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Michael Carter Carter-14124 notes on his origins

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Surnames/tags: McCarthy Mahony Sullivan
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Michael Carter was originally from County Cork. It is not established when and how he migrated to Australia. He stated he had arrived in NSW on the Salamander in 1866 when he was admitted to Goulburn Gaol in 1889 Goulburn Gaol for bankruptcy [1]. Salamander 1866 Crew list [2]

Michael and Sarah were both widowed when they married in 1884. On their daughter Elsie's birth certificate they are listed as Michael, 42 Limeburner and Sarah, 30. They lived for some time in Kingsdale, NSW. Together they raised their blended family of Michael's first two children, Sarah's five, and the six children they had together. In the 1891 Census return for Kingsdale, Goulburn, county Argyle, Michael is householder 15, with 5 males and 5 females listed. In the 1901 return, still at Kingsdale, 3 males and 3 females are listed. Two of Michael's grand daughters are called Norah, a clue to his mother's name?

42.2 per cent of British Army recruits were Irish-born in 1830, though this had considerably declined by 1900.


  • Paternal relationship to his children is confirmed with:
    • a combined match of 86.9 over 4 segments between great grand children via Elsie and great grandson, descendant of John Edward (TK half 2C)
    • an AncestryDNA test match between great grand daughter via Elsie and great great grandson, descendant of Felix (Rooney 2C1R)
    • MyHeritage match between great grand son via Elsie and great great grandchild, descendant of her brother Richard Roy of 111.9 cM across 6 segments (AN 2C1R)
  • The story of Carter being an adopted surname, changed from Mulligan or similar, may turn out to be a clue to his mother's name, or any of his grandparents. Matches to Michael's siblings would be third cousins to his oldest tested descendants, only matches at fourth cousin or more remote have been identified.

Myles Carter Many online trees list Michael as the son of Myles 1809. This Michael 1844 Shanagolden is confirmed to have moved to Queensland with his brother Thomas There is no match between known descendants of Michael and the only known descendant of Myles to have tested, via Susannah Perrin RL. These descendants would be 3C1R, probability likely 48cM, range 0-192.

  • Matches to descendants of Myles' disputed brother John emigrated to South Australia
    • 14cM Ancestry to great grandson (BCawte) of John's son Harry Carter B:27 Mar 1922 Port Augusta, South Australia, Australia D:2003 (5th cousins) [3]
    • small 7cM Ancestry craigmcgree grandson of Susan Mary Carter 1875–1949
  • Myles' brother George also emigrated to South Australia B: 10 Aug 1841 · County Limerick, Ireland, D: 23 December 1926 · Mt Gambier, South Australia[4]

Hypothesis 1 McCarthy or variant is paternal surname

  • Autosomal DNA shows great grandchildren match to many Carty, Carthy McCarty, McCarthy, Carter, Cart and other variants. The weight of this evidence is pointing to Schull (Skull) on the Mizen Peninsula or Mahoonagh (Mohanagh) Townland in Aughadown parish [1] two townlands in West Carberry, Diocese of Cork and Ross near Skibereen in Western Cork. A researcher at the Skibereen Heritage Centre points out that records were much more common and likely to survive in the urban centres. Through the process of confirming shared DNA matches between Michael's descendants I intend to be able to make an assessment of his likely surname and of the surname of each grandparent.
  • The strongest cluster is five matches who trace back to McCarthy at The Rock, Ardgehane, Cork, near Ardgehane 35 km from Skibbereen. The oldest identified ancestor is Simon McCarthy 1800 Simon McCarthy , whose daughter Mary McCarthy (1826 The Rock) married James Hayes and is a direct ancestor to three of these matches. This group matches two of Michael's descendants (through Richard and Elsie) ranging from 12-28cMs . Hypothesis is that this is Michael's paternal line.

McCarthy and variant matches to Michael's descendants Do thorough check of TK

  • triangulated matches to descendants of more than one of Michael's children:
    • TK descendant of John (Michael and Alice ) and emg descendant of Elsie (Michael and Sarah) tri TK DW3524933 Karen DA 22.3 cM has Florence father of Mary McCarthy born 29 Mar 1827•Ireland m Murphy, also has Michael B. Mulcahy B:24/09/1857 Waterford, Ireland [5]
    • Simon McCarthy and Ellena Leary daughter Mary McCarthy born 1826 at The Rock who married James Hayes b1816. Michael's descendants (through Richard and Elsie) ranging from 12-28cMs are a DNA match to Mary's descendants (FH others).
  • Potential DNA matches to:
    • Michael McCarthy, b. ABT 1807, Mohonagh, Skibbereen, Cork, d. 25 SEP 1887, Mohonagh (on census- 'Aghadown North') married m Hanorah (Norry) Mahony 1827-1895 and their son Thomas b 1851-1913 Mohonagh MNR TH MG qld
    • Thomas McCarthy 1828-1896 married Ellen McCarthy daughter of Daniel McCarthy West Cork Denis McCarthy
    • Daniel 1815 Bandon, Cork
    • Honora Deacon formerly McCarthy Born 17 Feb 1830 in Inchigeelagh to Tasmania, descends from the marriage of Timothy McCarthy and Julia Cotter in 1829 Inchigeelagh. (Rory)
    • Denis McCarthy 1825 Glaun, Schull, Cork
    • Eugene b. 1805 Kerry
    • Charles b. 1820 in Banteer, Cork
    • Mary, b 1833 Cregg, Cork
    • John McCarthy, Born 1801 in Castle Townsend, County Cork but also William Carter 1808–1850 BIRTH 29 MAY 1808 • Kentucky, United States and Cooper
    • Julia McCarthy BIRTH 25 JAN 1865 • Drimoleague, Cork, Ireland DEATH Lackenafasogue, Caheragh, Co Cork, father Michael McCarthy 1817-1877, mother Catherine Sullivan 1819-1905, married 07 FEB 1837 • Parish of Caharagh, Co Cork Witnesses: Florence Carthy and Pat Sullivan. Note Julia has a brother Michael born 1842, no further information. Ancestry cluster of five matches, one CG descends from Julia McCarthy Born 1865 in Caheragh, County Cork, to Michael McCarthy and Kate Sullivan. Seperate Ancestry match to Trishasmum2 match but she has other family names (McDonald, Dwyer) which have not been ruled out. Julia's sister Hanora 1849 married Richard Hurley and emigrated to the States. Michael 1817 is listed in Griffiths valuation as resident at Lackenafasoge Townland (Cork Carbery West Caheragh) alongside Florence M'Carthy , Joan Sullivan and Denis M'Carthy [6]
    • Martin 1824 Ancestry VMcP 18 cM across 1 segments
    • Michael M'Carthy and Margaret O'Driscoll
    • Florence M'Carthy Michael M'Carthy and Florence M'Carthy
    • Joan Sullivan
    • Denis M'Carthy

Hypothesis 2 Sullivan is maternal grandfather's line surname

  • Michael's X is from his unknown maternal grandparents. Hypothesis is that the largest surviving X segment inherited by the granddaughters of Elsie is most likely from the maternal grandfather, as the paternal X chromosome inherited by a daughter does not recombine. These matches are associated with autosomal matches to the name Sullivan. This could be directly the surname of Michael's maternal grandfather or from a sister or daughter's marriage. "Ceartan" is an O'Sullivan branch name [7]
    • Michael Sullivan BIRTH 5 AUG 1845 • Ardaclegin, Eyeries, Cork, to Johannes “John” Sullivan BIRTH ABT. 1815 • County Cork, DEATH Ardacluggin, Kilcatherine, Eyeries Parish and Maria “Mary” (Rohane) McCarthy 1810– [8]
    • In 1863 a Michael Sullivan 5'7" deserted from the Undaunted [9] Michl Sullivan Birth Year: abt 1844 Birth Place: Youghal, Cork, Ireland Age: 19 Arrival year: 1863 Arrival Country: Australia Vessel Arrived In: Undaunted Date of Admission/Photo: 1863 Gaol: Darlinghurst Gaol Location: Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Catholic, Seaman 5'3/4 (one of Michael's sons remembered him as being tall) hair Light? Eyes brown? can Read and Write [10] He was sentenced to four weeks hard labour [11] There are several potential deaths for this Michael under Sullivan
    • In 1861 a Michael Sullivan was lodging with the Jones family in Ebbw Vale Age: 17 Estimated birth year: abt 1844 Relation: Lodger Gender: Male Where born: Youghal Town, Ireland Civil Parish or Township: Bedwellty Ecclesiastical parish: Tredegar Town: Ebbw Vale County/Island: Monmouthshire Country: Wales [12]
    • In 1851 a Michael Sullivan was lodging with his family in Glamorgan, Wales, migrated in 1864 later history unkown.

Hypothesis 3 Mahony Minihane and variants are a maternal surname

  • Many matches from the Skibereen and Schull areas in West Cork have the name Minihan, Monihane Moynihan and variants. Hypothesis is that this is a maternal line name as Michael's granddaughters have a small but valid X match to some of these matches.
    • Michael McCarthy, b. ABT 1807, Mohonagh, Skibbereen, Cork, d. 25 SEP 1887, Mohonagh ( on census- 'Aghadown North') married m Hanorah (Norry) Mahony 1827-1895 and their son Thomas b 1851-1913 Mohonagh MNR TH MG qld. This match seems to be to the Mahony side
    • Ellen MacCarthy formerly Mahony descendant of Seán McCarthy, b. ABT 1815, Inchigeelagh, County Cork (Gedmatch JMcC) and Timothy McCarthy, 1800, Inchigeelagh, County Cork Gedmatch Rory C, six gens from Timothy, try to link to Ellen Mahony
    • highest DanJRichards Ancestry 26 cM, gedmatch 32 cM., match seems to be his maternal line all four grandparents from Cork. Descended from Margt Mahony m Timothy Minihane ABT 1810•Kilcommane, Schull, Co. Cork Ireland Death BET 1853 AND 1871•Kilcommane, Schull, son Jeremiah Minihane 1831-1918. Possibly match on Richards line, triangulated matches at MyHeritage (Duhon, Broussard, Prejean) all go back to Jean Baptiste Richard Dec 24 1768 Nov 23 1834 Acadia Point Coupee Canada. these matches triangulate on Sarah Grooms father's line
    • EW FTDNA 65 shared cM, longest 33 has Mary Mahony b. 1814 - County Cork, Ireland d. 1882 - Smithfield, Bradford, Pennsylvania, USA. Shared matches support Mony as the link
    • Jeremiah O'Mahony (abt. 1772) weak but triangulated with known half second cousin descendant TK
  • Potential antecedents include
    • Michaelis Carty in 1839 to Nancy in Skibbereen [13]
    • Marriage Michl Mc Carthy to Mary Meinhane 31 Jan 1838 Marriage Place: Bantry, Cork , Ireland (Bantry seems to be the district for all of Cork) and earlier [14]
    • a Michl Mohony arrived in Victoria in 1865. he is potentially a close relative of Ellen (Mahony) MacCarthy was married to Cornelius MacCarthy aka M'Carthy who was joint owner of a property at Currawang with Michael's father in law John Whelan.
      • Identifying Ellen's birth parents Denis and Honora Mahony will further inform this thread
      • note he is not the Fenian Cornelius O'mahony who died in Victoria in 1879 [1]
    • Bird (TB) in Bantry Bantry estate list 1825
  • Cornelius Minihane might be related to Michael Minehane who married Maria Carty in February 1840 in the RC Diocese of Skibbereen and Rath.
  • Hurley
  • Autosomal matches to Hurley surname including
    • TH *emg Ancestry 40 cM unweighted, 2 segments largest 20
    • descendant of Jeremiah Hurley c1850, confirmed by Gedmatch autocluster tool. Variants include O'Murthuile, O'Herlihy
  • Birth origins
    • Family history including my father's research notes that Michael was born in Co. Cork on 9 September 1844 or 1846 at the height of the famine[15]. 1844 is consistent with the age given on his Death certificate which is 58 in 1903. It is believed he came to Australia as a youth of around 14, which would be around 1858. The name Carter was present in West Cork by 1631. The mayor of Baltimore at the time of its sacking was Joseph Carter [16]
    • DNA evidence leads to West Cork [17] The family would probably have lived in a turf hut like this hut
    • There are several family stories about Michael's origins, which share the common theme that he was orphaned during the great famine. All agree that he was from Cork. The DNA evidence supports a family link to McCarthy and variants.
    • A Michael born to Patk McCarthy and Cath McCarthy Baptism Date: 30 Sep 1844, Skibbereen, Cork, Ireland Cork and Ross. [18] Potential marriages are Patricius to Catherine S on 15 Jan 1839 [19] children Frances 13 Feb 1842, Margaret 11 Oct 1843 Michael 30 Sep 1844, Michael 15 Dec 1850 (suggests first Michael died)
    • 155 954 McCarthy Michael M 8 Sept 1840 John Mary Witnesses: Lucey Ty. Connell Hannah Lucey Comolybane [20]
    • The region around Skibbereen experienced a significant famine in the years 1845-52 [22]. The "Phoenix Society" was founded in Skibbereen in 1856 and was a precursor to the Fenian movement. A Michael McCarthy of No 17 & 18 South Main Street Cork was a known Fenian [23]
    • There are multiple Michael McCarty and variants child migrants to the States during the late 1840s into the '50s [24]
    • McCarthy M admitted to Monmouthshire Workhouse School in 1847 [25]
    • Copper mining, the family trade in NSW, was present in Aghadown (near Aughadown) Schull and Skibereen, Cork. [26] There was a mine on the lands of lord Bantry, Allihies Copper Mine , Coosheen Copper Mine, Cappagh Mine 1814-1874 on the lands of Lord George Audley [27] A photo of miners on Horse Island in Roaringwater Bay in 1898 shows several Carthys [28]
    • A Michael born to Daniel Carter and Catherine Kelly, baptized on 3 Nov 1844 aged 0, in Kilcolman, Mayo, Ireland. Parish variants: Claremorris, Kilcoleman, Killcoleman. Tuam Diocese, see photo. There are no death records in Ireland for a Michael Carter born 1844 on findmypast. An Ancestry tree has this Michael as James Michael, died JUN 1937 • Essex South Western, Essex, England. The most likely candidate for his father is Daniel 1824. Note Michael called his first daughter Catherine and a son Daniel. DNA evidence supports a family link to Kelly but this name is on the paternal Grady line.
    • Daniel McCarthy (1837 - 1914) goes by McCarthy or Carter, was born in Cork in 1837 and resident in Cornwall by the time of his marriage in 1858.
    • One of these families is located in The Rock, Ardgehane Parish Lislee. Alternative parish names are Abbeymahon, Barryroe, Donaghmore, Donoughmore, Lislea, Lislee, Abbeymahon and Donoughmore, Timoleague, Abbeymahon and Lislee, Diocese Cork and Ross Ardgehane Parish Lislee Diocese Cork and Ross
    • The tragic famine history of Ardgehane, would fit with our family story. Mary McCarthy born 1826 at The Rock would be a generation older than Michael and had many siblings. She was the daughter of Simon McCarthy and Ellena Leary, she married James Hayes b1816. Michael's descendants are a DNA match of 10-14cMs to Mary's descendants.
    • An account recorded from Michael's son Daniel in the 1970s has Michael born as Mulligan Moynihan Moynagh (no arrivals) or similar, shanghaied from Cork as a child and raised by a family of Cornish miners. There was no requirement to record movement between Ireland and the rest of the united kingdom at that point, and many workers moved seasonally. Poor Irish people could obtain cheap or free passage as "ballast" on ships returning to ports in Liverpool, Cornwall and Wales [29] In around 1860 when he was 16 he returned to Cork, but unable to find any family he stowed away on a ship, jumping ship in Western Australia where he worked as a miner for some time. He headed east when his wife died. Michael Sullivan above who deserted from the Undaunted in 1863 fits many elements of this story and is exactly the right age on arrival.
    • A Michael Carty is recorded in the household of George Smith in Abergavenny in 1861[30]
  • 'Murder story'
    • One story is that a British soldier was killed and suspects hanged. Boys of Michael's age were sent to an orphanage in England. All records were destroyed, it is presumed Michael migrated to Australia from there. Source family archive, B Rooney on a trip to Ireland.
    • 16/09/1848 William Carthey of Nenagh was hung for Conspiracy to murder R U Bailey [31]. In the period 1835 - 1899, some 237 people were hanged in Ireland, including 13 women.
    • 15/05/1844 Pte. John Cordery Carrickfergus executed for the murder of Sgt. William Dodd
    • 1846 Joseph Carter was found guilty of the manslaughter of Joseph Oddy and transported to Van Diemen's Land
    • Jeremiah Minehan was convicted of the murder of Patrick Burke outside of Goleen in November of 1858. irelandXO
    • investigate Michael Cotter baptised 1846 in Inchegeelagh to Law[rence] Cotter & Mgt McCarthy a possible </ref>?https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:F5YS-ZQH FHL FILM NUMBER: 823808</ref> there are 42 recorded baptisms for Michael Cotter Cork between 1842-1850
      • No other children to a Lawrence & Mgt but children to Lawrence & Mary include Mary 1833, Daniel 1835, Jeremiah 1836, Norry (Honorah) 1838, Stephen 1840, John 1842, Catherine 1844, and I believe Michael 1846 was also a child of this family and his mother's correct name Mary. Lawrence & Mary marriage in 1832:[2]
      • As the earliest records for Inchigeelagh are 1816, we are not going to find Lawrence & Mary's baptisms.
      • several Ancestry trees have him marrying Margaret, having two children and dying 1 March 1877 • "George" Inn, Totterdown, Bedminster, Somerset, (Moody Family)
    • Michael Cotter 14 father lawrence mother mary in Gloucestershire 1861[32]
    • A Mick McCarthy Age: 8 Estimated birth year: abt 1843 Relation: Son Father's name: Cartha S McCarthy Mother's name: Mary McCarthy, is listed at Swansea, Glamorgan Wales in the 1851 Census. Similar migration to Wales is described here http://www.newportpast.com/jd/irish.htm
    • Michael's daughter Elsie believed he had been convicted of horse stealing. Note his timeline would allow for him to be this man Michael Ward aka Power McCarter
  • Michael Cotter baptised 22 Apr 1846 Inchegeelagh to Lawrence Cotter & Margaret McCarty

Arrival in Australia

  • It is believed Michael came to Australia as a youth of around 14, which would be around 1858. The first established date for him is 1874 when he married Alice , giving an arrival window of 16 years. In 1874 Michael is given as resident at Currawang near Goulburn . Gold and copper were discovered at Currawang around 1865. The mine was very near to the Whelan farm (private communication with current owner).
    • Salamander 1866 is given as his ship of arrival in reference to his admission to Goulburn gaol on 24 Sep 1889. His details are : Michael Carter (Ship) Salamander ‘66 Ireland RC lime Burner age 44 height 5’7” [33] which arrived in Sydney in distress on 9 September. No names correspond to Michael, there are several able bodied seaman of around the right age. This timing would fit with involvement in the Fenian movement.
    • Edina 11 September 1866 lists a John Cairns age 22, as does the Salamander so one was possibly travelling under an alias [34]
    • Michael McCARTHY Age:21 Birth Year:abt 1844 Arrival Date: 8 Dec 1865 Arrival Place: Queensland, Australia Ship: Queen of the South Title: Assisted Immigration 1848 to 1912 Page number: 239 QSA Item: 18474 Microfilm: Z1957 Microfilm 2: M1696,,,,
  • SALAMANDER S. S. OF MELBOURNE, HENRY WILLIAM SKENE, MASTER, BURTHEN 776 TONS FROM THE PORT OF MELBOURNE IN DISTRESS TO SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, 9TH SEP. 1866, marinersandships.com.au/1866/09/025sal.htm In 1866 several crew members deserted this ship, listed at [35]
    • On the 8th May, James Cotter, 1866, O.S., born 1837 Fermoy, Waterford, 6 feet 7 inches high, dark brown hair, light blue eyes. Deserters from Her Majesty's Service. From B.M.S. "Salamander." Jan 1868
    • On the 18th, Stephen Mulcaliy, a Cork man, laborer, aged 30, 5 feet 9 inches high, fresh complexion, dark brown hair, hazel
    • Wed 13 jan 1869 DESERTERS FROM H.M. SERVICE. ‘Deserted from H.M. 14th Foot, at Sydney, on the 3rd instant, Daniel M*Carthy, a Kerry man, a labourer, aged 28, 5 feet 7 inches high, fresh complexion, light brown hair, gray eyes; wore black cloth coat and vest and moleskin trouseip. He escaped from confinement while awaiting a Court Martial—10th. December, 1869. [36]
    • List of Stragglers from H.M.S. Galatea Michael Lahive, a Cork man, aged 25, 5 feet 7 inches high, brown hair, grey eyes. It was common for deserters to change their name, often to a name associated with their family: May 1876 had embarked on HMS Pearl as Thomas Peters, and jumped ship in Auckland as William Williams. Like many others, he’d assumed an alias to avoid jail for desertion.</ref>
    • Michael McCarthy 1846 Seamen Age 19 Damascus from London to Sydney, New South Wales, 31 Aug 1865
    • Michael MacArty 1861 Ship name Lincelles, Where convicted Ludlow, Salop, Shropshire 1859, Sentence 10 Years to Australia [37]
    • Michael McCarthy Departure year 1862 Ship name Norwood Where convicted Corfu When convicted 1860 Sentence Life to Australia [38] born circa 1836 McCarthy Michael 6389 Life 24 CORFU .. .. 1860 Striking his superior officer (Army?)perth dps
    • Michael McCarthy 1864 January Eagle Estimated Birth Year: abt 1838 Age: 26 Port of Departure: Rockhampton Port of Arrival: Sydney, Voyage Arrival Date: 19 Feb 1864 Vessel Name: Eagle Origin Location: British
    • Michl McCarthy Able Bodied Seaman abt 1838 Age: 26 Port of Departure: Brisbane Port of Arrival: Sydney, Voyage Arrival Date: 22 Aug 1864 Vessel Name: Collaroy Origin Location: Sydney John McDiarmid
    • Michael McCarthy Port of Departure: Maryborough Port of Arrival: Sydney, Voyage Arrival Date: 11 Oct 1868 Vessel Name: Restless
    • Corrter (W or B), Able Bodied Seaman Estimated birth year: abt 1831, Age:27, Port of Departure: Nelan & New Plymouth, Port of Arrival: Sydney, New South Wales, Voyage Arrival Date: 3 Apr 1858, Vessel Name: Emma, Origin Location: Britain
    • Henry Cortter, Arrival Date 11/1846, Tasmania Australia Ship Raven, Shamrock [39]
    • CARTY William Alias MACTARTY; CARTER, Richard alias Michael [40] possibly CARTY William Ship: King William | Year: 1840 | Citation: [4/4409; Reel 1024] |Convicts Index 1791-1873 Entry No: 47/0503 | Record Type: Certificate of Freedom | Date: 8 Jun 1847
    • land Grant Michael McCourt, Gunner Volunteer Artillery Brigade, 6th Battery. land transferred to Robert Rand. Record Type: Land Order Certificates, Volunteer Land Orders, Event Date: 15 Nov 1873
    • A Robert Carter, convict 3180 arrived in Perth on the Ramillies [41]

  • Every Michael Carty/Carter born 1840s and/or resident in NSW by 1865
    • Michael arrived in NSW aboard the ship Ramillies Aug 1850
    • Michael arrived in Adelaide SA in 1850 on the Fatima
    • Michael arrived in Melbourne December 1857 on the King Of Algeria with brother Phillip
    • Michael J , a 31 year old Agricultural Labourer arrived on the Rodney at Port Adelaide, South Australia on 2 Dec 1877, died Auburn NSW 1883
    • Michael Carty, single male age 22 born 1844 arrived on 22 September 1866 in Brisbane on the Ancilla, which had left Greenock on 24 May 1866
    • A Michael McCarty arrives 1862 in Sydney, on the Vessel Rangatira, Departure port Melbourne
    • A Michael Carter arrives in Sydney ex Brisbane on the Telegraph 23 Dec 1866
    • Did Michael come from the US during the goldrush?
    • Between 1874 and 1930 four Michael Carters died in NSW, this one, Michael J 6673/1883 Central Cumberland parents Michael and Fanny, buried St Johns Parramatta, Michael J 6037/1915 Casino, NSW and one the wrong age.
  • Missing Fenians
    • In 1871 there was a conditional amnesty of Fenian prisoners, providing they went into exile. Some came to Australia [42] If Michael was involved with the Fenian movement it is likely he changed his name. Here I will gather candidates who are known to have disappeared or whose subsequent life story and death is unknown
    • Michael Cody"the Callan centre" transported to Western Australia, disproven
  • Currawang Copper mine notes
    • in the 1860s there were 40+ local subscribers to the Currawang Copper mine
    • There is a strong family connection to the Oddfellows society. [43] [44] [45]the Oddfellows were important in the social life of Currawang
    • The Oddfellows were established in 1810 but early records are very scant. I believe the Lodge in Cork was called the Manchester Unity and met in Faulkners Lane. (Facebook post Cork group) This might be a clue that Michael 's family were already miners in Cork
    • May 1866 petition with signatures for establishment of a post office. there were over 100 residents of Currawang, 50 miners. Timbercutters were significant to the operation of the mine
    • by 1871 the Mine was owned by the Phoenix Company, changes hands late 1875. From 1880 run by a cooperative of miners as Currawang Copper company
      • in 1880 there were 15 teams of wood carters supporting the smelting ops
      • the mine was wound up in 1882 due to lack of timber
      • there is evidence miners from Currawang moved on to Captains Flat

Cortter name

  • Cortter is a very rare name. It is present in England Ireland, Canada, Australia and the USA.
    • It could be a variant upon immigration, or a corruption of Carty, Courtier or Carter, McCarthy and variants, McCourt and variants
    • In Ireland there are 6 occurences, the oldest is Brigittam Cortter who marries in 1802 in St. John's, Waterford city. Brigittam is a latinate version of Bridgid.
    • Michal Cortter RESIDENCE: 1820s - township, city, Kings, Ireland , Tithe Applotment Books, 1823-1837
    • There are 12 occurences in England, the oldest 1547.
    • There are 33 entries in the USA census, 11 born before 1900. One was born in Canada. They are from five families. The first names suggest Irish Catholic origin. A David Cortter arrived in New York from Ireland in 1850.
    • The only instances in Australia are the arrivals Henry Cortter, Raven 1846, on the Emma 1858 and Michael and his son John. Catherine is recorded as Corter NSW BDM 11808/1877
    • A John Cortler, convict, arrived on the Earl Spencer in 1813
    • A John Cartler, is listed in the NSW Postal directory at Lambing Flat NSW 15 Mar 1863. Lambing Flat near Young NSW was the site of a goldrush
    • the Germanic origin name Korte had a small presence in Ireland [46] A Korte family migrated to Melbourne on the Red Rose 15 Jun 1864, nationality given as English
  • "Some early Carthy Carter from Limerick
    • Carter Jeremiah 1764 merchant Limerick
    • Carthy Richard 1731 Coolinenane, Liberties of signed Charty Limerick
    • Carthy Teige 1730 labourer Kilpeacon, Co. Limerick [47]


  1. NSW Gaol entry book 24 Sep 1889, Gaol Goulburn District
  2. Michael Carter was originally from County Cork. It is unknown when and how he migrated to Australia. The NSW Gaol entry book for 24 Sep 1889, Gaol Goulburn when Michael was admitted for bankruptcy gives his arrival details as the Salamander in 1866. Tararua collision with Salamander The Salamander arrived in Sydney in distress on 9 September, 1866, the day Michael celebrated as his birthday. The passenger list is not available online but the ship does not seem to be a passenger ship at this time, there is no crew member of this name. Disputed Arrived onboard the "Ramillies" with his parents, Myles Carter and Mary Dunn, and siblings, brother, Thomas, and sister, Susan The NSW Gaol entry book for 24 Sep 1889, Gaol Goulburn when Michael was admitted for bankruptcy gives his arrival details as the Salamander in 1866. Added to FamilySearch where Michael is L6H4-XSX <ref>[https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/L6H4-XSX L6H4] Arrival in NSW on the Salamander in 1866. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/5772529 Citation New South Wales Gaol entry book 24 Sep 1889, Gaol Goulburn</li> <li id="_note-2">[[#_ref-2|↑]] https://www.ancestry.com.au/family-tree/tree/170400363/family/pedigree?cfpid=232216422201</li> <li id="_note-3">[[#_ref-3|↑]] George Carter in Carter Family Tree Tree owner: Amanda Underwood Ancestry</li> <li id="_note-4">[[#_ref-4|↑]] https://www.ancestry.com.au/family-tree/tree/117992981/family/pedigree?cfpid=370170570837 Carroll Family tree</li> <li id="_note-5">[[#_ref-5|↑]] Ireland, Griffith’s Valuation, 1847-1864 Cork Carbery West Caheragh Townland Lackenafasoge Ord S 132 lessor</li> <li id="_note-6">[[#_ref-6|↑]] The Oak and Serpent By Gary B. O'sullivan, M.d., MD Facog Facs Gary</li> <li id="_note-7">[[#_ref-7|↑]] Maria Rohane Gender Female Diocese Kerry Spouse Joannis Sullivan Child Michael Sullivan in Ireland, Catholic Parish Registers, 1655-1915</li> <li id="_note-8">[[#_ref-8|↑]] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/252047726?searchTerm=%22Michael%20Sullivan%22%20Undaunted</li> <li id="_note-9">[[#_ref-9|↑]] NSW Gaol Description Book </li> <li id="_note-10">[[#_ref-10|↑]] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/13084064?searchTerm=%22Michael%20Sullivan%22%20Undaunted</li> <li id="_note-11">[[#_ref-11|↑]] 1861 Wales Census</li> <li id="_note-12">[[#_ref-12|↑]] (Creagh or Aughadown) 4/2/1839 - Marriage - Michael Carty and Anna Nancy Minihan, witnesses: Cornelius Minihan and John Minihan, priest was Rev. W. Twomey (from E. Buckley notes, 2007) http://www.igp-web.com/IGPArchives/ire/cork/churches/skibbereen.txt </li> <li id="_note-13">[[#_ref-13|↑]] https://www.ancestry.com.au/family-tree/person/tree/66513288/person/46155166428/facts</li> <li id="_note-14">[[#_ref-14|↑]] https://durrushistory.com/2013/02/04/population-density-west-cork-1841/</li> <li id="_note-15">[[#_ref-15|↑]] The Stolen Village: Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates, Des Ekin, The O'Brien Press 2006</li> <li id="_note-16">[[#_ref-16|↑]] http://www.invectis.co.uk/cork/index.htm#idx</li> <li id="_note-17">[[#_ref-17|↑]] National Library of Ireland link http://registers.nli.ie//registers/vtls000635270#page/1/mode/1up</li> <li id="_note-18">[[#_ref-18|↑]] http://registers.nli.ie//registers/vtls000635271#page/1/mode/1up </li> <li id="_note-19">[[#_ref-19|↑]] http://freepages.rootsweb.com/~mturner/genealogy/cork/inch_b1.htm</li> <li id="_note-20">[[#_ref-20|↑]] churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie</li> <li id="_note-21">[[#_ref-21|↑]] http://skibbheritage.com/</li> <li id="_note-22">[[#_ref-22|↑]] Ireland, American Fenian Brotherhood 1864-1897 Transcription at FindMyPast</li> <li id="_note-23">[[#_ref-23|↑]] British & Irish Roots Collection at FindMyPast</li> <li id="_note-24">[[#_ref-24|↑]] Wales, Monmouthshire Workhouse Registers, 1843-192</li> <li id="_note-25">[[#_ref-25|↑]] https://www.mindat.org/loc-2027.html</li> <li id="_note-26">[[#_ref-26|↑]] https://roaringwaterjournal.com/tag/cappaghglass-copper-mine/</li> <li id="_note-27">[[#_ref-27|↑]] https://durrushistory.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/1-img_2555.jpg</li> <li id="_note-28">[[#_ref-28|↑]] "South Wales, The Coal Trade and Irish Famine Refugee Crisis" by Frank Neal https://www.academia.edu/684844/South_Wales_The_Coal_Trade_and_Irish_Famine_Refugee_Crisis </li> <li id="_note-29">[[#_ref-29|↑]] Michael Carty Age: 17 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1844 Relation: Servant Gender: Male Where born: Cork, Ireland Civil Parish or Township: Llantilio Pertholey Ultra County/Island: Monmouthshire Country: Wales 1861 census </li> <li id="_note-30">[[#_ref-30|↑]] Irish Executions 1835 - 1899</li> <li id="_note-31">[[#_ref-31|↑]] Age: 14 Estimated Birth Year: 1847 Relation: Son Father's Name: Lawrence Cotter Mother's Name: Mary Cotter Gender: Male Where born: Cork, Ireland Civil Parish: Bristol St Mary Redcliffe Ecclesiastical parish: Redcliffe St Mary County/Island: Gloucestershire England 1861 Census</li> <li id="_note-32">[[#_ref-32|↑]] New South Wales, Australia, Gaol Description and Entrance Books, 1818-1930</li> <li id="_note-33">[[#_ref-33|↑]] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Salamander_(1832)]| Salamander survey ship for the Australia station]</li> <li id="_note-34">[[#_ref-34|↑]] New South Wales Police Gazette and Weekly Record of Crime (Sydney : 1860 - 1930) Wed 21 Nov 1866 [Issue No.47] Page 414 23 May lists </li> <li id="_note-35">[[#_ref-35|↑]] New South Wales Police Gazette and Weekly Record of Crime (Sydney : 1860 - 1930) Wed 22 Dec 1869 </li> <li id="_note-36">[[#_ref-36|↑]] Convict Transportation Registers 1787-1870, Folio 190 Page 376</li> <li id="_note-37">[[#_ref-37|↑]] Convict Transportation Registers 1787-1870, Folio 212 Page 421</li> <li id="_note-38">[[#_ref-38|↑]] Tasmania, Passenger and Crew Lists, 1834-1837, 1841-1887</li> <li id="_note-39">[[#_ref-39|↑]] INX-77-1424 Convict Indents (Digitised) Index 1788-1801</li> <li id="_note-40">[[#_ref-40|↑]] [https://www.bradyfamilytree.org/genealogy/showmedia.php?mediaID=1657]</li> <li id="_note-41">[[#_ref-41|↑]] http://www.anphoblacht.com/contents/25589</li> <li id="_note-42">[[#_ref-42|↑]] http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/history/socs/odf_mdly.htm </li> <li id="_note-43">[[#_ref-43|↑]] http://www.manchesterunitynsw.com.au/page4. </li> <li id="_note-44">[[#_ref-44|↑]] http://www.auspostalhistory.com/articles/2061.php </li> <li id="_note-45">[[#_ref-45|↑]] Ireland, Catholic Parish Registers, 1655-1915</li> <li id="_note-46">[[#_ref-46|↑]] [http://www.limerickcity.ie/Library/LocalStudies/CalendarofWillsintheDioceseofLimerick1615-1800/Calendar%20of%20Wills%20in%20the%20Diocese%20of%20Limerick_%201615-1800.pdf Calendar of Wills in the Diocese of Limerick_ 1615-1800.doc Page 10 of 78]</li></ol></ref>

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