New Spain

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Surnames/tags: nueva_Espana new_spain_colonies mexico
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EVOLUTION of parts of the New Spain region that became part of USA.
New Spain (Nueva Espana region ) evolved from colonization to colonies, territories before each became states.. After 1776 colonies out west in TEXAS, NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, NEVADA, UTAH, COLORADO were just beginning and were considered New Spain or Territories of Mexico until EACH became STATES

Leaders are: Mary Richardson is leader of New Spain (Nueva España) along with Allan H Thomas (Allan Thomas, deceased). For questions, please consult with Mary Richardson or Project leader:Paula Johnson

SPANISH LOUISIANA Space page , Jerry Mead.

French Southern Colonies, LouisianaLa Louisiane
La Louisiane was named for King Louis XIV of France, then became a colony of the Kingdom of France in 1682 and passed to the Spain in 1763. Rebellion of 1768 was an unsuccessful attempt by Creole and German settlers around New Orleans to stop the handover of the French Louisiana Territory, as had been stipulated in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, to the Spain in 1768.
It became part of the United States following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. See French Louisiana. Louisiana

Project of New Spain - ( Nueva España)

Colonies of Spanish Neuva España New Spain include this Page. Texas, Florida, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado.


New Spain Colonies that became States following Mexican-American War


The present day States of the United States of America (listed below) were derived from parts of the Nueva España ( New Spain) prior to 1821 from México colonies and later Territories before they became States within the United States.

Texas Resource Page Texas
Resource Page New Mexico
Resource Page California
Resources Page Arizona
Resources Page Nevada
UtahResources Page Utah
Colorado Resources Page Colorado
Resource Page West la Florida
Resource Page East la Florida

The Provinces of New Spain (Nueva Espana) (1521-1821) prior to the Mexican War of Independence 1821:
1533: Smallpox epidemic
1535: New Spain was established as a Vice Royalty, Virreinato de Nueva España (referred to as Nueva España)]] - oversaw the northern half of the global Spanish empire in North America and the Philippine Islands.
1540–1542 Viceroy Mendoza commissioned expeditions of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado into the present day United States Southwest
1595: Spanish pueblo of San Juan on the Rio Grande near Native American Pueblo, located in the present day U.S. state of New Mexico
1610 Pedro de Peralta , governor of Province of New Mexico, established settlement of Santa Fe near Sangre de Cristo Mountains (meaning 'Blood of Christ') on the Rio Grande River.
1614:Diphtheria epidemic
1680: El Paso is established in the future Texas, For a while it was part of New Mexico.
1618:Measles epidemic
1767 King Carlos III ordered all Jesuits expelled from all Spanish possessions, including New Spain.
1811 Spain abolishes slavery in most of its territories (exception: Caribbean Islands, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo). Abolition of Slavery Timeline on Wikipedia
1813: Mexico abolishes slavery in the documents Sentimientos de la Nación, by insurgent leader José María Morelos y Pavón.Abolition of Slavery Timeline on Wikipedia
1820: Mexico formally abolishes slavery with the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Agustín de Iturbide and ratified the following year by him and Viceroy Juan O'Donojú..Abolition of Slavery Timeline on Wikipedia
1821: Mexico wins independence from Spain and becomes Imperio México, also known as the First Mexican Empire. Agustín de Iturbide is the Emporer
1823: First Mexican Empire falls and Agustín de Iturbide is exiled. He flees to the United Kingdom.
  • Oct 1835 - Santa Anna revoked Constitution of 1824 and abolished all state governments.
1848: Mexican-American War: resulted in Mexico losing most of its territory/colonies in the United States as we know it to be today.
1568-1587 Spain established missions in what is now the Southern United States between 1568 and 1587, Such as Georgia, [South Carolina, Florida . It began to call this area New Spain or Nueva Espana The Portuguese explorer, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, navigated the California coast on behalf of Spain. Silver was discovered 1547 in Zacatecas. Hoping to find the same amounts of riches in present-day New Mexico, they sent a party to establish a mission, establishing the pueblo of San Juan 1595 on the Rio Grande River, located in the present day U.S. state of New Mexico. NOTE: the Native American Pueblo Indians did not appreciate the Spanish interference. In 1610, Pedro de Peralta, a governor of the Province of New Mexico, established the Santa Fe settlement near the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

Map showing border between Mexico and northern US territories: (TX, NM, AZ, CA, NV, UT, CO effective 1850)

Evolution of Government Structure

  • 1512 - The Laws of Burgos, signed by King Ferdinand II of Aragon, focusing upon the welfare of conquered native peoples in effect before New Spain was colonized.
  • 1542 - Leyes Nuevas issued November 20, 1542 by King Charles I of Spain regarding colonization of the Americas, known as the "New Laws of the Indies for Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians", and were created to prevent the exploitation of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas by Encomenderos (large enterprise landowners) and limited their power and dominion.
  • February 13,1548 - Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara was highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in the Vice royalty of New Spain. It was created by royal decree and was originally located in Compostela and permanently seated in Guadalajara in 1560. Its president: chief executive officer, subordinated only to the viceroy of Mexico
  • 1573 - The Laws of Indies - to guide and regularize establishing of presidios (military towns), missions, and pueblos . King Phillip II developed the first version of Laws of the Indies.
  • 1776 - Provincias Internas or Commandancy General of Internal Provinces of the North was an administrative district of Spanish Crown, created to provide more autonomy for frontier provinces in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The goal of its creation was to establish a unified government in political, military and fiscal affairs.
  • 1821-1823 - The Mexican Empire (Imperio México) -official name of independent Mexico under a monarchical regime, Agustín de Iturbide, was proclaimed emperor of Mexico.
  • 1824 - Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 (Spanish: Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1824) - enacted on October 4 of 1824, after overthrow of Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. Republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic. Catholicism- official and unique religion

In 1829, slavery was officially outlawed in Mexico. Stephen Fuller Austin feared that the edict would cause widespread discontent and tried to suppress publication of it. Rumors of the new law quickly spread throughout the area and the colonists seemed on the brink of revolt. The governor of Coahuila y Tejas, Jose Maria Viesca, wrote to the president to explain the importance of slavery to the Texas economy, and the importance of the Texas economy to the development of the state. Texas was temporarily exempted from the rule. On April 6, 1830, Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante ordered Texas to comply with the emancipation proclamation or face military intervention. To circumvent the law, many Anglo colonists converted their slaves into indentured servants for life. Others simply called their slaves, indentured servants without legally changing their status.

Map showing the border between Mexico and northern US states/territories (NM, AZ, CA, NV, UT, CO)

Slaveholders wishing to enter New Spain Mexico would force their slaves to sign contracts claiming that the slaves owed money and would work to pay the debt. The low wages the slave would receive made repayment impossible, and the debt would be inherited, even though no slave would receive wages until age eighteen. This tactic was outlawed by an 1832 law which prohibited worker contracts from lasting more than ten years. A small number of slaves were imported illegally from the West Indies or Africa. In the 1830s, the British consul estimated approximately 500 slaves had been illegally imported into Texas. By 1836, there were approximately 5,000 slaves in Texas. - Excerpt: Wikipedia: Mexican Texas#Rising tensions

Economic Resources and Information

  • Wild horses
  • Grass Land
  • Water
  • Mild climate
  • Oil
  • Natural Gas
  • Silver -

Conflicts Within the Viceroyalty of New Spain

Indigenous American Indian raids and revolts, Indigenous Peoples of Mexico raids and revolts, famines, droughts, floods, diseases, money, etc.

Research Sources for United States New Spain colonies

Descendants of Conquistadors and first Spanish Settlers of New Spain The Bexar Archives are the official Spanish documents that preserve the political, military, economic, and social life of the Spanish province of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila. Both in their volume and breadth of subject matter, the Bexar Archives are one of the most important sources for the history of Hispanic Texas up to 1836

UT Arlington Library's Special Collections has built a diverse research collection and collects materials in virtually all formats and makes them available to researchers.

Free Resources


Paid Resource Sites

Mexico and Latin America



European Settlers

  • Spaniards
  • Jesuit missionaries
  • Irish
  • Germans
  • French
  • Portuguese
  • 1767 King Charles III ordered all Jesuits expelled from all Spanish possessions, including New Spain.

Migrating From the Other Colonies

Migrating Ancestor Template

How to add the Migrating Ancestor Template

Native Americans

Wiki Tree Spanish Wars Free Space Page


In 1501 the Encomienda System began granting Native Americans to Spanish encomenderos as slaves.

The Spaniards are tasked with protecting the natives and teaching them Christianity. Colonization Timeline

Existing Categories

Mexico Timeline

Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control led to unprecedented complexity and wealth, giving both opportunities and threats to the Crown of Castile. Conquistadores such as Hernán Cortés became autonomous. The Spanish Crown incorporated The Americas into the Spain by using the Viceroyalty institution and Audiencias. There were two Vice Royalties until the 18th century - Nueva España and Peru. Real Audiencia on Wikipedia In 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain with a capital in Mexico City.

Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened South America to further conquests.
Cortés's The Night of Tears (La Noche Triste) of June 30, 1520: nearly 800 of Cortés's men were killed as his army of Spanish conquistadores and allies fought their way out of the capital at Tenochtitlan following the death of the Aztec King Moctezuma II.
1496: Santo Domingo, on the island of Hispaniola, established by Diego Columbus, brother of Christopher Columbus
1501-1542: Encomienda (en-koh-mee-en-duh) System: The encomienda system begins, granting Spanish soldiers or colonists tracts of land or a village (or villages) together with its Indigenous inhabitants. The Spaniards are tasked with protecting the natives and teaching them Christianity. The system is rife with abuses[1]
The Encomienda System youtube video (10 minutes)
1510:Vasco Núñez de Balboa establishes Santa María la Antigua del Darién in Colombia
1511: Geronimo de Aguilar, Gonzalo Guerrero, and others were shipwrecked and captured by the local Indigenous people. Gonzalo assimilated into Mayan culture and married a Mayan Princess and they were the parents of at least three (sons?) children. These children were the first known "mestizos". [2]
1513: Vasco Nunez de Balboa makes his expedition to the Pacific from Santa María la Antigua del Darién. Also present day Florida is claimed for Spain.
1515: Havana is established, Cuba and the other Caribbean islands are under Spanish control.
1541 Campeche, Mexico (on the Yucatán Peninsula) founded as a small port
1542 Spain outlaws slavery of Indigenous Peoples in its lands (exceptions: people of African linneage)
1543 - Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese): (João Rodrigues Cabrilho) - first European explorer navigated and explored the West coast of North America on behalf of Spain.
1545-1548: Cocoliztli epidemic killed an estimated 5 to 15 million people, or up to 80% of the native population.
1546: Typhus epidemic
1547: Discovery of silver in Zacatecas
1558:Smallpox epidemic and Influenza\epidemic
1576-1578: Cocoliztli epidemic killed an estimated, additional 2 to 2.5 million people

Consiga su Arbol Genealogic Es el primer paso para su historia familiar o la de una persona que quiere, o la de un personaje que aprecia.



WikiTree Resources

Consiga su Arbol Genealogic Es el primer paso para su historia familiar o la de una persona que quiere, o la de un personaje que aprecia.


Sources for Mexico

  1. Encomienda System
  2. Diaz del Castillo Describes How the Spaniards Found Geronimo de Aguilar

See also:

Comments: 16

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Please also remove links to Category:Mogollon, for the same reason (pre-1500 people, left no documentation)

Huastec and Mogollan Categories are removed.. Let me know if I should remove the others ?


posted by Mary Richardson
Please edit the link for Campeche to [Category:Campeche, México]] instead. Thanks,


posted by Natalie (Durbin) Trott
Natalie help I edited the Campeche to  :1541 Campeche, Mexico (on the Yucatán Peninsula) founded as a small port

NOW it has turned Red... Yikes..'

I am adding you to the trusted list on the space page for you

posted by Mary Richardson
It needed the diacritical. I got it though. Thanks Mary!
posted by Natalie (Durbin) Trott

Please remove links to Category:Huastec as this category for a pre-Columbian people is unlikely to be used and is being retired. Thanks!

Mary - I'm making headway (I think). Could you add

Category: US Southern Colonies Inactive Project Pages

to this page?

Category: US Southern Colonies Inactive Project Pages

posted by Liz (Noland) Shifflett
Good Saturday morning to you, profile managers. Would you please remove any reference to (including categories) US Southern Colonies Project? This page no longer falls within the scope of the US Southern Colonies Project, which is now focusing on pre-1776 colonies of the US South (Maryland, Virginia, Carolinas and Georgia).

I see that the page name itself (US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España) also needs a rename to remove reference to US Southern Colonies.

If you need a project association, consider Mexico and/or United States?


posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Jillaine Smith
Hello Managers and trusted, I have removed you all, and merged this page to remove the US Southern Colonies from its title.

Now I have added you back.


posted by Mary Richardson
I just now noticed that you have added this project to the Project: United States page as a new component project of United States. I believe we will need to have a discussion of the name, purpose and scope of this free-space project, and how it relates to Project: Mexico and the other component sub-projects of the United States Project (such as Project: California, Project:Arizona, Project: Texas, etc.).
posted by Ellen Smith
I removed a deleted category.
posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Natalie (Durbin) Trott
This is the connecting page to US Southern Colonies, British.

Please leave the links to connect to US Southern Colonies

posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Mary Richardson

December 8, 2014

posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Paula J
Thanks for all the work you do! Now that we have redefined your boundaries, let me know how I can help you with any changes needed to your page.


posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Paula J
This a great sub project and long overdue. Thank you for bring this to WikiTree. Is St. Augustine included in New Spain? If not, maybe you could call it New Spain and the Spanish Empire to include Florida.,_Florida
posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by Kitty (Cooper) Smith
Okay, you all are listed. If you need any additional free space pages set, you can either hit the edit tab to see how I set up Texas, or let one of us know, and we'll be happy to do so! Thanks!

Please note that the topics/sub categories here are just a sample, change, delete add as you see fit/need. Thanks for volunteering! It's much appreciated! Nae

posted on US Southern Colonies Spanish Nueva España (merged) by [Living Lockhart]