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Lunenburg, Nova Scotia

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Date: 1753 [unknown]
Location: Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, Canadamap
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Lunenburg, Nova Scotia is a UNESCO World Site, a National Historic Site of Canada and a Heritage Conservation District under the Nova Scotia Heritage Property Act.

Mi'kmaq and French

The Mi'kmaq were numerous in the area around Lunenburg and Mahone Bay, particularly during the summer months. Acadian colonists arrived from France in the 1620's, and co-existed with the Mi'kmaq. These families are managed by the [Acadian Project]. They called their settlement Mirliguèche.

Some family names included: Guédry, Missel, Meuse[1] [2]

British settlement

In 1749, the British established Halifax on land that was Mi'kmaq by treaty[3] [4], which triggered a war. They were unable to attract sufficient settlers from England or the colonies of New England, so they sent recruiters out along the Rhine River in Europe with promises of free land and equipment for farming. Between 1750 and 1742, more than 1,500 settlers came to Halifax from the upper Rhine, mostly protestants from Switzerland, Palatinate Germany, and the Montbéliard region of what is now France[5], but the war prevented the distribution of the promised land, which resulted in a group of dissatisfied settlers.

Some left Halifax and went to Louisbourg, which was under French control (See note on Frederich Hahn's profile.

In July 1753, Cornwallis sent Col. Charles Lawrence to Mirliguèche with 160 soldiers, material for prefabricated blockhouses and supplies for a settlement, and most of the surviving "Foreign Protestants" to found Lunenburg. The resulting conflict again prevented the distribution of farmland. Considering that many of the settlers were French-speaking, there was considerable sympathy between them and the Acadians, and an uprising against the English. After this was put down, some of the Lunenburg settlers crossed to the Acadian side, temporarily. In 1755, when the Acadians were expulsed, the Lunenburg settlers among them were given a choice, and most appeared to have chosen the settlement over expulsion. They swore the oath of fealty to England and were permitted to remain. Farming could now begin, however the town was wholly dependent on supplies from Halifax, and hard times persisted.

In 1758, the English established a legislature in Nova Scotia, the first in any English colony, and the residents of Lunenburg elected 2 representatives[6]. The vote attracted a number of settlers from New England, a wave of migrants called New England Planters, who established new settlements called townships in nearby Chester and Liverpool[7]. The settlers in Lunenburg now had local trading partners, and during this period of peace, began finally to prosper.

The American Revolution was a difficult period, as American privateers prevented trade. Further, they raided Lunenburg in 1782, and devastated the town. Records in Liverpool, such as Simeon Perkins diary show that sailors from Lunenburg volunteered in the first Nova Scotian privateers. Loyalist records indicate that only a handful of Loyalists settled in Lunenburg, however the influx of Loyalists caused the British to retract all land grants, and required the settlers to apply for a new grant for the town, which is dated June 30, 1784.

The town was fortified in the War of 1812, and authorized to operate its own privateer vessel.

Early families

On June 30, 1784, the following were granted land as part of the final founding grant of Lunenburg. Please do not use this as a source, it is transcribed from a transcription, and there may be errors. Further, names are spelled as they appear in the record, often phonetically, and don't reflect the accurate name:

"A list of the founders of the township of Lunenburg, June 30, 1784
John Creighton, Esquire Leonard Christopher Rudolf, Esquire . D. Christopher Rudolf, Esquire
Joseph Pernette, Esquire J. Christopher Rudolf Casper Wollenhaupt
John Bollman John Donig Philip Herman, sen
John Becker John Deauphinee, sen Andrew Jung
Just Shup Henry Ernst Babitt Bachman
John Bachman Michael Morash Philip Winter, sen
Jacob Heid James Vienot Philip Schweinheimer
Jacob Hirtle, sen Peter Low Adam Acker
George Bohner, sen Mathias Fihner John Rufus, sen
Christopher Veinot Frederick Lery Valentine Whitman
Philip Heinrich Philip Schmeldzer, Frederick Emounot, sen
Peter Wambolt, sen George Frank, sen John Gerhart
Casper Zinck, sen Nicolaus Glassen Christian Fehr
George Tanner John Berringer Gotlib Berringer
Henry Wagener John Eisenhauer Christian Greff
Ulerick Bohliver Christian Eicherd, sen George Frederick Bailly
Henry Meichszner Wendel Wust Ulerick Hablich
John Vogely Frederick Weil Henry Becker
George Born George Arenberg George Philip Brothenhauer
Michael Lohnes John Henry Fehder James Leangille
Joseph Conroy Philip Triffian Leopold Leangille
Jacob Rufus Assimus Dhill Peter Schner
Ludewick Schner Peter Masson Jacob Mosser
John Richard Halter George Mosser Peter Klattenberger, sen
George Eisenhauer Mathias Ernst John Mehder
Casper Meisner, jr John Hildtz Henry Mosser
Samuel Mosser Conrad Knochell George Knockell
Christopher Nasz Jacob Schller Jacob Colp
Frederick Rufus Lorendz Conrad George Michael Schmit
John Jodery Nicolaus Berghaus Alexander Lai
John James Bissansa Alexander Kedy William Kedy
Conrad Krass Francis Thimon Frederick Rhuland
Frederick Beautillier George Beautdllier, jun The heirs of George Beautillier
George Meirer George Koch Frederick Rigolow Miller
The heirs of Martin Kaulbach John Smith Uryanus Bender
John Dhiel Valentine Dhiel Jacob Westheffer
Gotlib Hamish Jacob Bolback Charles Bolwer
John Meisner Christopher Lohnes John Bargett, sen
Casper Jung Frederick Finck Ktien Harnet
Nicolaus Wolf Nicolaus Reinhart John Michael Smith
Henry Oxner Conrad Ramge John Dheibert
Adam Buhler George Conrad Thomas Reicherd
Philip Peter Dhiel Peter Joseph Wolf s George Wolf
George Himelman Jacob Kraus Peter Arenburg
Albrecht Mausser John Morash Peter Kaulback
George Casper Brickbouer Henry Waner Leonard Jung
Casper Hickman, sen John George Deithoff George Deithoff
Conrad Deithoff Henry Koch Christian Bom
Nicolaus Rust Thomas Pinnel Jeanhurben Jeanperin ]]
George Walter Henry Lohnes Christopher Rust
The heirs of Jacob Bom Bernard Mehder Frederick Jodrey
Marcus Leslie Christian Ernst Peter Ernst
Michael Peck Philip Heison Frederick Hann
Jacob Moser John Risser Leonard Neufahrt
The heirs of Baltaszer Weinacht Henry Wagener, sen Nicholas Hamm
Jacob Schenekel John Brum The heirs of Valentine Musler
Melcher Zwicker Henry Landz David Burgoyne
Mark Burgoyne Nicolaus Eisenhauer Melcher Brum
Peter Corckum Mary Barbara Metier John Landz
The heirs of Daniel Hildz John Andreas Conrad Wentzel
James Darey Peter Leangille Deodores Nau
Jacob Speidel George Zwicker James Sertie
George Sharp Lorendz Wentzel Martin Minich
Peter Zwicker, sen The heirs of Adam Wambolt Frederick Lott
John Wynacht John Arenburg Frederick Rigolow
Leonard Arenburg George Rimby Urvanus Heiner
Peter Zwicker, jun Adam Hebb The heirs of Philip Jacob Heisler
Michael Keizzer Michael Zeller John Lohnes, jun
The heirs of George Evalts Cornwallis Morreau Nicholaus Conrad
John Matthew Blystner Richard Jacobs Henry Kitohn
The heirs of Frederick Otts John Seburger Jacob Getz
Ludewick Spindler Martin Wagner Jonathan Benny, Esq.

Early industry

Historically Lunenburg has always been a centre for fishing and shipbuilding, including the Bluenose[8]. Farming and forestry also provided sources of income for the early settlers, and more recently, tourism and the film industry have become important to the local economy.

More information


See also:

  1. August 1726: A Case Study in Mi'kmaq-New England Relations in the Early 18th Century BILL WICKEN; Acadiensis; Vol. 23, No. 1 (AUTUMN/AUTOMNE 1993), pp. 5-22
  2. Examination of a Contested Landscape: Archaeological Prospection on the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia By Robert H. J. Shears; A Thesis Submitted to Saint Mary‟s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Atlantic Canada Studies.; March, 2013, Halifax, Nova Scotia
  3. History of Halifax city by Akins, Thomas B., 1809-1891; Publication date 1895; Publisher Halifax : [Nova Scotia Historical Society]
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Halifax_(former_city)
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Protestants
  6. https://nslegislature.ca/about/history/history-voting-nova-scotia
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Township_(Nova_Scotia)
  8. https://bluenose.novascotia.ca/

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