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Mataram, Java, Historic Indonesian Sultanate

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Mataram

Ascendancy

The Sultanate of Mataram /məˈtɑːrəm/ was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. [1]

Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (r. 1613 – 1645), and began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both power and territory to the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC). It had become a vassal state of the company by 1749. [1]

According to Javanese records, the kings of Mataram were descended from one Ki Ageng Sela (Sela is a village near the present-day Demak). In the 1570s, one of Ki Ageng Sela's descendants, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan was awarded to rule the land of Mataram by King of Pajang, Sultan Hadiwijaya, as the reward for his service on defeating Arya Panangsang, Hadiwijaya's enemy. Pajang was located near the current site of Surakarta, and Mataram was originally a vassal of Pajang. Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram.[1]

1586, marked the end of the Pajang kingdom and the rise of its former vassal, the Mataram Sultanate.[1]

1613 Dutch Contacts

The first contact between Mataram and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occurred under Panembahan Hanyakrawati. Dutch activities at the time were limited to trading from limited coastal settlements, so their interactions with the inland Mataram kingdom were limited, although they did form an alliance against Surabaya in 1613. Panembahan Hanyakrawati died accidentally that year when he was in Krapyak forest, hunting for deer. [1]

1628 Seige of Batavia

In 1628, Agung and his armies began the siege of Batavia. [1]

1646 Amangkurat I

Upon taking the throne, Agung's son Susuhunan Amangkurat I tried to bring long-term stability to Mataram's realm, by murdering local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, including the still-powerful noble from Surabaya, Pangeran Pekik, his father-in-law, and executed Panembahan Adiningkusuma (posthumous: Panembahan Girilaya), king of Cirebon, his son in-law. [1]

1726 Death of Amangkurat IV

After the death of Amangkurat IV of the Mataram Sultanatein 1726 , Mataram became overshadowed by Dutch intervention who managed to put Adipati Anom (bearing the title Pakubuwana II) to the throne, rather than the rightful heir, Prince Arya Mangkunagara who fiercely opposed the Dutch . Through cunning political moves, Arya Mangkunegara was exiled to Ceylon in 1728, and finally sent to Kaapstad at the most southern-end of Africa. [2]

1742 Geger Pacinang Chinese Uprising

In 1742, a Chinese uprising, known as Geger Pacinang broke out in Batavia in reaction to the Chinese genocide directed by Dutch General Governor, Adriaan Valckenier. [3]

Survivors fled eastward for refuge, joining forces with Mataram peasants who had suffered similarly at the hands both of the Dutch and their own rulers. [2]

The oppressed Mataram peasants were led by a valiant warrior prince called Raden Mas Said, who was the son of the exiled prince Arya Mangkunegara. The combined forces managed to tear down the walls and completely destroyed the Palace at Kartasura, forcing Sultan Pakubuwana II to retreat to Ponorogo in East Java. [3]

During this era, Raden Mas Said married Rubiyah who would ultimately become the leader of the brave female legion, and was thereafter given the title Matah Ati. Six months later, with the aid of Dutch forces, Pakubuwana II managed to quell the uprising. But when he found the Kartasura Palace completely destroyed, the Sultan was forced to move the capital to Surakarta. His policy to directly involve Dutch forces in the war cost the sultanate to cede Mataram territory stretching from Rembang in northern Central Java all the way to Surabaya, Madiun and Madura in East Java. The policy even stripped the ruling Pakubuwana II of all his power as he became merely a Leenman or “Borrower of Dutch authorities”. [3]

The remaining survivals fled to take refuge east, where they ultimately joined forces with Mataram peasants who suffered a similar fate under the oppression of the Dutch as well as by their own rulers.[2]

The oppressed Mataram peasants were led by a valiant warrior prince called Raden Mas Said, who was the son of the exiled prince Arya Mangkunegara. The combined forces managed to tear down the walls and completely destroyed the Palace at Kartasura, forcing Sultan Pakubuwana II to retreat to Ponorogo in East Java.[2]

During this era, Raden Mas Said married Rubiyah who would ultimately become the leader of the brave female legion, and was thereafter given the title Matah Ati. [2]

Six months later, with the aid of Dutch forces, Pakubuwana II managed to quell the uprising. But when he found the Kartasura Palace completely destroyed, the Sultan was forced to move the capital to Surakarta. His policy to directly involve Dutch forces in the war cost the sultanate to cede Mataram territory stretching from Rembang in northern Central Java all the way to Surabaya, Madiun and Madura in East Java. The policy even stripped the ruling Pakubuwana II of all his power as he became merely a Leenman or “Borrower of Dutch authorities”.[2]

1746 Java Succession War

In 1746 Raden Mas Said joined forces with his uncle, Prince Mangkubumi, younger brother of Pakubuwana II, in a guerilla warfare against the Dutch-Mataram forces deep in Yogyakarta in what most historians refer to as the Java Succession War III. Raden Mas Said later married for the second time with Prince Mangkubumi’s daughter, Raden Ayu Inten, and began to use the title Pangeran Adipati Mangkunegoro Senopati Panoto Baris Lelono Adikareng Noto. In the midst of the War, Pakubuwana II fell ill and eventually passed away in 1749. [3]

Before he died, he submitted sovereignty of the Sultanate to the Dutch Eastern Coast Governor, Baron von Hohendrof. The Dutch authorities eventually inaugurated the son of Pakubuwana II, Raden Mas Suryadi, as Successor, bearing the title Pakubuwono III. At the same time, upon hearing that Pakubuwono II had passed away, Prince Mangkubumi was also crowned Sultan of Mataram in Yogyakarta, bearing the same title of Pakubuwono III. The event escalated the heat of war between the two factions. [3]

In 1752 the coalition between Raden Mas Said and Prince Mangkubumi broke down due to the dispute over the single undivided supremacy over Mataram. [3]

Prince Mangkubumi turned against his own son in law and waged war against Raden Mas Said. After several failed attempts to defeat Raden Mas Said, Prince Mangkubumi subsequently turned to the Dutch and Pakubuwono III. [3]

The Mangkunegaran rule in Surakarta was established through a long, bitter and intricate historical process. The seed of its establishment was planted in the late era of the Mataram Sultanate , at the arrival of Dutch forces which tcreated political havoc in the area.[2]

The Dutch ruler in Semarang, Nicholas Hartingh, recognizing that Raden Mas Said appeared to be undefeatable, urged Paku Buwono III to invite Raden Mas Said to diplomatic talks. Raden Mas Said accepted the invitation so long as the Dutch authorities would not be involved. [2]

Ever since 1746 Raden Mas Said joined forces with his uncle, Prince Mangkubumi, younger brother of Pakubuwana II, in a guerilla warfare against the Dutch-Mataram forces deep in Yogyakarta in what most historians refer to as the Java Succession War III. Rade Mas Said later married for the second time with Prince Mangkubumi’s daughter, Raden Ayu Inten, and began to use the title Pangeran Adipati Mangkunegoro Senopati Panoto Baris Lelono Adikareng Noto.[2]


1749 Death of Pakubuwana

In 1749 Baron von Hohendrof was the Dutch Eastern Coast Governor. Before Pakubuwana II fell ill and eventually died that year, he submitted tghe sovereignty of the Sultanate to the Dutch Eastern Coast Governor, Baron von Hohendrof. The Dutch authorities eventually inaugurated the son of Pakubuwana II, Raden Mas Suryadi, as Successor, bearing the title Pakubuwono III. At the same time, upon hearing that Pakubuwono II had passed away, Prince Mangkubumi was also crowned Sultan of Mataram in Yogyakarta, bearing the same title of Pakubuwono III. The event escalated the heat of war between the two factions.[2]

In the midst of the War, Pakubuwana II fell ill and eventually passed away in 1749. Before he died, he submitted sovereignty of the Sultanate to the Dutch Eastern Coast Governor, Baron von Hohendrof. The Dutch authorities eventually inaugurated the son of Pakubuwana II, Raden Mas Suryadi, as Successor, bearing the title Pakubuwono III. At the same time, upon hearing that Pakubuwono II had passed away, Prince Mangkubumi was also crowned Sultan of Mataram in Yogyakarta, bearing the same title of Pakubuwono III. The event escalated the heat of war between the two factions.[2]

In 1752 the coalition between Raden Mas Said and Prince Mangkubumi broke down due to the dispute over the single undivided supremacy over Mataram. Prince Mangkubumi turned against his own son in law and waged war against Raden Mas Said. After several failed attempts to defeat Raden Mas Said, Prince Mangkubumi subsequently turned to the Dutch and Pakubuwono III.[2]

Under the Sumpah Paworing Kawula pledge: Tiji Tibeh, Mati Siji Mati Kabeh, Mukti Siji Mukti Kabeh (Death to one and Death to all, Glory to one and one Glory to all), Raden Mas Said and his forces continued his revolt against the Dutch orchestrated coalition. Three great battles were recorded during the course of 1752-1757 that dubbed Raden Mas Said as Pangeran Sambernyawa or The Prince of Life Taker, since he always brought terror and spread death in battlefields.[2]

Facing the fact that simply nobody could defeat Raden Mas Said, Nicholas Hartingh, the Dutch ruler in Semarang, urged Paku Buwono III to invite Raden Mas Said to diplomatic talks. Raden Mas Said accepted the invitiation for as long as it would not involve the Dutch authorities. Eventually peace was restored in 1757 through the Salatiga Charter, which was later acknowledged by the Yogyakarta Sultanate as well as the Dutch authorities. The Charter stated that Raden Mas Said was inaugurated as an Adipati Miji or Independent ruler over the Praja Mangkunegaran or the Independent district of Mangkunegaran.[2]

Taking the title Mangkunegara I, Raden Mas Said ruled over Kedaung, Matesih, Honggobayan, Sembuyan, Gunung Kidul, Northern Pajang and Kedu. He eventually set up his own palace near the Pepe River, known today as the Pura Mangkunegaran.[2]

Sultans of Mataram

  1. Senopati Panembahan Senopati (Panembahan Senopati ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Tanah Jawa) : 1587-1601 [4]
  2. Hanyakrawati Raden Mas Jolang (Sri Susuhunan Adi Prabu Hanyakrawati Senapati-ing-Ngalaga Mataram) : 1601-1613 [4]
  3. Sultan Agung Raden Mas Jatmika / Sultan Agung (Sultan Agung Senapati-ing-Ngalaga Abdurrahman) : 1613-1645) [4]
  4. Amangkurat I Raden Mas Sayidin / Amangkurat I (Kanjeng Susuhunan Prabu Amangkurat Agung) : 1646-1677 [4]
  5. Amangkurat II : 1677-1703 [4]
  6. Amangkurat III : 1703-1704 [4]
  7. Pakubuwono I Pangeran Puger / Pakubuwono I]] : 1704-1719 [4]
  8. Amangkurat IV: 1719-1726 [4]
  9. Pakubuwono II : 1726-1749 [4]

Mataram was divided in 1755, and the succeeding rulers of the new sultanates are not generally considered as Sultans of Mataram. [4]

End of Mataram: Successor States

1755 Treaty of Giyanti

In 1755. the Dutch representative Nicholas Hartingh, Pakubuwana III, and Prince Mangkubumi sined the Treaty of Giyanti, settling the dispute between Pakubuwono III and Prince Mangkubumi. The charter also marked the official end to the unified and independent Mataram Sultanate since The Giyanti Treaty divided the Mataram Sultanate into the Yogyakarta Sultanate ruled by Prince Mangkubumi (who later took the name Hamengkubuwono I) and the Kasunanan Surakarta under Pakubuwono III. The Yogyakarta Sultanate then established the Keraton or Palace of Yogyakarta. The charter also formed a new coalition between Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Dutch forces against the relentless Raden Mas Said. [3]

Finally, through the Treaty of Giyanti , signed in 1755 between Pakubuwana III, Prince Mangkubumi, and Dutch representative, Nicolas Hartingh, the dispute between Pakubuwono III and Prince Mangkubumi was settled. The charter also marked the official end to the unified and independent Mataram Sultanate since The Giaynti Treaty divided the Mataram Sultanate into the Yogyakarta Sultanate ruled by Prince Mangkubumi (who later took the name Hamengkubuwono I) and the Kasunanan Surakarta under Pakubuwono III. The Yogyakarta Sultanate then established the Keraton or Palace of Yogyakarta. [2]

The charter also formed a new coalition between Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Dutch forces against the relentless Raden Mas Said. [3]

Under the Sumpah Paworing Kawula pledge: Tiji Tibeh, Mati Siji Mati Kabeh, Mukti Siji Mukti Kabeh (Death to one and Death to all, Glory to one and one Glory to all), Raden Mas Said and his forces continued his revolt against the Dutch orchestrated coalition. [3]

Three great battles were recorded during the course of 1752-1757 that dubbed Raden Mas Said as Pangeran Sambernyawa or The Prince of Life Taker, since he always brought terror and spread death in battlefields. [3]

Facing the fact that simply nobody could defeat Raden Mas Said, Nicholas Hartingh, the Dutch ruler in Semarang, urged Paku Buwono III to invite Raden Mas Said to diplomatic talks. Raden Mas Said accepted the invitation for as long as it would not involve the Dutch authorities. [3]

1757 Salatiga Charter

Eventually peace was restored in 1757 through the Salatiga Charter, which was later acknowledged by the Yogyakarta Sultanate as well as the Dutch authorities. The Charter stated that Raden Mas Said was inaugurated as an Adipati Miji or Independent ruler over the Praja Mangkunegaran or the Independent district of Mangkunegaran. Taking the title Mangkunegara I, Raden Mas Said ruled over Kedaung, Matesih, Honggobayan, Sembuyan, Gunung Kidul, Northern Pajang and Kedu. He eventually set up his own palace near the Pepe River, known today as the Pura Mangkunegaran. [3]

In 1757 peace was restored through the Salatiga Charter, which was later acknowledged by the Yogyakarta Sultanate as well as the Dutch authorities. The Charter stated that Raden Mas Said was inaugurated as an Adipati Miji or Independent ruler over the Praja Mangkunegaran or the Independent district of Mangkunegaran.[2]

The charter also formed a new coalition between Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Dutch forces against the relentless Raden Mas Said.[2]

Successor States

  1. Yogyakarta Sultanate
  2. Mangkunegaran Principality
  • Kasunanan Surakarta

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Wikipedia. Mataram Sultanate Accessed July 29, 2017 jhd
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 Indonesia Tourism Forum. Pura Mangkunegaran Accessed July 28, 2017. jhd
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Jeffrey Hays. Facts and Details. Sultans and Royalty in Indonesia. Last updated June 2015. Accessed July 28, 2017. jhd
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Wikipedia. Mataram Sultanate Accessed July 31, 2017. jhd

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