Les Seigneuries

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This document is an adjunct to:
La Souche Caplan

Preface: This document began as an examination of the Seigneurie de Pabos, all because Aldo Brochet pointed out that the Pierre Lefebvre, who witnessed some obligations for Guillaume Capela (abt.1672-aft.1758), my 7th great-grandfather, founder of La Souche Caplan, would later become the Seigneur de Pabos. Just a loose end worth pulling on, thought I.
The study expanded as I uncovered familial connections among some of Les Seigneurs and on territories that are traditionally associated with La Souche Caplan and allied families, such as Restigouche, Miramichi, and Nipisiguit. The key discovery, it turned out, lay in considering the man who had been the previous Seigneur de Pabos, Rene Hubert; but, more on that later.
Most, if not all of Les Seigneurs, seem to have a connection to Sillery, some are landholders, and many are listed in the pages of La Registre de Sillery, which turns out to be a goldmine of information. Le Seigneurie de Sillery was the second seigneurie granted, and it estanlished the first native reservation, under the care of the mission at Sillery.
Notably, Sillery connects with the earliest known mtDNA Hg C1c ancestor in North America, Marie Olivier Sylvestre Manit8abe8ich.

In this document, we consider the role of the seigneuries and their seigneurs on the lives of the La Souche Caplan. In particular, we try to provide a context for some documents that are recorded in the lives of Guillaume Capela and Olivier Michel: the obligations of Guillaume Capela and two legal matters involving Olivier Michel. We will we also consider the significance of another document that involves the seigneur de Pabos and another Olivier Michel.
In order to uncover the relationships among the various actors in our story, we must go back to nearly the beginning of the French regime in Nouvelle France, and the granting of the first seigneuries, and we must follow through until the census of 1765..
Period: 1634-1765
Place: Les Seigneuries de Nouvelle France
Cast of characters:
Guillaume Capela (abt.1672-aft.1758)
Unknown (Mi'kmaq) Caplan (abt.1680-)
Magdalena Capela (aft.1708-aft.1765)
Olivier Michel (abt.1699-aft.1765)
Françoise (Olivier) David (abt.1726-aft.1785)
Jean David (abt.1725-1817)
N.B. Caveat Lector: Although there are many a fact accompanied by citations in this document, you will also encounter an occasional hint, clue, and outright speculation. The purpose of this document more intended to provide some context for the relationships among members of La Souche Caplan and those who have played a documented role in their lives. As information is collected and then verified, it may be transitioned into the corresponding profiles.

Continuing research has led me to add Chambly and some Abenaki Seigneuries in Maine and Quebec. There is a connection between the Hertel family and my American ancestors in Maine, several of whom were killed or captured in raids between 1675 and 1704.

The Chronicles of New France

The Chronicles of New France
This WikiTree page offers an excellent historical overview.

Les Seigneuries

A compilation of information about the Seigneuries and the Seigneurs, the places the people who affected the lives of the people in the vicinity of la Baie de Chaleurs. Seigneuries include Grande-Pabos, Grande Riviere, Restigouche, Miramichi, and Koessanouskek. People include Rene Hubert, the Lefebvre family, the family Rey Gaillard, and :Jacques Cocheu.
Seigneuries de la Nouvelle-France describes how and why the seigneuries were created. A map of the seigneuries and an index to the map.[1][2].

Seigneurie de Beauport

1634 --- In January, the Company of One Hundred Associates grants the seigniory of Beauport to Robert Giffard (abt.1587-1668). Two months later, he departs for New France with his wife and children and more than two dozen settlers, beginning what has become known as the Percheron Immigration.[3]

Seigneurie de Beaupré

1636 --- The Compagnie des Cent-Associes grants the Seigneurie de Beaupré to Antoine Cheffault de la Renardière. Château-Richer, Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré.

Seigneurie de l'île d'Orléans

1636 --- Jacques Castillon, a bourgeois of Paris, receives the Seigneurie de l'île d'Orléans.

Seigneurie de Sillery

1637 --- Founding of first réduction (reservation) at Sillery on the St-Lawrence River. They receive an actual concession in 1646.[4][5]
These people are found in the pages of La Registre de Sillery and are characters in our developing story:
François Genaple (abt.1643-1709)
Sieur Olivier LeTardiff deHonnefleur
Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost
François Pelletier dit Antaya
Geneviève Pelletier
Thomas Lefebvre -- Seigneur
Pierre Lefebvre -- Seigneur
Jean François Lefebvre -- Seigneur
[[Category:Sillery, Canada, Nouvelle-France]]

Seigneurie de Pinguet

1638 --- On February 17, 1638, Louis-Henri Pinguet (1590-1671) was granted the fiefdom of Pinguet, which he would cede to his son Noël Pinguet (1630-1685).
1649 --- In 1649, the Compagnie des Cent-Associés granted him forty acres of land on the Sainte-Geneviève hill, on the site today in the suburbs of Quebec between Murray and des Braves avenues, from Grande-Allée to the top of the Sainte-Geneviève hill. (In the vicinity of the church of Canadian Martyrs.)[6]

Seigneurie de Perce

1534 — Cartier meets Donnacona's fishing party. Erects 30 foot tall cross. Takes Domagaya and Taignoagny back to France.[7]
1672 --- Pierre Denys de la Ronde. "In 1672, he received a grant from Intendant Talon on the coasts between Percé and Gaspé Bay to create sedentary fishing establishments..." [...] "set up two fisheries, one at Percé itself, the other at Petite Rivière, at the entrance to the Barachois."[8][9][10] His partners were Charles Bazire et Charles Aubert de la Chesnaie.[11]
1686 --- According to an article by Mimeault, "The village of Percé was undoubtedly the fishing capital of New France in 1686. The title has never been awarded to him, but the naval traffic, the density of fishermen and the regularity of expeditions to this place make it the busiest place on the coast."[12]
1688 --- Census of Baie de Chaleurs conducted by Richard Denys, Sieur de Fronsac in 1688.[13]
At Perce in 1688.
  • Vincent (Chatigny) Chatigny dit Lépine from Gascony, established 1678. His wife, Françoise Aubry.
  • Noël Boissel, Quebecois and his wife, Marie Morin, was from La Rochelle; have five sons and one daughter.
  • Richard & wife, from La Rochelle, arrived 1680.
  • Pierre Vallo, served for 8 years; wife from Paris, served Denis's mother. Established 1683.
  • Jacques de l'Ille Percee, from La Rochelle. Wife is Quebec native. Established 1688. Female child.
1690 --- The region suffered the consequences of the inter-colonial wars between France and England. In 1690, the soldiers of two English ships seized the village and destroyed all the buildings there while the small community fled into the neighboring woods. "L’établissement de Percé est détruit par les troupes anglaises de sir William Phips (1651-1695), en 1690."[14][15][16][17]
From Nouveau Relations:[18]
“To be brief, I need only tell you that at the commencement of the month of August last, two English frigates appeared in the roadstead of the Isle of Bonaventure fling the standard of France, and, through this strategem, they easily seized five fishing vessels, whose captains and crews, wholly occupied at the time with the fishery, were all obliged to seek safety at Quebec, because they were not in a state to defend themselves, nor to resist so many nations banded against them. […] they robbed, ravaged and burnt the houses of the residents, who number at least eight to ten families, and who, for the most part, had already taken refuge hurriedly in the woods, in order to escape an encounter with, and the cruelty of, these pitiless heretics who committed horrible carnage and laid everything to waste with fire and sword. […]

“[…] the tenth September, we were obliged to cut our cables quickly and to make sail at the sight of seven hostile ships, which gave us chase in a strange manner, but fro which we happily escaped at last by favour of the night, during which we saw with regret all the habitations of Petite Riviere on fire." — Rev Father Emanuel Jumeau

“Isle Percée, consisting of a few houses situate at the entrance of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, has also been plundered this year by some English pirates. That place is the rendezvous for a few vessels which come there to fish for cod. It contained only seven or eight settlers with a Franciscan convent and a few friars; six vessels were at anchor there and fishing with their boats, which were all taken without any resistance. The captains and the major parts of the crew escaped into the woods along with the settlers, and they finaly got to Quebec in Biscayan longboats. The houses have been burnt and the Recollect church desecrated. Some of those who escaped returned hence to see if the enemy had left anything, but hey have been attacked by the English army which was on its way to besiege us. They abandoned their vessel and escaped.” — De Monseignat.

  • On 10 Oct 1690, Guillaume Capela is hospitalized at Quebec City. Among those admitted to the hospital on that day were Françoise Aubry, Jean Baptiste Dumontet, and a Recollet monk named Hélie, who succumbed to his injuries that day. According to Marc Andrè Comeau, they were likely admitted as a result of raids against Perce and Bonaventure Island by the American corsairs of William Masson and Francis Goderis in mid-August of 1690. Comeau offers the suggestion that this is evidence of Guillaume Capela's presence in Perce by 1690.[19][20]

Seigneurie de Seigneury d’Orvilliers ou d'Antaya

1672 --- Philippe Gaultier de Comporté reçoit une seigneurie qu'il appelle d'Orvilliers de l'intendant Jean Talon.[21];
1675 --- Il la vend à François Pelletier et son épouse Marguerite Morisseau le 22 octobre 1675 devant le notaire Romain Becquet.[22] La seigneurie portera aussi le nom d'Antaya.[23][24]
Cette seigneurie était située entre celles d'Autray et de Berthier (en-Haut). Le recensement de 1681 ne la différencie pas de sa voisine d'Autray. La seigneurie fera l'objet de saisie et litiges de la part de François Chorel de Saint-Romain et de ses héritiers à cause d'une obligation de François Pelletier envers lui. Ce conflit ne sera réglé finalement qu'en 1724 (voir notes) et les héritiers de François et Marguerite la vendront à Louis Balthazar Marie de Koberio (ou Kerberio), curé de Berthier-en-Haut, en 1754 ou 1756.[25]

Seigneurie de Grande-Pabos

1696 --- René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) received a concession to the Seigneury de Pabos in 1696.
before 1729 ---
"When Pierre Lefebvre acquired the seigniory of Pabos in 1729, a Métis community had already begun. Eight (and maybe more) Métis lines, some of them probably related by their Mi’kmaq roots - the Boudau, Rousseau, Giraud, Caplan, Lepeau, LeBreton, David and Duclos - are the root and centre of this community that revolved around the Pabos seigniory. There may be others, such as Vicar, Olivier, Duval and Julien."[26]
The Seigneurie de Grande-Pabos and its institutions play an ongoing role in the lives of La Souche Caplan.
1729 --- Hubert's heirs sell their interests in the Seigneurie de Grande-Pabos to Pierre Lefebvre and his brother François. Pierre, however, will remain in Quebec City as an innkeeper.[27] Pierre's brother, Jean François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille and his sons Georges and François took up residence in Pabos and established a dry-cod fishery. [28]
Pabos: Sur La Trace de Nos Ancêtres
The Lefebvre family, from 1729, played an outsized role in the development and eventual demise of the fishery. They challenged the established order of things; made their own law; and, encountered little interference from authority.
1730s & 1740s --- People are conducting business in the 1730s and 1740s. The fishery has a major influence on the local economy and it attracts more metis families to the Seigneurie de Grande-Pabos, which begins to thrive. The population increases. Guillaume's sons-in-law begin to appear in the record. [29]
1744-1758 --- When François passed in 1744, his sons took over the fishery. Ultimately, the fishery was destroyed by Wolfe's raiding parties in 1758. Of course, when Wolfe laid waste to Pabos in early September 1758, any records that may have existed, were lost in the blaze.[29]

Seigneurie de Grande-Riviere

1697 --- It was 'le comte de Frontenac' who originally ceded the Seigneurie de Grande-Riviere to Jacques Cocheu on May 31, 1697.
1750 --- His heirs interests in his estate were again recognized.
Deed of concession by Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac, and Jean Bochart Champigny, governor and intendant of New France, to Jacques Cochu (Cocheu) of the Grande Rivière located in the Bay of Chaleurs with a league and a half of land of front on two depths to be taken from the seigneury of Grand-Pabos belonging to Sieur René Hubert by pulling from the side of Cape Epois towards Île Percée, as a fiefdom only.[30]

Seigneurie de Nepisiguit

Established on the current site of Bathurst-Ouest, was a Mi'kmaq summer fishing and hunting camp called Nepisiguit, a Mi'kmaq word meaning “rough waters”, also known as Saint-Pierre.
1534 --- Jacques Cartier
1652 --- Samuel de Champlain
1652 --- Fishing post established
1689 --- King Louis XIV of France grants Philippe Énault Sieur de Barbaucannes a grant at the mouth of the Nepisiguit River, in addition to the rights to fish, hunt and trade with the Micmacs.
1690 --- Jean Gobin obtains a seigneury on the Nepisiguit, including the lands of Philippe Énault.
1690 --- Richard Denis acquires all interests in the Seigneurie de Nepisiguit
1694 --- Inherited by Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau -- 2nd wife
1716 --- The missionaries denounced the scandalous practices of Rey Gaillard who, for having game and furs, attracted the Indians every day by drinking.
1720 --- Pierre Rey-Gaillard becomes the administrator. When Françoise passes, Richard Denis's son, Louis, having probably died in infancy, his property passes to the children from his 2nd wife's second marriage to Pierre Rey Gaillard.
1726 --- Pierre Rey Gaillard passes. Mangers of the estate do not maintain it.
1753 --- Falls into the hands of Marie Françoise Achille Rey Gaillard (1701-1783), remaining inheritor of the estates of Pierre Rey-Gaillard and Françoise Cailteau.[31]

Seigneurie de d'Iberville

1690 ---Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville
1690 --- Richard Denis purchased interests in Seigneurie de Restigouche
1694 --- Inherited by Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau -- 2nd wife
1753 --- Falls into the hands of Marie-Françoise-Achille Rey Gaillard
1753 --- Marie-Françoise-Achille Rey Gaillard sells her interests to a M. Bonfils of Quebec City.
1759 --- Nova Scotia Legislature passed an act to the effect that any action to recover lands based on a French title should be dismissed.
1760 --- Battle of Restigouche was the final naval battle of the English-French conflict, and marked the end of the French Regime in what is now Canada, and large parts of the North American continent.

Seigneurie de Miramichi

1687 --- Nicolas Denys is granted Miramichi seigneurie by de Champigny.
1691 --- Richard Denis, inherits the Miramichi seigneurie, confirmed by king.
1694 --- Inherited by Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau -- 2nd wife
1753 --- Falls into the hands of Marie Françoise Achille Rey Gaillard
"The Ristigouche mission is placed next to a secular establishment belonging to Richard Denys de Fronsac, Nicolas Denys' son. The latter installed some settlers there and opened a trading post. In 1705, the person in charge of this mission was Father Michel Bruslé."[32]
The Seigneuries de Nepisiguit, Restigouche, and Miramichi were operated by the Denis family, and subsequently administered by Rey-Gaillard for his family.
Better to read their stories of each of the characters in order.

Seigneurie de Pentagoët

1613 --- Charles (De Latour) Saint-Étienne de La Tour (abt.1593-abt.1664). "Un poste de traite y était établi depuis 1613." Coord. GPS : 44.3891 -68.8056[33][34]
1625 --- Charles (De Latour) Saint-Étienne de La Tour (abt.1593-abt.1664) marries 1st Unknown Mi'kmaq (abt.1605-bef.1639) and have daughter Jeanne (De Latour) Saint-Étienne de La Tour (1625-aft.1686).

1651 --- Jane alias Uphanum declared that she, her mother namely Naguasqua the wife of Wickwarrawaske Sagamore, & her brother Skitterygusset, had “coequally,” eight years previous (in 1651), “sold unto Andrew Alger, & to his brother Arther Alger a Tract of Land” on the Oascowag River (Scarborough). [...] Most important, the agreement required the Algers to give “one bushel of corne for acknowledgment every year so long as they both shall Live."

1660 --- Pentagouët is the domain of Sachem Madockawando Abenaki (abt.1630-abt.1698), leader of the Abenaki Penobscot people.
1666 --- Warrabitta and Skitterygusset.
1668 --- Francis Small of Kittery. Skitterygusset appeared on an early deed for land in Casco Bay, in which he appeared to transfer ancestral land to the “fisherman” Francis Small, extending from Capissic, below the Presumpscot river’s mouth, to the fishing falls and planting grounds at Ammoncongan.

1670 --- Jean-Vincent (D'Abbadie) d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin arrives with the new Acadian Governor de Grandfontaine to retake Fort Pentagouet at Penobscot Bay. He establishes himself there and marries Marie Mathilde (Penobscot) Pidianske (bef.1658-abt.1720), daughter of Sachem Madockawando Abenaki.
Sachem Madockawando Abenaki and Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin play a major role in the wars and peaces of the period 1670-1697 on the irregularly changing border lands between continental Acadia (New France) and Maine (New England).
Marie Mathilde (Penobscot) Pidianske (bef.1658-abt.1720) married Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin (abt.1652-abt.1707) and issued ten children, including daughter Anastasie D'Abbadie (abt.1685-abt.1744) who married Alexandre (Leborgne) Le Borgne (1679-aft.1744).
1674 --- Jean-Vincent was taken prisoner by Dutch pirates in cahoots with Bostonians.

1675-1678 --- First Abenaki War. Major Richard (Walderne) Waldron (1615-1689) and Charles Frost Esq. (1631-1697) versus Jean-Vincent (D'Abbadie) d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin and the Wabenaki Confederacy.
1675 October --- Andrew Alger (and brother Arthur) killed in attack on Scarborough.
1676 --- Peace made and broken. Waldron and Frost trick about 400 Indians in a mock battle, capture them, and have them shipped off into slavery. The Penobscot destroy all English settlements.
1677 --- The Battle at Moore's Brook, Scarborough, Maine, June 29, 1677. Tippen shot and killed Mogg Heigon. Emergence of Squando.
1678 --- Treaty at Casco.
1686 --- Jeanne (De Latour) Saint-Étienne de La Tour (1625-aft.1686) is found in Riviere St. Jean/Petagouet in 1686 at age 60.[35] Her daughter Marie Anne (De Martignon) d' Aprendestiguy (abt.1662-aft.1690) marries Guillaume Bourgeois (abt.1655-bef.1693) that same year at Riviere St-Jean.

1688-1697 --- King William's War.
1688 --- Edward Andros sacks Jean-Vincent's house. Penobscot respond.
1689 June 27-28 --- Massacre at Cocheco Falls[36] — Who was involved?
1689 August 2-3 --- Siege at Pemaquid --- Led by Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin and Father Louis-Pierre Thury and Chief Moxus. The fall of Pemaquid was a significant setback to the English. It pushed the frontier back to Casco (Falmouth), Maine. One of the captives the Maliseet took back to their main village Meductic, on the Saint John River was John Gyles, who created one of the few captivity narratives to come out of Nova Scotia/Acadia. John's other brother Thomas escaped the siege. John Gyles' third brother James was also captured at the same time by the Penobscot and eventually taken back to Fort Pentagouet (present-day Castine, Maine) where he was tortured and burned alive at the stake. — Who was involved?
1712 --- The final Wabanaki attack in Maine during Queen Anne's war also happened against Wells. The natives raided a wedding party, where they killed three and, briefly, took one prisoner.[37]
1713 --- Queen Anne's War ends
1689 August 5 --- Lachine Massacre. Sault-Saint-Louis. [38] — Who was involved?
1690 March 27 --- The Raid on Salmon Falls (Berwick, Maine). 34 killed, 54 captured. Raid led by Francois Hertel with Abenaki from Odanak and along the way. — Who was involved?
1690 May 19 --- The Battle of Port Royal.
1690 May 20 --- Battle of Fallmouth (Fort Loyal). Captain Sylvanus Davis captured. James Littlefield capture/death.[39] — Who was involved
1690 June 3 --- Fort Saint Louis, Chedabucto.
1690 June 14 --- Sylvanus Davis arrives at Quebec.
1690 September 11 --- Church's Second Expedition.
1690 October --- Meeting at Wells, under flag of truce.
1691 May --- Meeting at Wells, under flag of truce. Prisoner exchange.
1691 June 9 --- Raid on Wells. Wells attacked by about 200 natives, repelled by Captain James Converse and his militia.
Candlemas 1692 --- Raid on York — Who was involved?
1692 June 10 --- Raid on Wells. 400 Native Americans and some French troops commanded by La Brognerie marched into Wells.
1692 --- James Giles tortured by Madockawando.
1696 August --- Attack at Pemaquid. Indian and French force led by Pierre (Le Moyne) Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706) and Jean Vincent (D'Abbadie) d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin (abt.1652-abt.1707) on Fort William Henry at Pemaquid in New England (Bristol, Maine). Also Louis D'Amours 1655-1708.
See Second Siege of Pemaquid (14-15 Aug 1696)
1697 July 4--- Raid on Wells. Charles Frost Esq. (1631-1697)
1697 Oct --- Peace of Ryswick.
1698 --- Death of Madockawando
1701 --- Jean-Vincent returns to France.

1702 Sep --- Some Acadian fishing boats were captured by a Boston privateer. The governor of Acadia sent Thomas Lefebvre to Boston to negotiate the release of the fishermen and their boats. Lefebvre was also to learn what he could about English plans to invade Canada. Lefebvre was confined in Boston, however, and failed in his mission. Apparently he later returned to Quebec.
1703 May 7 --- Thomas Lefebvre was granted a concession to the Seigneurie de Koessanouskek on May 7, 1703, as confirmed by a subsequent deed of concession on 4 May 1707. He was sent to establish a French presence in Western Maine, between Pentagouet and the border line at the St George's River, per the treaty of Riswick (1697).
1703 --- La terre de Pentagouët est accordée à la famille LeBorgne lors de la réunion de l'Acadie au Domaine royal, en 1703.[40]
1703 Aug 10 --- Another raid on Wells. 39 inhabitants were slain or abducted, with many more wounded. Indians under French leaders attack Wells, Cape Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Casco, Spurwink, and Purpooduck; the last two entirely destroyed. Thus opened The Third Indian War, known as Queen Anne's War......
1703 Aug 10 --- Jeremiah Jordan Jr (abt.1693-abt.1764) captured. Spends years in the hands of the Indians, then the French in Quebec, and then in France. He eventually returns home but is unrecognizable to his neighbours and kinfolk until he shows a childhood scar that is remembered by some. He came to be known as "French Jeremy". Or so the story goes.
1704 Feb --- Raid on Deerfield. Elizabeth (Corse) Casse (1696-1766) among those captured. Raid led by Francois Hertel with Abenaki from Odanak and along the way.[41][42]
1704 May 27 --- Thomas Lefebvre and sons Thomas and Timothee are captured by Church, transported to Boston, and held until autumn of 1706, when they were exchanged. Also, Lefebvre's letter of marque.[43][44][45]
1706 Sep 26 --- Thomas Lefebvre ondoie Marie Anne Denis en captivite.
1706 Autumn --- Thomas Lefebvre et al. are exchanged and returned to Acadia.
1712 --- The final Wabanaki attack in Maine during Queen Anne's war also happened against Wells. The natives raided a wedding party, where they killed three and, briefly, took one prisoner.[46]
1713 --- Queen Anne's War ends
1722-1725 --- Father Rale's War.
1724 August 23 --- 208 English soldiers destroyed Norridgewock, traditional home of the Abenaki and of Father Rale.

Seigneurie de Koessanouskek

1702 Sep --- Some Acadian fishing boats were captured by a Boston privateer. The governor of Acadia sent Thomas Lefebvre to Boston to negotiate the release of the fishermen and their boats. Lefebvre was also to learn what he could about English plans to invade Canada. Lefebvre was confined in Boston, however, and failed in his mission. Apparently he later returned to Quebec.
1703 May 7 --- Thomas Lefebvre was granted a concession to the Seigneurie de Koessanouskek on May 7, 1703, as confirmed by a subsequent deed of concession on 4 May 1707. He was sent to establish a French presence in Western Maine, between Pentagouet and the border line at the St George's River, per the treaty of Riswick (1697).
1703 Aug 10 --- Another raid on Wells. 39 inhabitants were slain or abducted, with many more wounded. Indians under French leaders attack Wells, Cape Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Casco, Spurwink, and Purpooduck; the last two entirely destroyed. Thus opened the third Indian war, known as Queen Anne's War......Aug. 10, 1703
Thomas Lefebvre, the Abenaki language interpreter, assumed this concession at the worst possible time. Koessanouskek is across Penobscot Bay from Pentagoët; so, it is a strategic position and even closer to Boston. The English, Les Bostonnais, contested the French claim on this territory.
1704 May 27 --- Thomas Lefebvre and sons Thomas and Timothee are captured by Church, transported to Boston, and held until autumn of 1706, when they were exchanged. Also, Lefebvre's letter of marque.[47][48][49]
1704 --- The record in Quebec recounts an English incursion by Church onto French territory, the capture of Thomas Lefebvre and his sons, and the subsequent destruction of all of his property and possessions, including the original concession. [50]
1704—1706 --- Captivity
1706 Sep 26 --- Thomas Lefebvre ondoie Marie Anne Denis en captivite.
1706 Autumn --- Thomas Lefebvre et al. are exchanged and returned to Acadia.
1712 --- The final Wabanaki attack in Maine during Queen Anne's war also happened against Wells. The natives raided a wedding party, where they killed three and, briefly, took one prisoner.[51]
1713 --- Queen Anne's War ends

Seigneurie de Becancourt

1600 — 600 Abenaki establish themselves.
Wolinak reservation.

Seigneurie de St-François

Odanak First Nation (Abenaki)
1660 — First occupied by the Sokoki band.
1677-1690 — Abenaki driven out of Maine after Father Rale's War (1675-6). Abenaki chief Grey Lock.
1684 — “La Mission de Saint François de Sale”
1689Christine Otis (1689-1773).[52]
1690 — Abenaki relocate to Odanak on St-François River.
1700 — Seigneurie established.
1704 — Raid on Deerfield originated here. (Elizabeth Corse among those captured.)
1706 — Village moved downstream.
1711 — Temporarily abandoned.
1712Jean Baptiste Dumontet (abt.1667-1729), who was with Guillaume Capela on 10 Oct 1690 at Hotel Dieu, marries the girl, Elizabeth (Corse) Casse (1696-1766), who was captured in 1704 raid on Deerfield.
1715 — Village moved downstream.
1724 — Following Dummers War, 300 more Abenaki families arrive.
1755— — Odanak was part of the Seven Nations confederacy, [53] or La Fédération des Sept Feux.[54]
1759 — Attacked, destroyed, burnt in 1759 by Rogers Rangers, under orders from Amherst.
1760 — Treaty of Kahnawake.
1761 — The Great Peace of Montreal.
Seven Nations Confederacy.

Odanak First Nation (Abenaki).[55]
Musée des Abénakis (Abenaki Museum)

Seigneurie de Chambly

1672 --- Jacques de Chambly.
1673 --- Governor of Acadia.
1687 --- "Chambly dies. He bequeathed his seigneury of Chambly to his fiancée Marie-Françoise de Thavenet, one of whose sisters, Marguerite, had married Joseph-François Hertel de La Fresnière."[56]
1694 --- Un nouveau seigneur à Chambly: François Hertel rendra foi et hommage le 11 octobre 1694 et le 19 mai 1701, pour cette concession qui lui a été confirmée par feu M. le comte de Frontenac et Mgr l'intendant, suivant le titre du 1 mars 1695, et ratifiée par Sa Majesté le 19 mai 1696 (Adhémar, 19 mai 1701). Et des habitants reviennent...
1694 --- Through a death in his wife's family, Francois inherited the seigneury of Chambly on 11 Oct. 1694. The property would be divided among his sons.
Frontenac écrit le 10 octobre 1698: L'espérance de la paix avec les Iroquois m'a fait diminuer la garnison du fort Frontenac, où je n'ai laissé que vingt hommes... Lorsque la paix sera conclue, il n'y aura qu'à laisser y retourner les divers particuliers, à qui M. de Lasalle avait accordé des concessions, qu'ils avaient commencé à mettre en valeur et qu'ils sont prêts de continuer le demandant avec insistance, à l'imitation de ceux qui en avaient aussi autour du fort de Chambly, ... que la guerre avait contraints d'abandonner et qu'ils reprennent maintenant avec plus d'envie que jamais de les faire mieux valoir (RAPQ, 28-29, p. 367).François Hertel, seigneur de Chambly, avait adressé une requête au tribunal le 16 décembre 1698, déclarant que durant la guerre des Iroquois, la plus grande partie des habitants de Chambly se sont retirés à Boucherville et ailleurs, abandonnant leurs terres. Il demande à la cour la permission de faire publier un avis obligeant les censitaires de respecter leurs contrats ou de pouvoir disposer des terres abandonnées, et les octroyer à d'autres censitaires pour percevoir des rentes. Le juge Charles Juchereau émet une ordonnance qui oblige les censitaires du seigneur de Chambly de présenter leurs contrats d'ici les trois mois et d'en respecter les clauses.[57]

Seigneurie de Longues-Vues

1690 --- Concession de la seigneurie de Genaple (ou Longues-Vues) en ACADIE le 25-2-1690 (sur la rivière St-Jean) (ratification le 2-3-1691 après ?) Source: [DBC II 250-252] René Jetté [58][59]

Les Seigneurs

Robert Giffard

Robert Giffard (abt.1587-1668), Seigneur de Beauport and leader of the Percheron migration.

La Famille Pinguet

Robert Giffard and Henri Pinguet are cousins. Louise Viron, Robert Giffard's mother, is the widow at the first time of Jean Pinguet, a relative of Henri Pinguet.
Louis-Henri Pinguet (1590-1671)[60]
Françoise Pinguet (1625-1661) --- daughter
Noël Pinguet (1630-1685) --- son and heir to Seigneurie
Pierre Pinguet (1631-1704) --- son and notaire royal
Marie Anne Pinguet (1660-1694) --- Mme Chambalon #1
Marie Louise Pinguet -- m. 1st G.Petit, m. 2nd J.B.Cauchon
Louis Chambalon, notaire
Gaspard Petit --- il est caporal de la compagnie de St-Jean en 1683
Jacques Baptiste Cauchon --- grandson of Olivier LeTardif

François Genaple

François Genaple (abt.1643-1709)
1673 --- Menuisier, huissier de la Prévôté de Québec
1682 --- Notaire royal
1685 --- Greffier de la Prévôté de Québec
1690 --- Receives a concession to Seigneurie de Longues-Vues from Frontenac.
1709 --- Death at Quebec. The disposition of Seigneurie de Longues-Vues is unclear.
1711 --- His widow, Marie-Anne de Laporte (abt.1643-1718), marries René Hubert (abt.1648-1725), Seigneur de Pabos.
  • François Genaple is frequently a presiding official or notary on documents.
  • His widow marries Rene Hubert of Pabos.

Rene Hubert

René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) -- Seigneur
1669 --- m. Françoise de Lacroix (1640-1711) --- 1st wife, 8 children
1696 ---Rene Hubert received a concession to the Seigneury de Pabos in 1696. It seems that Sr. Hubert never took much of an interest in his holdings; he did not establish any commercial activities in the seigneurie.
1711 --- m. Marie-Anne de Laporte (abt.1643-1718) --- 2nd wife, no children
1718 --- m. Marie Angélique Faveron (1683-) -- 3rd wife, 3 children
1725 --- Mort.
1729 --- His heirs will sell their interests in the seigneurie to Pierre Lefebvre and his brother François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille. The disposition of Seigneury de Pabos is not fully known.
  • That connects the Lefebvre and Hubert families to Pabos and to our story.
René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) -- Seigneur
Pierre Lefebvre
Jean François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille

But wait, there's more...
René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) -- Seigneur
Marie Angélique Faveron (1683-) -- his 3rd wife
Marie (David) David dite Pontife (1663-1706) -- her mother
René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) -- Seigneur
Marie (David) David dite Pontife
Jean David dit Pontife (1665-1703)
Marie Anne Prévost (abt.1676-abt.1717)
Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost
Born "8chista8ichi8e Manitouabe8ich", daughter of "Ouchibahabanoukoueou" and "Roch Manit8abe8ich". She is recorded in the history of Nouvelle France as the first native bride to marry a Frenchman in a sanctioned religious ceremony, at Quebec City. She has also been shown to be mtDNA Hg=C1c,[61] and her descendant's test results match perfectly with those of a descendant of our Olivier Michel's daughter, Francoise Olivier.[62]
  • So have we now connected Hubert and David to Pabos, and her to the Prevost family and their C1c matriarch, Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost. A more tangible connection between Marie and La Souche Caplan is now within range.

But wait, there's more...
An article on Lucie Delarosbil's blog reveals a marriage contract, between Louise Cochon and Charles Fontaine, with François Genaple presiding, Rene Hubert serving as a witness and an "Olivier Michel" attending, noted as newlywed with Marie Madeleine Cochon.[63][64]
The "Olivier Michel" mentioned in the contract is not the same "Olivier Michel" who married Madeleine Caplan. As it happens, in the history of Quebec the name "Olivier Michel" has only been assigned to three people:
  1. Our Olivier Michel was the husband of Madeleine Caplan, and father of Françoise Olivier.
  2. Estienne Michel (aka Olivier Michel dit LeTardif et Taillon) (1645-1699), was the adopted son of Sieur Olivier LeTardiff deHonnefleur. He married Marie Madeleine Cochon and their youngest child was born in 1698.
  3. Olivier Michel (1645-1645) was the twin brother of Estienne, who died young, and whose name was adopted by his surviving twin brother.
François Genaple (abt.1643-1709) -- Seigneur
René Hubert (abt.1648-1725) -- Seigneur
Estienne Michel (1645-1699) aka Olivier Michel dit LeTardif et Taillon
  • Lucie Delarosbil has drawn our attention to a connection between the Seigneur de Pabos and Olivier Michel dit LeTardif et Taillon, and of course to obvious questions surrounding identity and relatedness, as there are two people named Olivier Michel who are both connected to a different Jean David, each in their own time and place. There would seem to be a missing link.
Olivier Michel (abt.1699-aft.1765)
Françoise (Olivier) David (abt.1726-aft.1785) --- his daughter
Jean David (abt.1725-1817) --- her husband
We also observe that Joseph A Harnois, a witness at the wedding of Johannes Becker and Marie-Anne (David) Becker, is a great-nephew of Louis Chambalon. (Harnois grandparents being Marie Louise Pinguet m. Gaspard Petit.) (N.B. M. L. Pinguet m. 3rd (1723) Jacques Baptiste Cauchon grandson of Olivier LeTardiff.) (Trail of breadcrumbs)
Louis Chambalon --- notaire
Marie Anne Pinguet (1660-1694) --- Mme Chambalon #1
Marie Louise Pinguet -- m. 1st G.Petit, m. 2nd J.B.Cauchon
Gaspard Petit --- il est caporal de la compagnie de St-Jean en 1683
Jacques Baptiste Cauchon --- grandson of Olivier LeTardif
We also observe that Salomon Petit was another witness to the wedding of Johannes Becker and Marie-Anne David. No connection between Gaspard and Salomon has been established. (Trail of breadcrumbs)

But wait, there's more...
It is worth noticing the presence of Sieur Olivier LeTardiff deHonnefleur. Olivier LeTardif was a pioneer during the time of Samuel de Champlain (1574-1635). A royal translator and principal clerk to the Compagnie. He and his trusted companion Roch Manit8abe8ich explored the rivers and lakes from Quebec to Lake Superior and beyond, establishing trading routes and contracts to provide furs. He can be found in the record of La Registre de Sillery and Notre Dame, and in the other halls of power at Quebec proper, where he wielded notable influence. That is, he was a man of some import and he adopted an assortment of children...
Olivier LeTardif was the adoptive father of Estienne Michel. The story of how Estienne Michel adopted the name of his dead twin, Olivier, to honour his new step-father, is intriguing. He also adopted 'dit Taillon' which has not been adequately explained. 'Taillon' is a name associated with the Lac St-Jean region, where Montagnais resided at that time. 'Taillon' is a name associated with a district in Longueuil. 'Taillon' has been reduced to 'Tyo' in some quarters.
Olivier LeTardif was the adoptive father of Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost, given to him, as her godfather, by her parents, the aforementioned Roch Manitouabéouich (bef.1600-1644) and his spouse Ouéou (Outchibahanoukouéou) Manitouabéouich (abt.1600-abt.1649). Marie christened with the name of her sponsor, Olivier, and with the name 'Sylvestre' to reflect her natural spirit. Under Olivier's direction, she was first placed in the care of the Ursuline nuns, to raise in the French style, and then her education was placed in hands of Marie Rollet (abt.1580-1649), widow of Dr. Louis Hebert (abt.1575-1627).
Olivier LeTardif has the dubious distinction of being the first slave owner in Nouvelle France in 1629; or, more generously, he might be considered an adoptive father; either way, that boy was given the name "Olivier Le Jeune" upon his baptism, on 14 May 1633, to honour his sponsor, Olivier LeTardif, and the officiant, Jesuit Superior Paul Lejeune. Olivier LeTardif gave the boy to the Guillaume Couture family, and they in turn sent him to study with Marie Rollet. Olivier Le Jeune ended his days in the role of domestic servant.

Philippe Énault

Philippe Énault (abt.1651-aft.1708)
m. 1st: Madeleine Tegoussi (1649-abt.1677)
m. 2nd: Françoise Ouechipichinokoue (abt.1649-)
m. 3rd: Marie Outchiouanich (abt.1678-1728)
  • We are interested in Philippe Énault in large part because he is purported to an ancestor of the Julien Clan among the Mi'kmaq. According to Denis Jean, citing Fidèle Thériault, one of his children may have had the given name "Julien" and was the patriarch of the Julien family among the Mi'kmaq. Julien's son was Jean, and his son was François Julien who married Madeleine David. [26]
  • Philippe Énault figures into the stories of the Seigneurie de Nepisiguit and the Denys family.
  • Philippe Énault plays a key role in 'New Relation of Gaspesia'
1678 --- Chapter 10 of 'New Relation of Gaspesia' includes a narrative of a trip that Chretien LeClerq took, in the company of Philippe Enault and his native partner, between Nipisiguit and Miramichi, including an encounter with Richard (Denis) Denis de Fronsac (1647-1691).[65][18]
1686 --- "Philippe Enault de Barbaucanne, figure dans le recensement de l’Acadie de 1686 (à Nipisiguit) et dans celui de Percé de 1688 (à Nipisiguit). Il a comme conjointe une Amérindienne non identifiée."[26]
1688 --- Le recensement de 1688, "[Il y a trois habitants.] Le 1er est une nomme Esnaust de Sameur sa famme sauvage. Il a pour enfants 2 garcon et deux filles le plus vieux a 8 ans et les filles 6 et 4."[66][67]
after 1708 --- After Phillippe passed, "his several children, by a Micmac woman whom he had married about 1679, abandoned the lands and went to live with the Indians."[68]

La Famille Denys

The Denys family built the Canadian fishery industry in the 1600s. Their story deserves our attention and inspiration. However, they don't seem to directly impact La Souche Caplan until the last heir standing sues Olivier Michel in 1736.
The brothers Simon and Nicolas

Simon (Denis) Denis de la Trinité (1600-1678)
Pierre Denys de la Ronde (1631-1708) -- Seigneur de Perce (son of Simon)
  • Guillaume Capela first appears in Perce in 1702, according to a recorded obligation.

Nicolas Denys (bef.1603-bef.1688) --- brother of Simon
Richard Denis de Fronsac -- Seigneur (son of Nicolas)
Anne Parabego (abt.1660-bef.1689) -- 1st wife, amerindienne
Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau -- 2nd wife, widow (grand-daughter of Simon)
Pierre Rey-Gaillard -- her new husband, then widower, then administrator
Marie Françoise Achille Rey Gaillard --- their daughter
Nicolas Denys (bef.1603-bef.1688) arrived in Acadia in 1632 and quickly established a fishery. His reach and his power grew. in 1653 he purchased fishing "rights to the coast and islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cap Canso to Cap des Rosiers on the Gaspé. This vast territory included Cape Breton as well as the Îles de la Madeleine, Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island), and all other islands in the gulf." He was involved in many enterprises, not all successful. He set the stage for his successors.[28][69]
Richard (Denis) Denis de Fronsac "In 1690, he received, as heir to his father, the seigneury of Miramichi and, shortly after, bought from Jean Gobin and Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville the seigneuries of Nepisiguit and Ristigouche that had just been assigned to them respectively. Thus, under new concessions, he remained the owner of a large part of Acadian territory. Richard Denys de Fronsac died in the fall of 1691, in the sinking of the Saint-François-Xavier. He had married an Amerindian, Anne Parabego (Partarabego), around 1680, and had remarried Françoise Cailleteau at Quebec on October 15, 1689. His property passed after his death to the children of the latter's second marriage to Pierre Rey Gaillard"[70]
Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau, m.1st Richard Denis; 2nd Pierre Rey-Gaillard. Mme Gaillard inherited the Seigneuries of Miramichi, Ristigouche, and Gobin (a la Baie des Chaleurs). "Ces trois seigneuries furent héritées par les enfants du second mariage de sa veuve (Rey-Gaillard)"[71]
Pierre Rey-Gaillard, commissaire de l'artillerie en ce pays. Managed the 3 seigneuries: Miramichi, Gobin Nepissiguit and Iberville of Ristigouche.
Marie Françoise Achille Rey Gaillard was the longest standing heir. She receives Seigneurie in 1753, and immediately sells. Good timing on her part, considering what's coming in 1760.
  • Mlle Gaillard launched an action against Olivier Michel over two boat loads of fish. That's it. The whole story about the Denys family is intended to illustrate that our Olivier Michel is dealing with some pretty important people, who aren't above asking the local authorities to take matters into their hands. Why was Pierre Rey Gaillard doing business with our Olivier Michel, so far from Restigouche, Miramichi, and Nipisguit? How is Mlle Gaillard conducting business on behalf of the estate, which won't be settled until 1753?
Olivier Michel (abt.1699-aft.1765) --- sued over two boatloads of fish
Marie Françoise Achille Rey Gaillard (1701-1783) --- the final heiress
Pierre (Rey) Rey Gaillard (abt.1664-1726) --- her father, estate administrator
Françoise (Cailteau) Cailleteau -- the heiress Richard Denis de Fronsac
Richard (Denis) Denis de Fronsac

Jacques Cochu

1697 --- Seigneurie de Grande-Riviere originally ceded to Jacques Cochu on May 31, 1697.
1736 --- Jacques (Cocheu) Cochu may have been influential in Olivier Michel's decision to move his family in 1736 from Pabos[72] to Grande-Riviere.[73]

La Famille Pelletier

Nicolas Peltier (1596-bef.1681) -- patriarch
Jeanne DeVouzy (abt.1614-1689) -- matriarch
They were twice granted fifty acres at Sillery. Some of their children figure in our story.
François Pelletier -- seigneur d'Antaya
m. 1st: Dorothée (Amérindienne) la Sauvagesse (abt.1639-1661)
m. 2nd: Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau (abt.1643-1707)
We first encountered François Pelletier d'Antaya et son épouse Marguerite Morisseau in La Registre de Sillery on the occasion of their son's baptism (2 Dec 1663).[74]
Jean Pelletier (abt.1632-1692) -- seigneur d'Autry
m. Marie Geneviève Manovely de Réville (1643-bef.1681)
Genevieve Pelletier -- seigneur de Koessanouskek
m. 1st: Vincent Verdon (abt.1635-bef.1665)
m. 2nd: Thomas Lefebvre (1645-bef.1715)
We first encountered Genevieve Pelletier serving as marraine in La Registre de Sillery.[75]
Jeanne (Pelletier) Jérémie -- leur soeur
m. Noël Jérémie (1639-1696)
We first encountered Jeanne (Pelletier) Jérémie serving as marraine in La Registre de Sillery.[75]
Jeanne (Pelletier) Jérémie is a 4th great-grandmother of Louis Riel, perhaps the most recognizable Métis in Canadian history. (You can check that right here on WikiTree: Pelletier-31 and Riel-5. Give it a try.)

La Famille Lefebvre

Guillaume Capela (abt.1672-aft.1758)
Pierre Lefebvre
We have seen in the obligations that Guillaume Capela had a documented connection with Pabos and with Pierre Lefebvre. We note that his 1702 obligation is signed by Lefebvre, and in 1705, the obligation is signed in the Gaspe, for payments to Lefebvre's brothers-in-law, the Boissel brothers.[76]
Here, to provide context and to leave a trail of breadcrumbs, we consider the Lefebvre family, their place in the history of Nouvelle France in its conflict with New England, the family's relations with First Nations peoples, the Seigneurie de Koessanouskek and the Seigneurie de Grande-Pabos.
  • Thomas Lefebvre and Genevieve Pelletier
We draw upon the biography of Thomas Lefebvre by Honorius Provost.[77] and the work of Steven A Cormier.[78]
Thomas Lefebvre married Genevieve Pelletier. According to Provost and Cormier, he was a voyageur and a royal translator of the Abenaki language, having lived outside the reservation at Sillery, where his two eldest sons were baptized.[79] Thomas will become the seigneur of Koessanouskek in 1703, on the border lands between the English-controlled colonies and the French-controlled territories. He will be captured twice and all of his possessions burned and his buildings razed.
Thomas Lefebvre and Genevieve Pelletier were the parents of twelve children; Pierre and his elder brother François are part of our story. This is the same Pierre Lefebvre who signed obligations of Guillaume Capela in 1702 and 1705.
In a matter related to the will of her late husband, Genevieve Pelletier, Thomas Lefebvre's wife, is seeking permission to act in her husband's absence, which is due to his capture. (22 Feb 1706) BAnQ
  • Pierre Lefebvre de Bellefeuille
Pierre Lefebvre, like his father, was an interpreter of the Abenaki language. Pierre will, along with his older brother, François, become a seigneur at Grande-Pabos.[80] He, however, will remain in Quebec City as an innkeeper.[81]
Françoise Boissel was the 2nd wife of Pierre Lefebvre. She had four brothers, who are likely the Boissel brothers mentioned in the obligation of 1705. Their father was Noel Boissel, who is listed in Perce during the 1688 census: "His wife is from La Rochelle. He went [to Perce] in 1679."
Jean François Lefebvre
Olivier Michel (abt.1699-aft.1765)
  • Jean François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille
Jean François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille was the eldest child of Thomas and Genevieve, and was considered the patriarch of the family. François will, along with his younger brother, Pierre, become a seigneur of Grande-Pabos.[77]
  • The Widow Lefebvre
A "widow Lefebvre" is mentioned in a court case on 16 November 1712.[82] She has not yet been more specifically identified, and it is possible that her family name is simply a coincidence. She is not the widow of Thomas Lefebvre, father of Pierre and François, seigneurs de Grande-Pabos; nor is she the widow of the sons. No determination has yet been made whether she is related to that Lefebvre family or not. Further research may uncover a connection between her and 'les seigneurs Lefebvre'. This note is left as a breadcrumb for researchers. We note that Guillaume was living with the widow Lefebvre.
  • Marriage entre Lefebvre et Caplan
Pierre Langlois m. Anne Huart. (1752-08-31)[83]
Anne Huart is a daughter of Catherine Caplan.
Pierre Langlois is the son of Perrine Lefebvre. Connection to Lefebvre de Bellefeuille unknown.
François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille and his wife Marie Josephe attending, with daughter Anne.

La Famille Hertel

Jacques Hertel (abt.1603-1651)
Marie Marguerie (1620-1700)
François (Hertel) Hertel de Chambly (1642-1722)
Marguerite Josephe de Thavenet (1646-1708)
1626 --- Jacques Hertel arrives in New France. He was an early explorer, trapper, and warrior.
abt 1627 --- Jacques Hertel 1st m. Floretta Hester 'Otsie'ka' Turtle Clan Mohawk.
1642 --- Son Francois is born.
1652 -- Jacques dies.
1653 --- Indian attack kills half of Trois-Rivieres residents.
1657 --- Francois Hertel, age 15, enrolls in militia for the defense of Trois-Rivieres.
1661 July --- Francois was captured by Iroquois.
1661 October --- Francois is repatriated.
1664 --- m. Marguerite Josephe de Thavenet. Interpreter and Militiaman.
1666 --- Professional soldier. Francois led many raids on English towns in New England.
1673 --- Expedition to build Fort Frontenac.
1678 --- Mission to Hudson Bay.
1680 --- Governor of New France gave Francois Hertel command of all the tribes who were allies of the French. To counter continuing the hit-and-run raids the settlers were constantly subject to, Francois developed surprise attack tactics using the Indians' own methods of silent approach. The brutal "Hertel's Raids" were said to have brought a measure of relief to the constant Indian attacks on the French settlements.
1689 --- The governors of New France first requested letters of nobility for Francois in 1689. It was the beginning of a battle with the government in Paris that stretched over a quarter century.
1690 --- Salmon Falls. 30 and 43 Englishmen were killed, 54 taken prisoner, 27 houses burned.
1691 --- Francois's son Zacharie Hertel was captured by Iroquois. He did not return for three years. His skills in Indian languages and ways made him a third-generation Indian fighter and negotiator for the colony.
1694 --- Through a death in his wife's family, Francois inherited the seigneury of Chambly on 11 Oct. 1694. The property would be divided among his sons.
1704 --- Francois led the Raid on Deerfield. Elizabeth (Corse) Casse (1696-1766) among those captured.
1712 --- Francois reported in 1712 that during "all the wars" of his lifetime "no party of men or expedition has been made ready" that did not include himself and some of his sons. At one point all seven of these sons were serving in the Army of New France at the same time.
1716 April--- LETTRES DE NOBLESSE DE FRANÇOIS HERTEL. Nobility, with all of its associated privileges, was bestowed on Francois Hertel.


July 20, 1661 --- Pierre (Le Moyne) Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706) born in Montreal.
1680 --- Jean Baptiste (Le Moyne) Le Moyne de Bienville (1680-1767) born in Montreal.
1685 --- Hudson's Bay expedition.
February 18, 1690 --- Attack on Schenectady.
1690 --- Pierre (Le Moyne) Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706) was granted the Seigneurie de Ristigouche in 1690, which he immediately sold to Richard Denys de Fronsac.
13 October 1694 --- Captures Fort Nelson.
1695 --- Patrolling the Atlantic Coast from Newfiundland to Maine.
1696 August 15 --- "The Triumph of the Pélican". Attack at Pemaquid. Indian and French force led by Pierre (Le Moyne) Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706) and Jean Vincent (D'Abbadie) d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin (abt.1652-abt.1707) on Fort William Henry at Pemaquid in New England (Bristol, Maine). Also Louis D'Amours 1655-1708.
See Second Siege of Pemaquid (14-15 Aug 1696)
1696 --- Newfoundland campaign
5 Sep 1697 --- Le Pélican, leading a convoy of four ships, comes under attack. D'Iberville sinks one ship, seizes another and sends a third one fleeing. By the time reinforcements arrive, the battle is over. All that is left to do is to retake Fort Nelson, which falls on September 13, 1697. Treaty of Ryswick, signed a week later, enshrine English dominance in Hudson's Bay and French hegemony in James Bay. France holds on to Port Royal and Placentia but must yield Pemaquid and part of Acadia. D'Iberville's conquests were for naught.
2 March 1699 --- 1st expedition.Lands at Ocean Springs across from Biloxi.
1700 --- 2nd expedition. Fort Maurepas at Ocean Springs.
1700 --- Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville commandant of Fort La Boulaye. Bienville successively served as commandant of Fort La Boulaye on the Mississippi, Fort Maurepas, and finally Fort Louis at Mobile.
1701 --- 3rd expedition. Fort St-Louis at Mobile.
1702 --- In 1702, having won the trust of the natives, the commander of Louisiana leaves that colony, never to return.
9 Jul 1706' --- Died in Havana, Cuba. "El General Dom Pedro Berbila"
1706 --- When Iberville, then governor of Louisiana, died in 1706, the French government passed Bienville over for the post and instead named Nicolas Daneau de Muy as the territory's new governor. For the next quarter-century Bienville served in a top leadership capacity in Louisiana.
1711 --- Bienville oversaw the relocation of the territorial capital from Old Mobile at Twenty-Seven-Mile Bluff down to its present site, and in 1717 he established Fort Toulouse near present-day Wetumpka, Elmore County. A severe hurricane that year ruined Mobile's chief port at Dauphin Island, and Bienville moved the capital back to Ocean Springs in present-day Mississippi, near where Fort Maurepas had once stood. Two years later he moved the capital to New Biloxi, and two years after that moved it to New Orleans, where it would remain until 1763.
1718 --- New Orleans. "Claimed for the French Crown by explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1682, La Nouvelle-Orleans was founded by Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville in 1718 upon the slightly elevated banks of the Mississippi River approximately 95 miles above its mouth."
1732-1736 --- It was not until 1732, however, that Bienville was officially appointed governor of the colony, a post he had long sought. Three years later, he oversaw construction of Fort Tombecbe, near present-day Epes, Sumter County, which would serve as a trading post and military outpost. Bienville launched two unsuccessful campaigns against the Chickasaws from the fort in 1736.
1743 --- After 44 years as one of France's most important colonial leaders, Bienville retired from public duty. He journeyed to Paris that same year, began a long, uneventful retirement, and died in Paris in 1767 at the age of 88.

Missions and Missionaries

La Registre de Sillery

Sillery is the first native reservation and among the earliest missions.
The following is quoted from La Registre de Sillery.[84]
Noël Brulart de Sillery avait été ambassadeur de France à Madrid et à Rome et il était membre de la Compagnie des Cent-Associés. Il se fit prêtre en 1634 et il distribua sa fortune en oeuvres de charité. II ne vint jamais au Canada, mais au cours de l’été 1637, il envoya des ouvriers en Nouvelle-France pour construire une maison et faire défricher la terre. N. de Sillery projetait l’établissement d’un séminaire pour instruire et christianiser les jeunes filles amérindiennes en même temps que les jeunes françaises.
Le P. Le Jeune avait des projets plus urgents : selon lui, il fallait d’abord « arrêter » les Amérindiens, avant de les évangéliser. Noël de Sillery accepta volontiers l’abandon de son projet de séminaire amérindien en faveur d’une “réduction”.
Le P. Le Jeune l’explicitait dans la Relation de 1638 :
« L’un des plus puissants moyens que nous puissions avoir pour les amener à Jésus-Christ, c’est de les réduire dans un espèce de Bourgade, en un mot de les aider à défricher et cultiver la terre et à se bastir ». Relations, 1638, p. 17.
On tenterait ici l’expérience des « réductions » du Paraguay. En effet, la république agricole des Guaranis, sous la tutelle des Jésuites, fonctionnait à merveille depuis déjà 1610.[85]
À cette fin, les Jésuites achetèrent de M. François Derré de Gand, la Pointe Sainte-Joseph, située à une lieue et demie de Québec.[86]
L’anse de Sillery, appelée Ka-Miskouaouangachit par les Amérindiens, était un lieu traditionnel de réunion des Montagnais, à cause de sa grande richesse en anguilles.[87]
In La Registre de Sillery, we will discover Noel Brulart, Louis de Buade (comte de Frontenac), Superior Paul Lejenue, Jean de Brebeuf, Rene Goupil, Guillaume Couture, Guillaume Couillard, Jacques Fournier, Francois Garnier, Robert Hache, Etienne Pigar8ich, Jean Cochon, Nicholas Juchereu, Pierre Pinguet, et; les Seigneurs Denys, Pelletier, et Lefebvre. We also encounter Abenaki, Montagnais, Algonquins, Hurons, Esquimaux, Gaspesiennes, et les Ursulines.[88]

Sainte-Famille de Pabos

1751-1758 --- "There is a fairly large population in this part of the Gaspé Peninsula and entitled to receive the support of the faith. Nearly thirty houses make up the village of Pabos and sixty other houses are in Grande-Rivière, the neighboring village. A church is built on Beau-Séjour Island, in Grand-Pabos Bay, and probably also a chapel in Grande-Rivière, given the fishing pool at work there. Both villages fall under the parish created under the name of Sainte-Famille de Pabos and for which records are kept from 1751 to 1758."[32]

Les Recollets

Les missions des Récollets en Gaspésie[89]

Chrétien Le Clercq

Chrétien Le Clercq[90]

Olivier Goyer

  • GOYER, OLIVIER, priest, Recollet, provincial commissioner of the Recollets of Canada; b. 1663 in France; d. 8 Oct. 1721 in Paris. [...] In 1698 Goyer went to Canada as provincial commissioner and lived in Quebec. [...] Frontenac’s confessor and was at his bedside until he breathed his last on 28 Nov. 1698. [...] On 8 Sept. 1700 he arrived at Placentia (Plaisance), whence he withdrew two of the three Recollets who had been there, since the mission had been handed over to the Recollets of Brittany. Then he went [back] to France [...] He died at the convent of Saint-Denis in Paris on 8 Oct. 1721, after 41 years in holy orders."[91]

Pere Michel Brusle

  • Les Gaillards v Pere Michel. "Information made at the request of Pierre Rey-Gaillard, commissioner commanding the artillery of the Navy, against Pere Michel, Récollet, missionary in Ristigouche, Miramichy, Nipisiguit and Baie-des-Chaleurs, accused of trafficking with the Indians, to line the walls of the chapel with furs.[92]
  • Pere Michel Brusle (Brule). "In 1698, Father Michel sailed for Canada with Father Olivier Goyer, provincial commissioner of the Recollets mission in New France." ... "In 1705, he was recalled to Quebec and became a "Mikmaq missionary" of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. He held this position for 17 consecutive years, during which he was occasionally a service and parish priest of Rimouski, Baie-Saint-Paul, Ristigouche, Port-La-Joie, when he passed through these places." ... "The main centers of his mission were Ristigouche, Miramichi and Nipisiguit (Bathurst, N.B.), which were part of the seigneury of Richard Denys* de Fronsac, whose widow, Françoise Cailleteau, had remarried Pierre Rey Gaillard" ... "[Gaillards] attacked Father Michel, accusing him of doing great harm to their trade by engaging in it himself" ... "On December 4, 1716, the missionaries denounced Rey Gaillard's scandalous practices who, to have game and furskins, attracted the Indians every day with drink." ... [93][94]

Father Joseph Denys

"Father Dethune stayed in Percé for ten years. He was joined and replaced in 1683 by Father Joseph Denys, whose real name was Jacques Denys, son of the local lord Pierre Denys de la Ronde."[32]
"The chapel built by Father Dethune was soon replaced by a fifty-foot-long church. The work was completed in 1687. It is "a very beautiful church for the environment, decorated with all the necessary paintings and ornaments," writes Chrétien Le Clercq. The small church is dedicated to St. Peter, not only in the eyes of the community, the prince of the apostles, but also the patron saint of fishermen. A second church is also built by Father Didace on Bonaventure Island. Its construction is necessary because of the regular stay of French crews on the island. This one is dedicated to Sainte-Claire, a young woman who founded the female counterpart of the Order of Disappointed Franciscans in Europe. This is therefore, in the eyes of religious, a way to pay him a deserved tribute."[32]


  1. MemoiresDuQuebec.com. This map shows seigneuries at a specific date (unknown which date exactly), there were changes to them over time. (Accessed 8 Nov 2021) https://memoireduquebec.com/wiki/images/3/39/MdQCarte_des_seigneuries.jpg
  2. MemoiresDuQuebec.com. Liste des seigneuries. Index to the map. Numbers referenced from the map are from associated list. (Accessed 8 Nov 2021) https://www.memoireduquebec.com/wiki/index.php?title=Liste_des_seigneuries_%28seigneurie%29
  3. Perche-Quebec.com "Les émigrants percherons partis en Nouvelle-France aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles" Le Perche, terre d'émigration vers le Québec au XVIIe siècle (Accessed 7 Nov 2021) https://www.perche-quebec.com/perche/individus/emigrants.htm
  4. 2 août 1646 - 6 août 1646 Cote : E21,S64,SS5,SSS7,D6 Fonds Ministère des Terres et Forêts - BAnQ Québec Id 258231 original
  5. Cote : E21,S64,SS5,SSS7,D7 Fonds Ministère des Terres et Forêts - BAnQ Québec Id 258290 copies
    Concession accordée le 2 août 1646 par la Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France aux Sauvages (Amérindiens) de Sillery, signé Charles Huault de Montmagny, et acte de prise de possession du 6 août 1646; 2 août 1646 - 6 août 1646
    Description: Les lieux suivants sont mentionnés dans le document : l'anse Saint-Joseph dite de Sillery, la route de Puisiaux (Puiseaux), le Cap Rouge (Cap-Rouge), le petit sault de la Chaudière ou rivière Bruyante, le fort Saint-Louis. Les noms suivants figurent dans le document : Hierosme (Jérôme) Lalemant, père jésuites; Tronquet (notaire); Jean Bourdon, ingénieur et arpenteur; Noël Tek8irimat, Negabamat, Charles Mejchka8at, Ignace 8itatai8chi et Philippe Sakap8an, Sauvages (Amérindiens, Hurons); Robert Hache et César Léger, taillandier, Français
  6. Parish of Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Eglise Saints-Martyrs-Canadiens.(Acessed 11 Nov 2021) https://www.saintjeanbaptiste.org/eglise-saints-martyrs-canadiens
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnacona
  8. Chrestien Leclercq. NEW RELATIONSHIP OF GASPÉSIA Biographical Notes.
  9. Mimeault, Mario, Ph. D. Histoire. "Pierre Denys de La Ronde" EncycloBec. Gaspé, 7 juillet 2002, 2017. (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=333
  10. Mimeault, Mario, Ph. D. Histoire. "Jean Talon et les débuts de l’industrie canadienne de la pêche" Gaspé, July 26, 2002, 2017 (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=331
  11. Hugolin, "L'établissement des récollets à l'Isle Percée", Québec, s.n., 1912, 47 p. ; 25 cm., Collections de BAnQ. (Accessed 13 Nov 2021) https://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2022246
  12. Mimeault, Mario, Ph. D. History. "Percé, 1686" EncycloBec. Gaspé, July 13, 2002, 2017 (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=334
  13. Go Gaspe. 1688 Census in Gaspesia. (Accessed 14 Nov 2021) http://gogaspe.com/host/annett/volume5/162%20The%201688%20Census%20in%20Gaspesia.pdf
  14. Patrimoine culturel, Percé, p.13. PDF edition. (Accessed 13 Nov 2021) https://www.patrimoine-culturel.gouv.qc.ca/rpcq/document/rpcq_bien_93526_255192.PDF?id=255192
  15. La Ste. Vierge de La Rochelle. [https://www.naviresnouvellefrance.net/html/pages16891690.html Naivres venus en Nouveau France. No. 1171.
  16. Lee, David. "The French in Gaspé, 1534 to 1760" "As can be seen, financing a vessel engaged in dry fishing was both expensive and risky. When the first news arrived in La Rochelle of the English attack on Percé in 1690, [...] l'Espérance, had a burden of 200 tons and carried 42 men. La Ste. Vièrge was new and had a burden of 150 tons and could carry 70,000 cod."
  17. Myrand, Ernest,, "Sir William Phips devant Québec - Histoire d'un siège" /, Québec, Imprimerie de L.J. Demers & frère, bureau de l'Événement, 1893, 428 p. [10] f. de pl. : cartes, fac-sim. plan, portr. ; 23 cm, Collections de BAnQ. (Accessed 13 nov 2021) https://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2022077
  18. 18.0 18.1 Le Clercq, Chrétien, Ganong, William F., Paltsits, Victor Hugo. “Nouvelle relation de la Gaspésie” Toronto : Champlain Society, 1910. Identifier: 74008. National Library of Canada. xv, 452 p., 10 leaves of plates (2 folded) : ill., maps (part. fold.), facsims. ; 25 cm. Text in eng and fra. Title of original: Nouvelle relation de la Gaspesie ... Paris, 1691. Fascimile of original: p. [323]-439. "Five hundred and twenty copies of this volume have been printed. Twenty are reserved for editorial purpose. The remaining five hundred are supplied to members of the Society and to subscribing libraries. This copy is no. 234."--Verso series t.p. (Accessed 28 Oct 2021) https://www.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.74008
  19. PRDH #413012. Hospitalisation: Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, 1690-10-10
    Rang Nom Âge É.m. Pr. Sexe
    01 XXXXX HELIS --- c p m
    Profession : RECOLLET
    02 FRANCOISE AUBRY 038 m p f
    Origine : ST-ROCH, PARIS
    03 VINCENT LESPINNE --- m a m
    Résidence : ILE-PERCEE
    04 SIMEON MORIN 015 --- p m
    Résidence : CHARLESBOURG
    05 GUILLAUME COPPELAN 018 --- p m
    Origine : ST-JEAN, BORDEAUX
    06 JEAN DEMONTE LAGRANDEUR 023 --- p m
    Profession : SOLDAT
    Origine : ST-JEAN, POITOU
    08 REMY LEBOEUF 024 --- p m
    Profession : SOLDAT
    09 JACQUES PETIAUX 019 --- p m
    Résidence : DANTRES
    10 JEAN LANGLOIS 042 --- p m
    Résidence : BEAUPORT
    11 LAURENT DENIS 052 --- p m
    12 FRANCOISE MORINAUX 060 m p f
    Origine : ILE DE RE
    13 LOUIS MARCHAN --- m a m
    Origine : ST-MARTIN-DE-RAY
    15 PIERRE LERAUX 030 --- p m
    Résidence : STE-FAMILLE, I.O.
    16 CHARLES BISON 032 --- p m
    Origine : ST-ESPES-DE-MELIN
  20. Comeau, p.104-107, "1690: Capela durant les raids de Phips."
  21. Archives Canada, concession d'Orvilliers
  22. BanQ Notarial acts index http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2431906
  23. Mémoire du Québec, Seigneurie d'Antaya
  24. Map of/Carte des seigneuries #12 sur la carte / on map
  25. Archives Canada, acquisition par Louis Balthazar...
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Jean, Denis, "Ethnogenese Des Premieres Metis Canadiennes (1603-1763)", (dissertation). Dec 2011, Moncton University. Research Univ of Moncton. 234 pages. French edition. PDF Edition.
  27. Pierre Lefebvre recorded as an innkeeper. BAnQ
  28. 28.0 28.1 Lee, David. “LEFEBVRE DE BELLEFEUILLE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 3, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 20, 2014, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/lefebvre_de_bellefeuille_jean_francois_3E.html. François Lefebvre de Bellefeuille], seigneur.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Comeau, Marc-André. "Pêcheur Normand, Famille Métisse : Genése de l'installation d'une famille de pêcheurs, les Mallet de d'Acadie, á la baie des Chaleurs." French edition. Published Sept. 7 2021. ISBN 978-2897912758. Published by Septentrion. 287 pages, plus abbreviations, bibliography, index, and table of contents. p.12-13.
  30. BAnQ 2 fischiers
  31. BAnQ CA QUEBEC E1-S4-SS2-P444. (Accessed 9 Nov 2021) https://archivescanada.accesstomemory.ca/acte-de-foi-et-hommage-de-damoiselle-marie-francoise-achille-rey-gaillard-tant-comme-heritiere-pour-un-tiers-des-feux-pierre-rey-gaillard-commissaire-dartillerie-en-nouvelle-france-et-francoise-cailleteau-ses-pere-et-mere-heritiere-aus
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 Mario Mimeault, Ph. D. "The Recollets' missions in the Gaspé Peninsula" Encyclobec.ca
  33. Archives Nationales http://anom.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/geo.php?lieu=Pentagoët%2C+Seigneurie+%28Maine+%3B+États-Unis%29
  34. Acadie: Chemin de la francophonie. "Maine > Castine – Difficult implementation of the Acadian border" (Accessed 5 Mar 2022) https://acadie.cheminsdelafrancophonie.org/en/castine-difficult-implementation-of-the-acadian-border/#
  35. Tim Hebert; Transcription of the 1686 Acadian Census, at Port-Royal, Acadie 1686 Census Transcribed. The original census can be found at Acadian Census microfilm C-2572 of the National Archives of Canada “Acadie Recensements 1671 – 1752”, Images 15-60.
    Martin D'APRENDESTIQUE, dit Martignon 70, Jeanne LATOUR his wife 60; child: Marianne 24.
  36. Norton, Mary Beth. "George Burroughs and The Girls From Casco: The Maine Roots of Salem Witchcraft", Cornell University https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1190&context=mainehistoryjournal
  37. History of York County. 1888. p. 55
  38. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lachine_massacre
  39. Hull, John Thomas. "The Siege and Capture of Fort Loyall, Destruction of Falmouth, May 20, 1690." Portland (Me.). City Council, Maine Genealogical Society (1884- )
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  41. 1704 Deerfield Raid Captives. https://www.tfcg.ca/1704-deerfield-raid-captives
  42. Our Captive Ancestors from the 1704 Deerfield Raid. https://www.tfcg.ca/deerfield-captives-nims-rising-allen
  43. https://books.google.ca/books?id=zxPVAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA551#v=onepage&q&f=false
  44. Punitive expedition to Acadia by Benjamin Church. https://naviresnouvellefrance.net/vaisseau1700/html/pages17041708.html
  45. CHURCH’S EXPEDITION AT PASSAMAQUODDY. http://carensecord.ca/locations/NewBrunswick/Glimpses/XXXI.html
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  49. CHURCH’S EXPEDITION AT PASSAMAQUODDY. http://carensecord.ca/locations/NewBrunswick/Glimpses/XXXI.html
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  52. Full text of "True stories of New England captives carried to Canada during the old French and Indian wars" (Accessed 19 Nov 2021) https://archive.org/stream/truestoriesofnew00bake/truestoriesofnew00bake_djvu.txt
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  56. Author of Article: René Baudry
    Title of Article: CHAMBLY, JACQUES DE
    Publication Name: EN:UNDEF:public_citation_publication, vol. 1
    Publication Details: EN:UNDEF:public_citation_publisher, 1966
    Year of publication: 1966
    Year of revision: 2015
    Access Date: March 5, 2022
    Permalink: http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/chambly_jacques_de_1E.html
  57. Societe Histoire Chambly http://societehistoirechambly.org/services/html/chambly1681.html#seigneurie
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    "Acte de concession par Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac, et Jean Bochart Champigny, gouverneur et intendant de la Nouvelle-France, à François Genaple, sieur de Bellefonds (Belfonds), notaire royal à Québec et commis du grand voyer de ce pays, de l'espace de terre situé à la rivière Saint-Jean, pays de l'Acadie, entre Medoktek et Nacchouak qui joint à la terre de Gemesek (Jemseg, Jemsek, Gemsek, Gemesik), à savoir le lieu appelé les Longues-Vues commençant à la rivière appelée en nom sauvage Skoutcopskek jusqu'au lieu et rivière appelés Nerkoiouiquek, sur deux lieues de profondeur dans lesdites terres, de part et d'autre de ladite rivière Saint-Jean, laquelle concession comprenant en outre les îles et îlets qui sont dans ledit espace, à titre de fief et seigneurie avec haute, moyenne et basse justice, 25 février 1690, BAnQ Québec, Fonds Intendants, (03Q,E1,S3,P123)."
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  64. Lucie Delarosbil. "Hypothesis of the origin of Michels" Posted on October 26, 2017. (Accessed 30 Oct 2021) http://luludel.over-blog.com/2017/10/hypothese-de-l-origine-des-michel.html
  65. http://gaspesie.quebecheritageweb.com/fr/node/283
  66. BN, Coll. Clairambault, 1016, fol 331v.
  67. Mes Racines. Citing the census of 1686 and 1688, and Jette, p.405. Proposes his family composition. (Accessed 9 Nov 2021) https://mes-racines.ca/fichiers/Dict.%20g%E9n%E9alogiques/Dictionnaire%20g%E9n%E9alogique%20des%20familles%20acadiennes%20-%201636-1714%20-%20A-G/Dictionnaire%20g%E9n%E9alogique%20des%20familles%20acadiennes%20-%201636-1714%20-%20Partie%2037.pdf
  68. George MacBeath, "ÉNAULT (Esnault, Hénaut) DE BARBAUCANNES (Barbocant), PHILIPPE, physician and prominent early settler in Acadia; b. at Saumur, France, in 1651; d. after 1708." in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 2, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003– (Accessed 8 November 2021) http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/enault_de_barbaucannes_philippe_2F.html
  69. Mimeault , Mario, Ph. D. History. "Nicolas Denys, 1598-1688" EncycloBec. Gaspé, July 5, 2002. (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=367
  70. Chrestien Leclercq. NEW RELATIONSHIP OF GASPÉSIA Biographical Notes.
  71. BAnQ
  72. Mlle Gaillard vs. Jean Michel, Marin a Pabos. "Order against Olivier Michel to account for the sale of two longboats by Sieur & Mme Gaillard." BAnQ
  73. Olivier Michel v. Georges Tanguay, navigateur. "Ordonnance du lieutenant général de l'Amirauté de Québec, Nicolas-Gaspard Boucault, dans le procès entre François Aubert, stipulant pour Olivier Michel, habitant de la Grande Rivière, ..." BAnQ
  74. Rg Sillery, p.308.
    "Anno Domini 1663 Decembris 2, ego Petrus Bailloquet societatis Jesu baptisavi solemniter in ecciesia Silleriaca infantem recens natum ex Francisco Pelletier et Margarita Morisseau conjugibus. Patrinus fuit Dominus D’Auteill, matrina Elizabetha Boucher ; Franciscum Xaverium nuncuparunt infantem."
  75. 75.0 75.1
  76. Pierre Lefebvre's second wife was Françoise Boissel, who had four brothers. Their father was Noel Boissel, who is listed in Perce during the 1688 census: "His wife is from La Rochelle. He went [to Perce] in 1679."
  77. 77.0 77.1 Provost, Honorius. “LEFEBVRE, THOMAS,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 2, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 20, 2014, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/lefebvre_thomas_2E.html.
  78. Cormier , Steven A., ACADIANS of LOUISIANA: A Synthesis, (massive but incomplete). Several references to Thomas Lefebvre and the Seigneurie de Koessanouskek.
  79. BAnQ excerpt: "Act of faith and homage of Sieur Pierre Lefebvre, interpreter in the Abenaki language, residing in Quebec, eldest son of the late Thomas Lefebvre, also interpreter in the same language, owner for a third the fief ... the said fief having been granted to the said late Thomas Lefebvre in Acadia by Messires de Callières and de Beauharnois on May 7 1703" (15 May 1725)
  80. Pierre Lefebvre recorded as an innkeeper. BAnQ
  81. See "Notaire Chambalon" in the profile of Guillaume Capela).
  82. PRDH #202354. Marriage.
    Mariage, union
    Pabos, 1752-08-31
    Rang Nom Âge É.m. Pr. Sexe
    01 PIERRE LANGLOIS --- c p m
    Résidence : PABOS
    02 ANNE HUART --- c p f
    Résidence : PABOS
    03 JEAN LANGLOIS --- --- d m
    PÈRE DE 01
    04 PERRINE LEFEUBRE --- --- d f
    MÈRE DE 01
    05 PIERRE HUART --- --- p m
    PÈRE DE 02
    06 CATHERINE CAPPLAN --- --- --- f
    MÈRE DE 02
    09 ANNE DEBELLEFEUILLE --- --- p f
    10 SIMPLE BOCQUET --- c p m
    Profession : RECOLLET
    Résidence : PABOS
  83. Rg Sillery, Introduction, p.27.
  84. « En 1630, les Jésuites ont déjà formé vingt-quatre réductions qui regroupaient presque 100 000 membres. » (CHRISTOPHE, Paul. L’Église dans l’histoire des hommes du Xle siècle à nos Jours, Droguet-Ardant, 1983, p. 19.
  85. DBC I , 270-271.
  86. CAMPEAU, Lucien. Catastrophe démographique sur les Grands Lacs — Les premiers habitants du Québec, Cahiers d’histoire des Jésuites, n° 7, Montréal, 1986, p. 116.
  87. Hebert, Leo Paul. "Le Registre de Sillery (1638-1690)" Published in collaboration with the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Foundation. Collection: Tekouerimat. 1994, 440 pages, SF011, ISBN 978-2-7605-0761-6 (paper). ISBN 978-2-7605-2339-5 (PDF).
  88. Mimeault , Mario, Ph. D. Histoire. "Les missions des Récollets en Gaspésie" Gaspé, 12 juillet 2002. EncyloBec. (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=369
  89. Mimeault , Mario, Ph. D. Histoire. "Chrétien Le Clercq" Gaspé, 11 juillet 2002. EncyloBec. (Accessed 1 Nov 2021) http://encyclobec.ca/region_projet.php?projetid=368
  90. Biographi.ca. Biography of Olivier Goyer
  91. Manuscript. "Ce dossier en matières criminelles provient de la Prévôté et Amirauté de Québec et contient les interrogatoires ou les dépositions des personnes suivantes : Pierre Émard (Haimard), juge prévôt de Notre-Dame-des-Anges, âgé de 48 ans, demeurant à Québec, rue Saint-Pierre; Jean-Baptiste Leboeuf (Lebeuf), de Sainte-Marie, âgé de 45 ans, capitaine des gardes établis pour la conservation des castors, demeurant à Québec, rue du Cul-de-Sac et David Pauperet, âgé de 28 ans, marchand, demeurant au Cul-de-Sac. Ce dossier comprend la requête de Pierre Rey-Gaillard adressée à la Prévôté de Québec; l'information; une ordonnance de la Prévôté." Dates: October 19, 1714 to October 23, 1714 Collection Pièces judiciaires et notariales (03Q,TL5,D490.2). (Accessed 31 Oct 2021.) BAnQ
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  93. Valois, Jacques. "Michel Bruslé", Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. II, p. 111.
See also:
La Souche Caplan


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