a. Drumsoy, who married his neice through his sister, said neice was his second wife Jean), to recoup the debt, and left Auchinames at least with a Crawford
      2. Jean, (daughter of Archibald of Auchenames, sister to William) married Patrick, tying the two families together 'again, Patrick married in, from a separate Crawfurd family than either Archibald or Mathew'
        1. they had two sons,
          1. <unknown> and
          2. James Crawfurd, who is listed as the "second son of Patrick Crawford of Achinames by Jean Crawfurd his wife". James is also mentioned as the "eldest son of his second wife Jean".
            1. James had a son Patrick (counsellor at law in London), is mentioned as the "only son of James Crawfurd" and "The heir male of the House of Achinames"
    3. If this were to be true that David I or David II is the grandson of Mathew mentioned but unnamed, living in Virginia, it would explain the DNA findings because David would not have the same Y-DNA as Patrick (the Laird of Auchinames), as Patrick married David's female cousin (unnamed female)
    4. Fact: the first name of the person in Virginia is not known in the manuscript
    5. Fact: We know that David Crawford II remained alive and well until 1762 due to his will (see David Crawford II (1662-abt.1762))
    6. Fact: the manuscript was written around 1730 (author mentions Patrick Crawfurd of Auchenames who inherited the title from his niece as alive (Laurus Crawfordiana[13]f.31v), and Patrick died 1733 )
  1. Arguments against:
    1. William is the name who went abroad, not John.
    2. The grandson's name is not listed or not legible in the manuscript
    3. 1730 is too late for David I to have been "living in a good condition", that would have to have been David II or someone else.
Current Conclusion: Unproven, Conjecture

If David Crawford II was not in fact descended from John, but came from this family, David Crawford II could be the grandson mentioned in the aforementioned letter

  1. Research needed:
    1. Trace genealogy of the family where the mention occurs, from Sir George/Mathew on down via cousins
    2. Identify any possibility of family members matching to John/David/David II as direct matches
    3. DNA testing of descendants of this family to confirm placement of ancestry in this family
      1. see


        1. find YDNA descendants of any of these who have tests
      1. do any exist in the Crawford Y-DNA study at FTDNA?

Crawfords related to John Witherspoon, signer of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America

  1. Merits:
    1. Fact: (if lineages are correct) John Witherspoon is a Sixth Cousin once removed to David Crawford II (b.1676) through his mother. Crawfords who were in John Witherspoon's vicinity at the time of the Declaration could well have been cousins, not just friends/adherents.
  2. Arguments against:
    1. None known, but still does not explain familial origins
Current Conclusion: Assumed to be correct, lineage of the related branch needs verified, does not explain family origins

Claim: John and David came from a different family, and the name "Crawford" used was related to place of origin and/or fealty

  1. Merits:
    1. Would explain the lack of paper documentation among the Crawfords of Ayrshire
    2. Would explain the DNA Research
  2. Arguments against:
    1. Published genealogies[12] claim otherwise, but DNA Research invalidates their supposed genetic ancestry. This is a tenuous argument against this possibility
    2. If adoption is proven, then this would be proven false
    3. No DNA connections have been found elsewhere to support this theory

Current Conclusion: Unproven, Conjecture

This is a possibility, but until more sources are found for this, remains a theory

  1. Research needed:
    1. Additional DNA testing by other individuals outside of the Crawford family would have to occur, be uploaded to matching sites, and confirmed. This is a long-term waiting game.
      1. Encourage all descendants of John and David Crawford to upload their kits to matching sites and actively search for distant connections
      2. Attempt to theorize what such a connection would look like, and how it could be supported at such a genetic distance
    2. Review ALL births in Ayrshire to determine if there is any unclaimed child by the name of John born ~1600 who had a son David born ~1625, and who (one or both) subsequently emigrated to Virginia at any time.
    3. Review ALL births in Ayrshire to determine if the above situation matches, but first names are different
    4. IF (big if) such a birth record were to be found, identify descendants and encourage them to be tested for DNA matches


  1. 1.0 1.1 Edward Aiken Crawford, "The Crawfords 1643-1903," The Gulf States Historical Magazine (July 1903), digital images, https://books.google.com/books?id=ziYUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA45#v=onepage&q&f=false
  2. wikipedia entry for David https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crawford_(colonel)
  3. https://www.geni.com/people/John-Crawford-of-Jamestown/6000000004680563820
  4. http://objgenealogy.com/indiI3121.html
  5. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/114842597/john-crawford
  6. https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/192762?availability=Family%20History%20Library
  7. https://captainjamesdavisgenealogy.wordpress.com/2013/02/02/crawford-family-history-part-1/
  8. http://freepages.rootsweb.com/~janet/genealogy/Crawford.html
  9. Crawford, Joanne, Ph.D., Kevan Crawford Ph.D., Raymond Crawfurd, Georgina Craufurd, Bruce Crawford, MS, Eleanor Moore. The House of Crawford, Volume II: New Perspectives on Crawford Heritage. South Carolina, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. ISBN-10: 1467914037. ISBN-13: 978-1467914031
  10. https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_I2_Y-DNA.shtml
  11. https://www.genetichomeland.com/welcome/dnapedigree.asp?RecordID=1217448
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Vanderbilt, Frank Armstrong Crawford, Mrs., 1839-1885, and Robert Leighton Crawford. Laurus Crawfurdiana: Memorials of That Branch of the Crawford Family Which Comprises the Descendants of John Crawford, of Virginia, 1660-1883 ; With Notices of the Allied Families. New York: [E. O. Jenkins, printer], 1883. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005730513/Home
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Crawfurd, George. Laurus Crawfordiana. (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st edition (August 28, 2013)). Clan Crawford Association URL https://www.amazon.com/Laurus-Manuscript-Crawfurds-%20Crawford/dp/148235652X
  14. https://www.familytreedna.com/public/crawford?iframe=ycolorized
  15. https://coadb.com/surnames/crawford-arms.html

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#361451 my fathers YDNA @FTDNA.com

Big 700 test

Emil Crawford placed his name in the Crockett group of YDNA testers to see if we can get a hit with our DNA.

We know who we are kn to, now to figure the mystery as you Billy have written so many negatives against.

Luke Brady and I descend from Robert Leighton Crawford as our common YDNA link.

His sister was Frank Armstrong Crawford.

posted by Karen Crawford
Hello again Karen,

As I mentioned before, there is no mystery, no malign intent, simply the pursuit of knowledge and the intrigue of solving this puzzle. Even in Laurus Crawfurdiana, Frank provides no concrete evidence of the origins, life or death of John Crawford (b. c1600), simply that "tradition" provides a story. DNA testing was not available to her or her fellow researchers at the time, but we now know that the line of Crawfords from this immigrant have a distinct haplogroup that is (as of today) unknown in the existing clan branches. The possibilities of how they could still be descended from clan members can be found here on this page.

It is inaccurate to characterize the findings here as "negatives", it is simply a space where possibilities are being explored and evidence gathered where possible.

If you happen to have any documentation that you have found to further that effort, I once again invite you to add it to the benefit of all. Thank you for the information regarding your father's test. I have also corresponded with Emil before, as you can see from my comment to Luke below, and have had many discussions with the Crawford YDNA project as well.

Thank you, and I hope you are well.

posted by Jonathan Crawford
[Comment Deleted]
posted by Karen Crawford
deleted by Admin WikiTree
flagged by Pip Sheppard
Hello Karen. I am not trying to do anything but seek out the truth. I originally found research that said my family was tied to this line, but that has proven untrue. My family tree is freely available here on wikitree.

I am not suggesting that any Crawfords from this line are not Crawfords in any way, but as you can see from the evidence here, there is no proven connection to ancient clan lines or to Scotland through any documented ancestors. That doesn't mean some will not eventually be found, but there are many of us who are looking to follow documented evidence and solve this (now almost four hundred year old) mystery.

I hope you are well, and I invite you to add all evidence that you have here to help us all.

posted by Jonathan Crawford
I have recently tested my Y-DNA with FTDNA and was surprised to see my results align with the Crawford surname. I've begun to do my research and updated various profiles in connection with this Crawford line. Based on my Y-DNA closest match with Harden Lake Crawford III (Grandson of Harden Lake Crawford) I believe I have identified which Crawford I descended from: Thomas Ellis Crawford. I would love to learn how to compare my Y-DNA with others to verify my descendance from this John Crawford and to more closely examine the Crawford line to confirm what I have entered for my family tree thus far.

My DNA information is listed on my public profile: https://www.wikitree.com/index.php?title=Brady-6268&public=1

posted by Luke Brady
Great information, Luke! Have you joined the Crawford study on FTDNA (https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/crawford/about) ? There are several testers there in the I2 group (see https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Category:Crawford_Y-STR_Group_I2 for a summary here about this branch) and that should help going forward as new testers appear. Some of the folks you see with tests as descendants of David II on wikitree actually also have Y-DNA tests in that study, they just aren't listed here on wikitree.

Also, I have heard from Emil Crawford of Georgia that there is a connection somehow to the Crockett study on FTDNA too, although the exact paper trail hasn't been worked out yet, so if that surname popped up in your matches you might approach them for information.

Feel free to join us in the Crawford Name Study (https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Space:Crawford_Name_Study), we have many things going on. I am working on categorizing the branches of the family based on the FTDNA Crawford study groupings; we are working on locating all records for Crawfords in U.S. Federal Census records since inception and linking them to profiles where possible; documenting the branches of the ancient clan and heraldic descent as clearly as possible, etc.

Lastly, make sure you have looked at https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Space:Laurus_Crawfurdiana, I intend (someday) to make sure all the people mentioned there are here on WikiTree, but have not started that project yet. This work by Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt (yes, the wife of the railroad magnate) is an excellent resource for descendants in the New World from David Crawford I (b. 1625) forward in time as it relates to the family in the Virginia colony and later the United States of America.

And a fun side-note that you might not catch, as a descendant of this branch, you're also related to Meriwether Lewis (of Lewis & Clark fame) as a 3rd cousin, 7 times removed (https://www.wikitree.com/index.php?title=Special:Relationship&action=calculate&person1Name=Lewis-5102&person2Name=Brady-6268)

As you have questions, please feel free to reach out, welcome to the party, and good luck in your research!

posted by Jonathan Crawford
edited by Jonathan Crawford
Thank you! I will take a look at the links. That's so cool about the connection with Meriwether Lewis!
posted by Luke Brady
I received an email to a question about Crawfords in the Glasgow area. In our tree this is the earliest Crawford we have. Sir Knight Robert Crawford , 6th Earl of Auchinames

1470–1513 BIRTH 1470 • Castle Auchinames, Ayr, Ayrshire, Scotland DEATH 15 SEPTEMBER 1513 • Flodden Field, Branxton, Northumberland, England 15th great-grandfather

posted by John McCulligh
Thanks John, here's the profile for Robert: Robert Crawford (abt.1475-1513). Which of his descendants is the last Crawford that your ancestors branch off of?
posted by Jonathan Crawford
As a Crawford still resident in Scotland I have picked up snippets of information about Crawfords over the years. I suggest you turn your attention to Witherspoon the signatory of the declaration of independence. He I am told had a coterie of exiled Scots, two of whom carried the surname Crawford.
posted by Billy Crawford
Thank you Billy, are you referring to https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Witherspoon-160? If so, this John and his supposed son David are thought to have emigrated in 1643, almost 80 years before his birth. If there is another, please let me know.


posted by Jonathan Crawford
Billy, you might be onto something. As Witherspoon came up in my thoughts again due to next week's focus on Signers of the Declaration of Independence, I noticed that he was "related" to me. (my lineage is incorrectly linked through David II b. 1676 at the moment, gathering evidence before disconnecting). As such, I see that David Crawford (grandson of this John Crawford) is a 6th cousin once removed to John Witherspoon, through his mother. (https://www.wikitree.com/index.php?title=Special:Relationship&action=calculate&person1_name=Crawford-334&person2_name=Witherspoon-160)

Therefore, those Crawfords in his retinue may have been cousins, not merely adherents.

posted by Jonathan Crawford