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List of German monarchs

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List of German Monarchs

NOTE: Emperors are listed in bold. Rival kings, anti-kings, and junior co-regents are italicized.


Part of the Western Roman Empire until 5th century AD, when large parts of Germania became part of the Frankish Empire


Ruled by the Franks until the early middle ages until it was split in the 843 Treaty of Verdun into three regions given to the sons of emperor Louis the Pious. Middle Francia went to Lothair I, who kept the imperial title; West Francia, was given to Charles the Bald; and East Francia was given to Louis the German.

East Francia, 843–962

German-speaking Eastern Frankish kingdom, including: the Duchy of Saxony, Austrasia, Alamannia, the Duchy of Bavaria and the March of Carinthia. In 869, Lotharinga (Middle Francia) was divided between East and West Francia. In 911, the Dukes chose one of their own, Conrad Duke of Franconia, to rule as king, ending the Carolingian dynasty. In 919, on his deathbed, Conrad I chose a Henry of Saxony as the first Saxon king.


  • Louis the German (Ludwig der Deutsche), b.806, d.876 - King 843-876. Son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grandson of Charlemagne.
  • Carloman (Karlmann), b.830, d.880 - King 876-880. Son of Louis the German; ruled in Bavaria; from 877, also King of Italy.
  • Louis the Younger (Ludwig III der Jüngere) b.835, d.882 - King 876-882. Son of Louis the German; ruled in East Francia, Saxony; from 880, also Bavaria.
  • Charles the Fat (Karl III der Dicke), b.839, d.888 - King 876, Emperor 881-887. Son of Louis the German; ruled in Alemannia, Raetia, from 882 in the entire Eastern Kingdom; from 879, also King of Italy.
  • Arnulf of Carinthia (Arnulf von Kärnten), b.850, d.899 - King 887, Emperor 896-899. Illegitimate son of Carloman.
  • Louis the Child (Ludwig IV das Kind), b.893, d.911- King 900-911. Son of Arnulf of Carinthia.

Conradine Dynasty

  • Conrad I (Konrad I), b.890, d.918 - 911 - King 911-918, Elected by the nobility. Duke of Franconia. House: Conradine (Franconian).

Ottonian Dynasty

  • Henry I the Fowler (Heinrich I der Vogler), b.876, d.936 - King 919-936. King of Germany, elected by the nobility. House: Liudolfing (Saxon).
  • Arnulf the Bad (Arnulf der Böse, Herzog von Bayern), b.912, d.973 - King 919-921 - Rival king to Henry I. House: Ottonian.

Holy Roman Empire, 962–1806

The title "King of the Romans" is considered equivalant to King of Germany. Kings were chosen by German electors and would be crowned Emperor by the Pope in Rome. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II after the defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805.

Ottonian Dynasty (continued)

  • Otto I the Great (Otto I der Große), b.912, d.973 - King 936, Emperor 962-973 - Son of Henry I; first king crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Lothair I; crowned as Otto by the grace of God King.
  • Otto II the Red (Otto II), b.955, d.983 - King 961, Emperor 967-983 - Son of Otto I; Otto by the grace of God King under his father 961–973; also crowned Emperor in his father's lifetime.
  • Otto III (Otto III), b.980, d.1002 - King 983, Emperor 996-1002. Son of Otto II; Otto by the grace of God King.
  • Henry II (Heinrich II der Heilige), b.972, d.1024 - King 1002, Emperor 1014-1024 - Great-grandson of Henry I. NOTE: has totally incorrect LNAB.

Salian (Salier) Dynasty

  • Conrad II (Konrad II), b.990, d.1039 - King 1024, Emperor 1027-1039. Great-great-grandson of Otto I. House: Salian (Frankish).
  • Henry III (Heinrich III), b.1017, d.1056 - King 1028, Emperor 1046-1056. Son of Conrad II; King (of the Germans?) under his father 1028–1039.
  • Henry IV (Heinrich IV), b.1050, d.1106 - King 1054, Emperor 1084-1105. Son of Henry III; King of Germany under his father, 1054–1056. Needs change of LNAB.
  • Rudolf of Rheinfelden (Rudolf von Rheinfelden), b.1025, d.1080 - King 1077-1080. Rival king to Henry IV. House: Rheinfeld.
  • Hermann of Salm (Hermann von Luxemburg, Graf von Salm), b.1035, d.1088 - King 1081-1088. Rival king to Henry IV. House: Salm.
  • Conrad (Konrad), b.1074, d.1101 - King 1087-1011. Son of Henry IV; King of Germany under his father, 1087–1098, King of Italy, 1093–1098, 1095–1101 in rebellion. House: Salian. Needs change of LNAB.
  • Henry V (Heinrich V), b.1081, d.1125 - King 1099, Emperor 1111-1125. Son of Henry IV; King of Germany under his father, 1099–1105; forced his father to abdicate. Needs change of LNAB.

Supplinburger Dynasty

  • Lothair III (Lothar III), b.1075, d.1137 - King 1125 Emperor 1133-1137. He was Lothair II of Germany, but Lothair III of Italy.

Hohenstaufen and Welf Dynasties

  • Conrad III (Konrad III), b.1093, d.1152 - King 1138-1152. Grandson of Henry IV (through his mother); Previously rival king to Lothair III 1127–1135. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Henry Berengar (Heinrich VI), b.1136, d.1150 - King 1147-1150. Son of Conrad III; King of Germany under his father. House: Hohenstaufen. No WikiTree profile.
  • Frederick I Barbarossa (Friedrich I Barbarossa), b.1122, d.1190 - King 1152, Emperor 1155-1190. Nephew of Conrad III. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Henry VI (Heinrich VI), b.1165, d.1197 - King 1169, Emperor 1191-1197. Son of Frederick I; King of Germany under his father 1169–1190. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Frederick II (Friedrich II), b.1194, d.1250 - King 1197. Son of Henry VI; King of Germany under his father, 1197. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Philip of Swabia (Philipp von Schwaben), b.1177, d.1208 - King 1198-1208. Son of Frederick I; rival king to Otto IV. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Otto IV (Otto IV von Braunschweig), b.1175, d.1218 - King 1198, Emperor 1209-1215. Rival king to Philip of Swabia; later opposed by Frederick II; deposed, 1215. House: Welf.
  • Frederick II (Friedrich II), b.1194, d.1250 - King 1212, Emperor 1220-1250. Son of Henry VI; Rival king to Otto IV until 5 July 1215. House: Hohenstaufen (listed above).
  • Henry VII (Heinrich VII), b.1211, d.1242 - King 1220-1235. Son of Frederick II; King of Germany under his father. House: Hohenstaufen.
  • Conrad IV (Konrad IV), b.1228, d.1254 - King 1237-1254. Son of Frederick II; King of Germany under his father, 1237–1250. House: Hohenstaufen.


  • Henry Raspe (Heinrich Raspe), b.1204, d.1247 - King 1246-1247. Rival King to Frederick II and great-great-great grandson of Henry IV. House: Thuringa. No WikiTree profile.
  • William II of Holland (Wilhelm von Holland), b.1227, d.1256 - King 1247-1256. Rival King to Frederick II and Conrad IV, 1247–1254. House: Holland.
  • Richard of Cornwall (Richard von Cornwall), b.1209, d.1272 - King 1257-1272. Brother-in-law of Frederick II; rival king to Alfonso of Castile; held no real authority. House: Plantagenet.
  • Alfonso X of Castile (Alfons von Kastilien), b.1221, d.1284 - King 1257-1275. Grandson of Philip; rival king to Richard of Cornwall; held no authority; later opposed by Rudolf I; relinquished claims 1275. House: Ivrea.

Changing Dynasties

  • Rudolf I (Rudolf I von Habsburg), b.1218, d.1291 - King 1273-1291. First of the Habsburgs. House: Habsburg.
  • Adolf of Nassau (Adolf von Nassau), b.1250, d.1298 - King 1292-1298. According to some historians, Adolf's election was preceded by the short-lived kingship of Conrad, Duke of Teck. See his Wikipedia article for details. House: Nassau.
  • Albert I (Albrecht I von Habsburg), b.1255, d.1308 - King 1298-1308. Son of Rudolf I; Rival king to Adolf of Nassau, 1298. House: Habsburg.
  • Henry VII (Heinrich VII), b.1279, d.1313 - King 1308, Emperor 1312-1313. House: Luxembourg.
  • Louis IV (Ludwig IV der Bayer), b.1282, d.1347 - King 1314, Emperor 1328-1347. Grandson of Rudolf I; rival king to Frederick the Fair, 1314–1322. House: Wittelsbach.
  • Frederick the Fair (Friedrich der Schöne), b.1289, d.1330 - King 1314-1322, 1325-1330. Son of Albert I; rival king to Louis IV, 1314–1322; associate king with Louis IV, 1325–1330. House: Habsburg.
  • Charles IV (Karl IV), b.1316, d.1378 - King 1346, Emperor 1355-1378. Grandson of Henry VII; rival king to Louis IV, 1346–1347; also King of Bohemia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. House: Luxembourg.
  • Günther von Schwarzburg (Günther von Schwarzburg), b.1304, d.1349 - King 1349-1349. Rival king to Charles IV. House: Schwarzburg.
  • Wenceslaus (Wenzel von Böhmen), b.1361, d.1419 - King 1376-1400. Son of Charles IV; king of Germany under his father 1376–1378; deposed 1400; also by inheritance King of Bohemia. House: Luxembourg.
  • Rupert III of the Palatinate (Ruprecht von der Pfalz), b.1341, d.1410 - King 1400-1410. Great-grandnephew of Louis IV. House: Wittelsbach.
  • Sigismund (Sigismund), b.1368, d.1437 - King 1410, Emperor 1433-1437. Son of Charles IV. House: Luxembourg.
  • Jobst of Moravia (Jobst von Mähren), b.1354, d.1411 - King 1410-1411. Nephew of Charles IV; rival king to Sigismund. House: Luxembourg. Unsourced, needs LNAB change.


  • Albert II (Albrecht II Habsburg), b.1397, d.1439 - King 1438-1439. 4th in descent from Albert I; son-in-law of Sigismund. Has incorrect LNAB
  • Frederick III (Friedrich III), b.1415, d.1493 - King 1440, Emperor 1452-1493. 4th in descent from Albert I; 2nd cousin of Albert II.
  • Maximilian I (Maximilian I Habsburg), b.1459, d.1519 - King 1486, Emperor 1508-1519. Son of Frederick III; King of Germany under his father, 1486–1493; assumed the title "Elected Emperor" in 1508 with the pope's approval.
  • Charles V (Karl V), b.1500, d.1558 - King/Emperor 1519-1556. Grandson of Maximilian I. Last Emperor to receive the imperial coronation from the Pope.
  • Ferdinand I (Ferdinand I), b.1503, d.1564 - King 1531, Emperor 1556-1564. Grandson of Maximilian I; brother of Charles V; King of Germany under his brother Charles V 1531–1556; last king to be crowned in Aachen Cathedral.
  • Maximilian II (Maximilian II), b.1527, d.1576 - King 1562, Emperor 1564-1576. Son of Ferdinand I; King of Germany under his father 1562–1564.
  • Rudolf II (Rudolf II), b.1552, d.1612 - King 1575, Emperor 1576-1612. Son of Maximilian II; King of Germany under his father, 1575–1576.
  • Matthias (Matthias), b.1557, d.1619 - King/Emperor 1612-1619. Son of Maximilian II.
  • Ferdinand II (Ferdinand II), b.1578, d.1637 - King/Emperor 1619-1637. Grandson of Ferdinand I. Has incorrect LNAB.
  • Ferdinand III (Ferdinand III), b.1608, d.1657 - King 1636, Emperor 1637-1657. Son of Ferdinand II; King of Germany under his father 1636–1637. Has incorrect LNAB.
  • Ferdinand IV (Ferdinand IV), b.1633, d.1654 - King 1653-1654. Son of Ferdinand III; King of Germany under his father.
  • Leopold I (Leopold I), b.1640, d.1705 - King/Emperor 1658-1705. Son of Ferdinand III.
  • Joseph I (Joseph I), b.1678, d.1711 - King 1690, Emperor 1705-1711. Son of Leopold I; King of Germany under his father 1690-1705.
  • Charles VI (Karl VI), b.1685, d.1740 - King/Emperor 1711-1740. Son of Leopold I.


  • Charles VII (Karl VII), b.1697, d.1745 - King/Emperor 1742-1745. Great-great-grandson of Ferdinand II; Husband of Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Maria Theresa I (Maria Theresia), b.1717, d.1780 - Empress 1745-1780. Daughter of Charles VI. House: Habsburg.
  • Francis I (Franz I), b.1708, d.1765 - King/Emperor 1745-1765. Husband of Maria Theresa I. House: Lorraine.
  • Joseph II, b.1741, d.1790 - King 1764, Emperor 1765-1790. Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa I; King of Germany under his father 1764–1765. House: Habsburg.
  • Leopold II, b.1747, d.1792 - King/Emperor 1790-1792. Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa. House: Habsburg.
  • Francis II (Franz II), b.1768, d.1835 - King/Emperor 1792-1806. Son of Leopold II; Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; also Emperor of Austria 1804–1835; President of the German Confederation (1815-1835). House: Habsburg.

Modern Germany, 1806–1918

Confederation of the Rhine, 1806–1813

  • Napoleon I Bonaparte, b.1769, d.1821 - Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813. Emperor of the French and King of Italy.
  • Karl Theodor von Dalberg, b.1744, d. 1817 - Prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813. Prince-Archbishop of Regensburg and Grand Duke of Frankfurt. No WikiTree profile.
  • Eugène de Beauharnais, b. 1781, d. 1824 - Prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine 1813-1813. Grand Duke of Frankfurt.

German Confederation, 1815–1866

  • Francis I, Emperor of Austria (Franz I, Kaiser von Österreich), b.1768, d.1835 - Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria: 1815-1835 (see above). House: Habsburg-Lorraine.
  • Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria (Ferdinand I, Kaiser von Österreich), b.1793, d.1875 - Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria: 1835-1848. House: Habsburg-Lorraine.
  • Archduke John of Austria (Erzherzog Johann von Österreich), b.1782, d.1859 - Imperial Vicar (Reichsverweser) of the German Empire 1848-1849. House: Habsburg.
  • Frederick William IV, King of Prussia (Friedrich Wilhelm IV, König von Preußen), b.1795, d.1861 - Emperor of the Germans elect 1849, Presidium of the Union (Unionsvorstand) of the Erfurt Union 1849-1850. House: Hohenzollern.
  • Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria (Franz Joseph I, Kaiser von Österreich), b.1830, d.1916 - Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria: 1850-1866. House: Habsburg-Lorraine.

North German Confederation, 1867–1871

  • Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (Wilhelm I, König von Preußen), b. 1797, d. 1888 - Holder of the Bundespräsidium of the North German Confederation 1867-1871. House: Hohenzollern.

German Empire, 1871–1918

  • Wilhelm I (Wilhelm I), b. 1797, d. 1888 - German Emperor/ Deutscher Kaiser 1871-1888 (see above). House: Hohenzollern.
  • Friedrich III (Friedrich III), b.1831, d.1888 - German Emperor/ Deutscher Kaiser 1888-1888. House: Hohenzollern.
  • Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II), b.1859, d.1941 - German Emperor/Deutscher Kaiser 1888-1918. House: Hohenzollern.

Last German Monarchs in 1918

The Monarchs below were forced to abdicate in November 1918

  • Wilhelm II, b.1859, d.1941 - German Emperor, King of Prussia (see above). House: Hohenzollern.
  • Ludwig III, b.1845, d. 1921 - King of Bavaria. House: Wittelsbach.
  • Frederick Augustus III, b. 1865, d.1932 - King of Saxony. House: Wettin.
  • Wilhelm II, b.1848, d. 1921 - King of Württemberg. House: Württemberg.



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