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New-Ark Settlement

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Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: Newark, New Jerseymap
Surnames/tags: New-Ark Newark New_Ark
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This is a work in progress and is meant to inform many of us that our Puritain ancestors were the first founders of Newark, New Jersey!

Contents

Reasons for the Formation of the New-Ark Settlement

Prior to the move to Newark, the New Haven Colony was basically a theocracy and was home to Puritans. They had fled to the New England colonies because of intolerance directed toward them and were now free to worship as they pleased, however their own tolerance did not extend beyond their own beliefs. These founders of New Haven asked nothing of England because, "Wisdom hath builded her house; she hath hewn her seven pillars"Proverbs 9:1 since this was God's word, they chose seven men to have supreme charge in civic and church functions. The seven pillars chose a governor and four deputies while they acted as magistrates. There were no juries because mosaic law makes no mention of them.[1]

The colony of Connecticut bordered yet was separate from the colony of New Haven. The philosophy and tolerance with respect to differing religious beliefs was stark. Connecticut tolerated newcomers with beliefs such as Quakerism and the Church of England, the New Haven Puritans viewed this with disapproval and distrust. Persecution of Quakers in the New Haven colony was only second to Massachusetts.

If a Quaker came into the colony on business he was to be permitted to dispatch it, while accompanied by a guard, and was to be ejected as soon as his business was done. Anyone who harbored Quakers "or other blasphemous hereticks" was to forfeit fifty pounds sterling. If a Quaker showed an inclination not to abide by this law he was to be thrown into prison, severely whipped and put at hard labor for a term to be fixed by the magistrate. For a second offense a Quaker was to be branded with the letter "H" (for "heretic") on the hand, and imprisoned. For the third offense the other hand was to be branded, and for the fourth offense the tongue was to be bored with a hot iron. To bring Quaker books into the colony meant the imposition of a fine of five pounds. Some of these penalties were meted out upon a few. But not many came into the colony, naturally enough. These anti-Quaker laws were put in operation in 1658.[2][3] Determined to pursue their theocracy elsewhere, the New Haven Puritans began the search for a new home.

Disputed Territory

Unhappy with the quickly changing times, Robert Treat of Milford, New Haven Colony, had discussed with Gov. Peter Stuyvesant a plan for settlers to remove to land claimed by New Netherland. Following the British takeover of all of New Netherland, and after discussion with Gov. Carteret, thirty settlers arrived from Milford, Branford and Guilford to the west bank of the Passaic River on 17 May 1666. The leaders of the Puritan migration from the New Haven towns were Robert Treat, Samuel Swain, Jasper Crane and Rev. Abraham Pierson. Governor Carteret had not settled financially with the Lenepe and local Native Americans.[4] Subsequent transactions took place locally to ensure a peaceful life between the Puritans and the locals.

Several settlers as Towensmen and Agents to the English Inhabitants of Pisayak [5] who negotiated with the Native Americans to resolve and complete any contractual dispute for claim to the land which later became Newark, this Indian Bill of Sale to the Newarke Men was signed by Obadiah Bruen, Michael Tomkins, Samuel Kitchelll, John Browne, and Robert Denison.[6]

Newark was first settled in 1666, and on the 11th July, 1667, Obadiah Bruen, Michael Tompkins, Samuel Kitchell, John Browne, and Robert Denison, purchased from the Indians a tract of land "bounded and limited with the bay eastward, and the great river Pesayak northward; the great creek, or river in the meadow, running to the head of the cove and from thence bearing a west line for the south bounds, which said great creek is commonly called and known by the name of Weequahick; on the west line, backwards in the country to the foot of the great mountain," [by a subsequent deed, dated 13th March, 1677-8, the limits were extended to the top of the mountain for two guns, three coats and thirteen cans of rum,] "called Watchung, being, as is judged, about seven or eight miles from Pesayak Towne. The said mountain, as we are informed, hath one branch of Elizabethtown river running near the above said foot of the mountain. The bounds northerly up Pesayak river, reach to the third river above 24, for manner of apportioning lands tlement of Elizabethtown.[7][8][9]

Covenant Signers

These names appear on a Covenant signed by the settlers moving from the New Haven Colony towns to begin a new settlement known as "New-Ark" and later known as Newark stating that they will maintain their faith as they settle this new land.[10]

Signers from Branford
Jasper Crane Ebenezer Camfield
Abra Pierson John Ward Senior
Saml Swaine Ed. Ball
Laurence Ward John Harrison
Thomas Blacthly (Blatchley) John Crane
Samuel Plum Thomas Huntington
Josiah Ward Delivered Crane
Samuel Rose Aaron Blacthly (Blatchley)
Thomas Pierson Richard Laurence
John Warde John Johnson
John Catling Thomas L Lyon
Richard Harrison
Signers from Milford, Guilford, and New Haven
Robert Treat Francis F Linle Robert Dalglesh
Obadiah Bruen Hauns Albers
Matthew Camfield Daniel Tichenor Thom. Morris
Samuel Kitchell John Bauldwin Sen. Hugh Roberts
Jeremiah Pecke] John Bauldwin Junr. Eph'm Pennington
Michael Tompkins Jona. Tomkins Martin Tichenor
Stephen Freeman Geo. Day John Browne, Jr
Henry Lyon Thomas Johnson Jona. Seargeant
John Browne John Curtis Azariah Crane
John Rogers Ephram Burwell Samuel Lyon
Stephen Davis Robert R Denison Joseph Riggs
Edward Rigs Nathaniel Wheeler Stephen Bond
Robert Kitchell Zachariah Burwell
J x B Brooks William Campe
Robert v Lymen Joseph Walters


Early Life in the Newark Settlement

Shelter: Settlers wore homespun linen made from flax cultivated by the females and spun on spinning wheels. Other garments were made from the wool of their sheep brought from New Haven or purchased in New York. The first pioneers lived in a hut, lean-to, or wigwam (tent-like structure), which was easier because the settlers arrived in the spring. The next structure was a rough house before the completion of a more substantial home. The walls of these early homes were of timber and are set one end to the ground upright and plastered within. Timbers and beams were fastened together with wooden pins because nails were scarce and oyster and clam shells were used as lyme for mortar.

Settlement Work: Taxes and physical work were large or small based on the rating of an individual and how many male dependents between the ages of sixteen and sixty for the common benefit. The greater the estate, the more fences he was required to erect and the greater amount of highway was to be built. The men worked in squads and were summoned on certain days to do their quota of work. Work was organized by the value of their property (as quoted from the Minute Book), "Every man is required to work one day for each £200 of his [two-thirds] estate. Two rods in length is to be taken for each day's work..."[11]

Related Projects

Sources

New Haven and Connecticut Sources

Volume 1: Records of the Jurisdiction of New Haven, Connecticut
Volume 2: Records of the Jurisdiction of New Haven, Connecticut
Volume 1: Records of the colony and plantation of New-Haven, from 1638 to 1649
Volume 2: Records of the Colony and Plantation of New-Haven, from 1638-1649
History of the Colony of New Haven to Its Absorption Into Connecticut
History of the colony of New Haven, before and after the union with Connecticut. Containing a particular description of the towns which composed that government, viz., New Haven, Milford, Guilford, Branford, Stamford, & Southold, L. I., with a notice of the towns which have been set off from "the original six."
A catalogue of the names of the early Puritan settlers of the colony of Connecticut : with the time of their arrival in the country and colony : their standing in society, place of residence, condition in life, where from, business, &c., as far as is found on record collected from records
The East-Haven Register: In Three Parts
History of Milford, Connecticut, 1639-1939

Newark and New Jersey Sources

Documents relating to the colonial, Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary history of the State of New Jersey, Series 2, Volume 21
East Jersey Proprietary Government
History of Essex and Hudson counties, New Jersey
Volume 6: Records of the Town of Newark, New Jersey: From Its Settlement in 1666, to Its Incorporation
Volume 1: A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey, embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913
Volume 2: A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey, embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913
Volume 3: A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey, embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913
Using the Records of the East and West Jersey Proprietors, by Joseph R. Klett who recommended the New Jersey sources listed on this page

Footnotes

  1. Urquhart, Frank J. (Frank John), 1865-1921, and Lewis Historical Publishing Co. A History of the City of Newark, New Jersey, Embracing Practically Two And a Half Centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 32. New York: Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1913. https://archive.org/stream/ahistorycitynew04cogoog#page/n54/mode/2up
  2. Urquhart, Frank J. (Frank John), 1865-1921, and Lewis Historical Publishing Co. A History of the City of Newark, New Jersey, Embracing Practically Two And a Half Centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 33-34. New York: Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1913. https://archive.org/stream/ahistorycitynew04cogoog#page/n54/mode/2up
  3. Hoadly, Charles J., Records of the Colony or Jurisdiction of New Haven, from May, 1653, to the union. Together with New Haven code of 1656, Volume 2, Page 240. Publisher Hartford, Printed by Case, Lockwood and Company, 1858. https://archive.org/stream/recordscolonyor01congoog#page/n251/mode/2up/search/Quaker
  4. Urquhart, Frank J., A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey : embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 53. Publisher New York, N.Y. ; Chicago, Ill. : The Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1913. https://archive.org/stream/ahistorycitynew04cogoog#page/n74/mode/2up
  5. This document has been ordered from New Jersey Archives: 1:Folio 270 of New Jersey State Archives, 11 Jul 1667
  6. Urquhart, Frank J., A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey : embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 56. Publisher New York, N.Y. ; Chicago, Ill. : The Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1913. https://archive.org/stream/historyofcityofn01urqu#page/n127/mode/2up/search/Denison
  7. Newark (N.J.) Records, Records of the Town of Newark, New Jersey: From Its Settlement in 1666, to Its Incorporation as ..., Page 278. https://archive.org/stream/recordstownnewa00njgoog#page/n296/mode/2up/search/Denison
  8. Whitehead, William A. 1810-1884. East Jersey Under the Proprietary Governments: a Narrative of Events Connected With the Settlement And Progress of the Province, Until the Surrender of the Government to the Crown In 1703, Page 49. 2d ed., rev. and enl. Newark, N.J.: M. R. Dennis, 1875. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044021236005;view=1up;seq=65
  9. Earlier version of the previous citation: Whitehead, William A., Scot, George, East Jersey under the proprietary governments, Page 42. Publisher New York, New-Jersey historical society, 1846. https://archive.org/stream/eastjerseyunderp00white#page/42/mode/2up/search/Denison
  10. Urquhart, Frank J., A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey : embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 73-74. Publisher New York, N.Y. ; Chicago, Ill. : The Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1913. https://archive.org/stream/ahistorycitynew04cogoog#page/n94/mode/2up
  11. Urquhart, Frank J., A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey : embracing practically two and a half centuries, 1666-1913, Volume 1, Page 124. Publisher New York, N.Y. ; Chicago, Ill. : The Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1913. https://archive.org/stream/ahistorycitynew04cogoog#page/n148/mode/2up/




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Recommend that Stephen Bond be linked to his profile: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Bond-5459

I tried to do that but I guess I don't understand the formatting because he disappeared! Have restored.

As noted in the profile the item currently linked for him (Urquhart's Newark History) confuses him with his father Robert.

posted by John Miller Jr.
Barbara, I've linked this page to the the New Jersey Project, the Connecticut Project and to New Haven Colony and put links on those pages back to this page. Nice Work.
posted by Anne B