This space page is associated with the Native Americans Project
The first peoples of the America's lived, hunted and cared for the lands in the America's for tens of thousands of years prior to European plantations. With these Plantations, Native Peoples were transplanted, moved or killed in order for the new arrivals to create nations. The treaties these nations signed with the native peoples fell aside and the european plantations expanded. Expansion across the continents created pockets of habitation and marginalized the once prosperous Native, indígenas, Aborigen, Amerindian, Guianas, Aboriginal, First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and Alaskan Natives.
In the US, colonization and western expansion created conflict between the Native Peoples and settlers.
It is the policy of WikiTree's Native American project to use the TRIBE (or NATION) name as the Last Name at Birth (LNAB) for those Native Americans who were born prior to the introduction of surnames. Therefore, Pocahontas' LNAB is Powhatan, for example. Chief Doublehead's LNAB is Cherokee.
As colonization began along the coasts of the US Native populations plummeted. The Colonists brought with them diseases that these populations had no resistance to. The tribal members who were not killed off were assimilated by other tribal communities.
At the end of the Civil War and the completion of Transcontinental Railroad,there were a number of Indian Wars. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes and established reservations for them in many western states. In 1924, American Indians who were not already U.S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress.
The Trail of Tears
- "I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west....On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow storm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold and exposure...'"
- Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellan's Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838-39
The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of American Indian tribes from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Including Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others,they were moved from their homelands to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
It is estimated that out of the 17,000 Cherokee men, women, and children, 6,000 died on the 1,200 mile march called the Trail of Tears,other Cherokee escaped to North Carolina.
17,000 Choctaws men, women and children made the journey to what would be called Indian Territory over 2,500 died on the Trail of Tears
- Sitting Bull - was a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man, who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies.
- Henry Bullion - was an American Indian outlaw who robbed banks .He was acquainted with outlaws William Carver "News Carver" and Ben Kilpatrick "The Tall Texan.His daughter Laura was a prostitute and a outlaw she was a member of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch gang.
- Red Cloud - was a war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota. He was chief from 1868 to 1909. He led a successful campaign in 1866–1868 known as Red Cloud's War over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.
- Morning Dove- was thought to be a Cherokee Indian,she was very knowledgeable in herbal medicine, which she used to help settlers,She was the 3x Great Grandmother of Elvis Presley.
- Rain in the Face - was a warchief of the Lakota tribe of Native Americans. He was one of the Indian leaders who defeated George Armstrong Custer, and the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876 .
- Geronimo - Geronimo was a leader of the Bedonkohe Apache.He led his people against the military of the United States during the Apache Wars.
- Luis - was one of two Miwok American Indians who were guides for the infamous Donner Party in 1846. They were both shot and killed for food.
- Joseph Nez Perce - was known as Chief Joseph ,he is remembered for his resistance to the U.S. Government's attempts to force his tribe onto reservations. After months of fighting and forced marches, many of the Nez Perce were sent to a reservation in what is now Oklahoma, where many died from malaria and starvation.
- Joseph Renville - was an interpreter, translator, and an important figure in dealings between white men and Dakota (Sioux) Indians in Minnesota.
- Sacagawea - was a Lemhi Shoshone woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, acting as an interpreter and guide, between 1804 and 1806.
- Salvador - was one of two Miwok American Indians who were guides for the infamous Donner Party in 1846. They were both shot and killed for food.
- Sam Starr - was a Cherokee Indian ,he was the husband of the notorious American outlaw Belle Starr.He was a Horse thief,Outlaw,Gun fighter and Bootlegger
The major publications for Native American ancestry and genealogy are:
- Dawes Commision (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chikasaw, Creek and Seminole Tribes)
- Guion Miller Commission. The Guion Miller commission is primarily for the Cherokee Tribe residing east of the Mississippi River who escaped Indian removal to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. The Dawes Commission awarded land allotments. The Guion Miller Commission awarded annuities. 
- American Indian vs. Native American
- Hanksville.org - Index of American Indian Resources on the Internet
- Access Genealogy - Trail of Tears Roll
- Cyndi's List - American Indian
- Wikitree Native American Resource Page - US Civil War between the States
- History Data Base Search - Native Americans, 1870–1900
- The Wild West - American Indian Genealogy
- National Indian Law Library Tracing your Genealogy National Indian Law Library, Tracing Your Roots
- First Nation Genealogy Tracing Roots of American Indian and First. Nation Genealogy
- Dawes Index: Cherokee
- Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes
- PDF - a guide to tracing American Indian and Alaska Native Ancestry
- List of Tribes, Library of Congress
- Native Culture - NATIVE AMERICAN SITES
- National Museum of the American Indian - Collections search
- Penn Libraries - Historical U.S. Newspapers Online
- nDepth.News.com - FORT SILL — Geronimo.
- Indigenous People - Great Chiefs & Leaders
- California Indian Education - TOP 10 GREATEST INDIAN CHIEFS
- Indian Chiefs - Biographies of Native American Chiefs
- Bio. - Native American Leaders of the Wild West
- Legends of America - Notable Native Americans on the Frontier
- History net - Native American Indian Chiefs Facts, information and articles about Native American Indian Chiefs from the history of the Wild West
- This Day in History - Sep 21, 1904 -The great Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph dies in Washington
- The Wild Wild West - Black Kettle Cheyenne Indian (unknown - 1868)
- Fof Web - Sitting Bull Also known as: Tatanka Yotanka; Jumping Badger; Tatanka Iyotanka; Tatanka Iyotake; Hunkesni ("slow")
- American Tribes.com - American Horse Wasicu Tasunke Oglala 1840-1908
- Snow Wowl.com - Past Notable Native Americans
- Nd Studies - Traditional Leaders of the Hunkpapa Lakota
- Wild West History - The Minnesota Massacre, or Dakota War of 1862 Chief Little Crow.
- Legends of America - Native American Tribes.
- Alphabetical Enumeration of the Indian Tribes and Nations
- Old West Daily Reader - A list of Native American Tribes
- aaanativearts - Native American Indian tribes of the US
- Wikipedia - List of Federally Recognized Tribes by State
- Vlib.us - Plains and Emigrant Tribes of Kansas.
- History on the Net - Native Americans - Tribes/Nations.
- This Day in History - Dec 20, 1836 - Jackson submits Indian treaty to Congress
- Historynet.com - Death at Summit Springs: Susanna Alderdice and the Cheyennes
- Tolerance.org - Teaching Tolerance This Land Is Ours
- Texas Beyond History - The Passing of the Indian Era
- Eye Witness to History - Massacre At Wounded Knee, 1890
- PBS - Events in the West 1870 - 1880
- Cherokee Museum.org - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian.
- Bjmjr.net - THE WILD WEST OF THE SEMINOLE NEGRO INDIAN SCOUTS - The Killing of Adam Paine, Medal of Honor Winner
- American History - American History Timeline Clashes Between US Soldiers and Native Americans In the Wild West
- History to go Utah - Native Americans in Utah David Rich Lewis Utah History Encyclopedia
- Athentic History.com - 1861-1890: The Plains Indians Timeline
- The Wild West - Native American Wisdom
- Legends of America - Native Americans, the First Owners of the West
- Ailanet.org - American Indian Library Association
- RB Hayes.com - United States Indian Policy During The Late Nineteenth Century: Change And Continuity by Edmund Jefferson Danzinger, Jr.
- Native Languages - Native Languages of the Americas -Preserving and promoting American Indian languages
- Native Languages - Native American State Names
- Wikipedia Native Americans
- Gutenberg - THE EXTERMINATION OF THE AMERICAN BISON.BY WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, Superintendent of the National Zoological Park.
- History Newswork.org - Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?
- The Wild West - Native Americans
- Daily Mail - The real Wild West - On the Navajo trail of Arizona's Native Americans
- Wikipedia - Show Indians
Trail of Tears
- History.com - The Trail of Tears
- Digital Library Oklahoma,edu - TRAIL OF TEARS
- Crystal Links - The Trail of Tears
- US History - The Trail of Tears — The Indian Removals
- Native Voices - 1838 - Cherokee die on Trail of Tears
- Sequoyah Research Center - Family Stories from the Trail of Tears - taken from the Indian-Pioneer History Collection, Grant Foreman, editor
- www.yvwiiusdinvnohi.net - Accounts of the "Cherokee Trail of Tears" With reference to "Princess Otahki"
- Our Georgia History - The Trail of Tears By Randy Golden
- National Parks Service - The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation
- Wikipedia - Trail of Tears
- Encyclopedia of Alabama - Cherokee Indian Removal
- Legends of America - The Cherokee Trail of Tears
- Americans Library -Chief Little John and the Trail of Tears
- Arkansas Heritage Trails - Arkansas Trail of Tears
- Encyclopedia of Arkansas - Trail of Tears
- Chieftains Trail - The Trail of Tears
- North Carolina Digital Library - Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears
- War Path 2 Peacepipes - Trail of Tears
- National Parks Service - What happened on the Trail of Tears? Federal Indian Removal Policy
Native American and the Buffalo
- History Learning - Buffalo and the Native Americans
- Indians.org - American Buffalo
- National Humanities Center - Buffalo Tales - The Near-Extermination of the American Bison
- Historical Insights - Buffalo Bill and Native Americans
- Living Myths - Native American Myths
- Native Languages - Native American Buffalo Mythology
- Eye Witness to History - Buffalo Hunt, 1846
- White Buffalo Miracle - Sacred Buffalo,American Indian Stories and Poems
- Legends of America - Legend of the White Buffalo
- Mercer online - The White Buffalo - "The White Buffalo Woman"
- of America - Arapaho - Great Buffalo Hunters of the Plains
- First People - Native American Legends The story of the Buffalo Dance - A Blackfoot Legend
- Emerson Kent.com - Indian Posts, Tribes, and Battles 1860-1890.
- Native Languages - Maps of American Indian Tribes and Reservations
- This Land press - MAP OF THE WEEK: Native American Nations
- Flutopedia.com - Native American Indian Tribal Maps
- Emerson Kent.com - Map of the United States - Native American Tribes.
- Wikimedia Commons - Maps of Native American tribal territories
- 500 Nations - 500 Nations, Tribes, Bands
- Ancient Wisdom - American Indian Tribes
- Emerson Kent - A collection of Native American maps.
Indigenous Population Maps
- Native American and Alaskan population Map
- Maps of North, Central and South America
- Tribes of the United States, clickable to state level
- Tribes you may not have seen before.
- Google Books - Geronimo Stilton #21: The Wild, Wild West - By Geronimo Stilton
- Google Books - The 'Real' Wild West
- Google Books - The Indian Wars By Carol H. Behrman
- Google Books - Rookwood and the American Indian: Masterpieces of American Art Pottery from By Anita J. Ellis, Susan L. Meyn.
- Google Books The Extraordinary Book of Native American Lists By Arlene B. Hirschfelder, Paulette Fairbanks Molin
- Picture.com - Indians
- National Archives - Pictures of Native Americans in the United States
- History - NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES
- Library of Congress - Pictorial Americana Western life and Indian fighting
- First People US - Old photographs of American Indians by Edward S Curtis.
- War parth 2 Peace pipes.com - Pictures of the Native Americans
- The Atlantic - Native Americans: Portraits From a Century Ago
- Days gone by - Rare, vivid portraits of Native Americans from Buffalo Bills Wild West Show
- Pinterest - Old Native American Photos
- Huffing Post - Rare, Old Photos of Native American Women and Children.
- Pinterest - Wild West/ Cowboys/ Native Americans
- Rivers Museum - The Collection of Native American Photographs
- Native American Images
- Amphilsoc.org - Native American Images Project
- Pinterest - Native American Indians, 1800's-1900's images, beautiful photos
- Login to request to the join the Trusted List so that you can edit and add images.
- Private Messages: Contact the Profile Managers privately: Jillaine Smith, Mags Gaulden, Native Americans Project WikiTree, and Terry Wright. (Best when privacy is an issue.)
- Public Comments: Login to post. (Best for messages specifically directed to those editing this profile. Limit 20 per day.)
- Public Q&A: These will appear above and in the Genealogist-to-Genealogist (G2G) Forum. (Best for anything directed to the wider genealogy community.)
On 10 Jul 2018 at 00:47 GMT Z Nelson wrote:
On 9 Jul 2018 at 13:38 GMT Shirley (Strutton) Dalton wrote:
Naming Guidelines should be included on the NA Project Page.
On 9 Jul 2018 at 13:29 GMT Mags Gaulden wrote:
On 2 Jul 2018 at 12:35 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:
On 2 Jul 2018 at 05:09 GMT Paula J wrote:
Check with Mags. We began using tribe for last name when I started the project to replace Unknown. Prior to leaving the project, the members had requested that Moytoy be accepted as a last name due to the historical significance of the Moytoy family and also because we kept getting duplicates otherwise. After that, Doublehead was also voted to be an acceptable last name, for the same reasons. It did help people identify those profiles. However, I know nothing of how the naming guidelines continued after that point. All that could have changed.
On 1 Jul 2018 at 15:07 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:
On 1 Jul 2018 at 14:12 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:
On 12 Nov 2017 at 14:11 GMT Shirley Davis wrote:
Removal, p. 2 states more than 2,500 Choctaw men, women and children died on their journey to Oklahoma.
On 4 Nov 2017 at 17:25 GMT Shirley (Strutton) Dalton wrote:
On 11 Jul 2016 at 02:15 GMT Mags Gaulden wrote:
I'd like to change this Free Space Profile name from American Indians to Native Americans, please.