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Landstuhl (Rheinland-Pfalz)

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Landstuhl in Landkreis Kaiserslautern (district), Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland

Coordinates: 49°24′44″N 07°34′20″E

History

2500 years Landstuhl
crucial for the existence of more than 2,500 years proven settlement Landstuhl is its location at the crossroads of two ancient thoroughfares. From west to east the road from Lorraine (Metz) leads to the population center in the Middle Rhine (Worms, Mainz), while from north to south a distance, by the country on the Mosel (Trier) with the Upper Rhine (Strasbourg) connects. The geographical location of the place is determined by the lowland bog in the north, which was drained in the 19th century, and the steep drop in the Southwest Palatinate plateau. Highly visible landmark is the Nanstein, a Sandsteinfelsenriff who has repeatedly offered as a natural bulwark.

The Celtic Landstuhl
earliest traces permanent colonization on the district farm chair are the wreath Stone graves from the Latènezeit (500 B.C. to Chr.Geb.). The expansion of the cemetery suggests a long-lasting settlement on the height above the present city. The Iron Age settlement is located near a Celtic remote way, mark the course today as menhirs hardly datable "Langenstein" (above the Bildschacherhof). Also from the time of the Celts of "heath rock," a source sanctuary between Landstuhl and Kindsbach, which is visited until the Roman period of the Gallo-Roman population comes Province.

Landstuhl in Roman times
since around the year 16 BC. stabilize the Roman legions Rhine border, behind which affects first in the fertile Rhine Valley Roman influence. Landstuhl is during this integration process in the stage of the Roman army of the Rhine, which makes use of the existing long-distance routes as supply routes.
When Emperor Claudius (50 AD.) Strengthening the road network on this side of the Rhine, Landstuhl located at the junction of the aforementioned roads that connect and Roman centers. Within the present urban area is formed on both sides, or on the road today Kaiser on the edge of a road Moores settlement, which becomes a village management center (vicus). Proven and researched was a burial ground in the area of Roman settlement until the late 4th century to prove the use of 1 coin finds. From the Roman cemetery three impressive stone blocks with heavy indecipherable inscription and hardly interpretable reliefs that may have occurred around the beginning of the 2nd century and are residues of one or two tombs are still with us. In addition, the residue of a fire tomb has been preserved; whether he is one of the three stones, we do not know. Already with the Alemanni invasions in the late imperial period (260 AD.) Begins in the Palatinate of Entsiedlungsprozess, which speaks of the importance of Vicus Landstuhl that he is abandoned until the end of the 4th century as one of the last Roman retreat positions. After a series of Germanic tribes have used on their way to rich heart of Gaul the route via Landstuhl, seems to be destroyed at the beginning of the 5th century any permanent settlement in our room.

The Frankish royal court
after the decisive battle between the Franks and Alemanni (496/97 or 505) is one of the depopulated area of the rear Pfalz the influence of the powerful tribal alliance of the Franks, but occupy only the agronomically easily usable areas because of their small numbers. Since the Palatine hill country is abandoned at the time of taking possession, it falls to old Germanic law to the guide (Duke, King), which is why this area for many centuries for immediate Reichsland.
When the Franks begin in the late 6th century to expand their empire organizationally, they resort to the surviving road network of the Romans. Significant is the axis Metz - Worms, which is why a separate Straßengau is formed to protect the road, the center of Worms. Be erected - (25 km 20) in Landstuhl a service station, one of many, each at the distance of a day's ride now arises. During the great conquest of the francs of 700 - 1000, these centers are the germ cells during neuro extension phase. Sometime before 800, the settlement received its name Nannenstuol, seat of Nanno (Nanndo, Nanntharius), arises from the 16th century through sound shift the name Landstuhl. First documentary mention finds the place in the Lorsch Codex or Empire Urbar (1175/1190), where a count Rupertus called Worms in the monastery register in connection with a legal title in Landstuhl, who, as we know from another source (traditiones Fuldensis) ruled by the 796th But the royal court must have existed for a long time because its ownership is already listed in detail. Next to the central Homestead the settlement includes twelve slave jacks (yards), the royal at the foot of Church Hill. As in the second half of the 8th century, the bishops of Worms begin to arrange their diocese to mentally for Christianity to win the Franks, certainly arises in the settlement of a wooden chapel in whose "Kirchhof" the dead of the community their last shall find peace. Since you almost never gives up the location of the church with its cemetery, we can assume that there are from 8 to 19th century cemetery and church in the square of the "Old Chapel" with the utmost security.

The city under the castle
The event of decisive importance for the city is the construction of the castle on the sandstone cliffs, the 1150 can build Frederick Barbarossa as one of many new defenses to protect the remains of the badly shrunken Empire State in the Palatinate. Now the place is pressing closely in the protection of the castle hill, and the former village of Landstuhl is likely to leave. Only the church remains in the area of the old settlement outside the city walls, which binds together in the 14th century city (since 1323) and castle. The present church road is the main road which is ruled by the frequently changing lords of the castle of the small medieval town. 1518 is the family Sickingen in the person of Francis of Sickingen for sole mistress of the castle and country. When Franz subject of Sickingen in the so-called "Imperial Knight war", the disaster is for the city, because they were losing their position as the administrative center of the country sickingischen their economic base.

The city of Sickinger
Only after the return of ownership to the sons Franz von Sickingen starts from the mid-16th century a new golden age under the wise government of Konrad von Sickingen and his son Reinhard, both of which were unfortunately forgotten in the shadow of their warlike ancestor Franz , On the ruins of the castle a powerful Renaissance castle, whose opinion handed down a stitch from the workshop Merian created. The city exceeds the medieval walls; to the now "new main street" arise Pubs and inns, is yet Landstuhl again at an important after the discovery of America east-west axis of the traffic. A new city wall protects the extended part of the city. The most striking point of the system, the great watchtower, today is still tower of St. Andrew's Church. In the 19th century, but the top of the tower had to be demolished due to disrepair.
1618 breaks again the horrors of war on the barely blossomed community. The 30-year war with its succession wars will last for our region 100 years. When the Peace of the early 18th century finally enters, looking only 4 or 5 families shelter in the ruined buildings of the city, while the surrounding villages are almost deserted.
Laborious reconstruction begins in the 18th century; yet it is amazing how impressive structures created in a relatively short time: Because the mountain castle was destroyed, the two sickingischen lines build Sickingen and the High Castle, which are now the owner of the small town, two castles, the "Palais Sickingen" (Weiherstraße 16-26 ) and the castle in today's "Old market" (demolish 1828). At the church street "Rentei", an administration building, and the "tithe barn", a warehouse arise. After much planning and tedious fund-raising a parish church is dedicated within the city in 1753 finally. In the second half of the 18th century, the city fortifications almost completely demolished; on both sides of the main road caused impressive town houses that have been preserved until today.


Landstuhl until the 2nd World War

the revival of the city is again hampered 1792, when meeting the consequence wars of the French Revolution Landstuhl. Since 1796 the place is constantly occupied by French troops, and from 1798 belongs to the cantonal capital Landstuhl with eight mayors and 37 villages in the department of Thunder Mountain (Mont Tonnerre) to the French Republic and later the Empire of Napoleon. In this period the birth of a confident middle class which buys his estate to a large part of the estate of the Counts of Sickingen suggests. So it's like a symbol of this new time that Mayer family lives in a part of the castle of Sickingen-Hohenburg, and the rich family Didier in 1828 from the stones of the demolished another city castle her mansion can build on Kaiser Street. Since 1816 Landstuhl is part of the "Rhine District" in the Kingdom of Bavaria, but loses its importance as an administrative center, which is why mourn many Landstuhler in the 19th century, the "French period". 1847 reaches the Ludwig Bahnland chair; the city grows to the station, which is outside the old city center.
The early years after the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871 let large companies such as breweries, a large alcohol distillery and a nail factory produced. Around the turn of the century, the population of the city committed to its recognition as a spa town, which they want to create another economic mainstay for their own place. The "Sanatorium Moorbad Sickingen" are created (spa) and the "Schlosshotel" (now Town Hall) with the "Elisabethenbad".
After 1933, the Roman settlement, Saarbrücken settlement and a number of houses are being built on the middle Straße. As part of the upgrade in the so-called "Third Reich" is created in 1938 a barracks for an infantry battalion at the Langwiedener road. During the second World War, the building used as a hospital. On the Kirchberg building a school starts to form the National Socialist leadership talent. 1940, the construction is set - temporarily aluminum parts for V2 rockets are manufactured here.


Landstuhl after 1945

the World War survives Landstuhl without major damage. As a result of the new political situation of "Two Divided World" is since 1951 the city in the largest military concentration of American forces outside the United States. At the height of Church Hill is a large military hospital spread, and within the boundaries of the neighboring community Ramstein created a huge airport. Today, after the end of the Cold War are the bases of the US and NATO in the area of Landstuhl hub and headquarters of the American presence between America, Europe and Asia.
The city's population doubled after the war. "Landstuhl in the Valley" is too narrow; the result is from 1950 between Central Brunner and Langwiedener road, a new district - the Atzel. From 1981, the development of the city is building a new residential area - continued - the Melkerei. Already in 1994 followed by a second phase of construction in the scenic lovely setting. The Sickingen bus connects the parts today every hour the city. In 1996, the renovation of the old town starts.
The still-growing community seeks to improve traffic conditions. An important objective in this direction is the scale-up of the rail road to the main road and the diversion of through traffic on the road to Langwiedener BAB 62 as a contribution to the inner-city traffic calming.
1971 Landstuhl, in the course of an administrative reform as a full-fledged regional center in the region to the seat of a municipality. In addition to the city - with nearly 10,000 inhabitants, the largest town in the district of Kaiserslautern - belong to the administrative unit five municipalities: spell main chair, Kindsbach, Mittelbrunn and Oberarnbach. Since 1995, Landstuhl has the right to call themselves "Sickingenstraße city", meaning the close connection of the city which is documented by Sickingen with gender. The city is now in a position - nor to provide a larger radius with public and private sector services - via the supply of their populations out: so in the field of administration, the schools, through its social institutions and in trade and crafts.
For this, the city is home to a wide range of types of schools that allow educational qualifications to Fachschulreife and graduation.
The town hall in Landstuhl became a well-known cultural and congress center. A highlight of the theater season, the performances of the "Pälzer Comedy" and the children's theater here. In the summer, consider the performances of the castle Game Community - the "Palatine home stage" - an enthusiastic audience in the unique setting of Nanstein Castle.

Sports and leisure facilities, the largest the Sickingen sports hall and all-weather (130 000 visitors a year) are to offer citizens the opportunity for physical activity. Well-marked trails invite to excursions in the beautiful surroundings of the city. Social institutions like the modern St. John's Hospital, a large nursing home, the children's home of St. Nicholas, the rehab - Westpfalz and rehabilitation workshops provide crisis-proof jobs. The development of industrial zones North (1978) and West (1999) have an important part in securing the economic future of the city. >br> Year after year, attract the evidence of the past - such as the charming old town, the castle ruins and the Bismarck Tower - but also the attractive surroundings on the edge of the Palatinate Forest, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve - a large number of strangers. The Sickingenstraße town of Landstuhl by using powerful hotel industry strives to be recognized resort to its guests.
Landstuhl has succeeded in skillful way to seize the opportunity to its location on railways and highways in the heart of Europe. The citizens have succeeded in doing to preserve their traditions while trying to meet the progress. Consider a résumé again past and present Sickingenstraße city, it has always remained the same: seat of government - built on the cross of arterial roads that follow the ancient trails - and embedded in a lovely landscape near the edge of the Palatinate Forest and the lowland bog,

Landstuhl official page for history, text by Erich Bader

Landstuhl on Wikipedia




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