Ottoman Empire in the Great War

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Surnames/tags: The Great War WWI World War I
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Ottoman Empire in the Great War

Ottoman Empire.

Enver Pasha.
Hafiz Hakki Pasha.

In 1914, The Ottomon Empire was very close to a collapse. It had lost land, and territory to European countries. Mehmed V was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He declared war on the Allies in 1914. He died just before the end of the war in 1918. Tsar Nicholas II ordered the Russian army to invade Germany before Germany took them by surprise. Minister of war of Ottoman Empire, Enver Pasha started his army moving although they were still neutral.

Kaiser Wilhelm w/ cane.

Enver had entered into a secret treaty with the German ambassador. It was arranged that the Ottoman Empire was supposed to enter the war on the side of Central Powers the following day after Germany declared war against Russia. (it called for each other's aid if Russia attacked) Ottoman Empire was supposed to declare war the following day which it did. The Prime Minister Sait Halim, felt they should remain neutral, thus was upset Enver had side stepped him by signing the secret treaty. Enver also had support of Cemal Pasha, (head of the Navy) Sait Halim was over the paramilitary ( 40,000 force similar to French gendarmes). this empire included Turkey Syria, Arabia.

declares war.

Another factor involved warships being built in Britain for the Ottoman Empire. Yet when they went to collect the ships after sea trials, they learned Churchill had confiscated them for the War and Britain did not offer compensation.

Third: the Ottoman empire is close to the Suez canal, which was the shortest route for Britain to its colonies, India, Far Eastern colonies and Australia.


  • Declared war against Russia one day after Germany did as arranged.
  • 5 campaigns
  • Oct, 1914 - Battle of Odessa- Ottoman naval attack against the Russian-held port of Odessa, Ukraine. Ottoman Navy also launched a major raid into the Black Sea to destroy the Russian Black Sea Fleet and to attack targets on land. In response to the raid Russia declared war on the Ottomans on November 1, 1914.
  • Dec 22, 1914-Jan, 17,1915 Caucasus Campaign Russian victory. Ottoman Generals were used combination of German and Napoleonic tactics. Ottoman troops were not prepared for conditions of Allahuekber Mountains- Enver Pasha blamed defeat on Armenians.
  • April 1915, - Armenian Genocide systematic extermination of its minority Armenian subjects inside their historic homeland
genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert.
  • Feb- March, 1915 - unsuccessful naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits in February-March 1915. This included with a major land invasion of the Galipoli Peninsula on April 25, involving British and French troops as well as divisions of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC)
Anzac Position Galipoli.
  • 1915-1916 - Galipoli or the Dardanelles Campaign, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. Lack of sufficient intelligence and terrain knowledge, along with a fierce Turkish resistance, hampered the success of the invasion. By mid-October, Allied forces had suffered heavy casualties and had made little headway from their initial landing sites. Evacuation began in December 1915.

Anzacs died: 44 000 died. Of the dead, 8709 were Australians and 2701 were New Zealanders.

The Ottoman Empire contributed to this.
  • 1915 - Ottoman attempting raid of Suez canal
  • 1916 Macedonian front (Bulgarian army was defeated)

  • 1918 In Syria, the Ottomans were steadily pushed back by the British over 1918, culminating in the fall of Damascus in October.
  • Germany had no troops to offer Ottoman,
  • Germany could not defend Austria Hungary, after losing forces in France. Ottomans had to defend Constantinople without any help from Bulgaria
  • Grand vizier Talaat Pasha visited Berlin, Germany and Sofia Bulgaria, Sept 1918, learned the was was not winnable.
  • Oct. 13 Tallaat and ministry resigned. Ahmed Izzet Pasha replaced him as Grand Vizier

He sent the captured British Gen. Charles Townshend to seek armistice from the Allies.

  • Oct 27 on HMS Agamemnon, British and Ottoman met. Neither side knew how eager the other was to sign a deal. (without the presence of the Americans). Since Ottoman accepted anything, they agreed for the Allies to occupy any Ottoman territory.
  • 1920 - Treaty of Sevres officially partitioned the Ottomans
  • 1912 - Treaty of Lausanne set Turkey's borders


  • 1st Expeditionary Force HQ (commander: Kaymakam Kâzım Karabekir Bey)
  • 7th Infantry Regiment (3rd Division, İzmit)
  • 9th Infantry Regiment (3rd Division, Adapazarı)
  • 44th Infantry Regiment (15th Division, Kayseri)
  • 3rd Battalion (Mountain Howitzer) (4th Artillery Regiment, Edirne)
  • 4th Artillery Regiment
  • IX Corps
  • X Corps
  • XI Corps


Comments: 2

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I learned so much from the information you have here. Great job!
posted by Alison Andrus
Great page Mary I will add all the great links you found to the resource page
posted by Terry Wright