Polk County, North Carolina

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Gateway to the Mountains

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1540 Hernando DeSoto arrived in the mountain country, near this Polk County area. He found the Cherokee tribe living in log houses, hunting, and raising corn, pumpkins and beans. By 1760 Settlers had arrived settling in the mountains within the Cherokee hunting lands. Large numbers of the tribe used the lands as hunting grounds in summer. Hostile feelings of the Cherokees toward white settlers were a menace to people living near the foothills. [1][2]

French and Indian war
1754-63 During the French and Indian War, the Cherokees helped the British Redcoats and Tory sympathizers and raided and massacred the pioneer homesteaders. [3]
1764-1771 As white men began to settle in the Indians' hunting ground, there were clashes and battles. North Carolina's Colonial Governor William Tryon (1764-71) traveled from the capital to meet with the Cherokees to negotiate a boundary line. This agreed-upon boundary line extended from Greenville, South Carolina to the highest peak on White Oak Mountain, NC.. After this treaty was signed, the settlers named the highest point as Tryon Peak.[3]
Gov. William Tryon
When Gov. William Tryon met with the Cherokee Indians and signed the Treaty for a boundary line between the frontier of the Province of North Carolina and the Cherokee hunting grounds, a survey was done. The treaty line ran from Reedy River to Tryon Mountain.[1]
Tryon Mtn Marker
1765 Settlers were here prior the American Revolution. Tryon, North Carolina has its nationally famous Steeplechase at the old Block House, but it was originally a trading post with the Cherokee Indians. [3]
A Cherokee legend about Big Warrior of the Cherokee chiefs named the mountain located on one side of Gov. Tryon's line for himself and the mountain located on the other side of that line for Gov. Tryon. So Warrior and Tryon mountains continue to be majestic. [3][4]
After signing the treaty on the line near Greenville, SC to White Oak Mountain, Gov. William Tryon learned the settlers had named the highest peak on White Oak, for him--Tryon Peak and was flattered. [5]
1768 - Traders traveled up the old Blackstock Road from Charlestown to sell furs and hides they had collected from the Indians. Settlers quickly learned this was good place to live in the mountain coves of the Cherokee hunting land. The settlers and Cherokee Indians had bloody clashes. This boundary did not ensure the pioneers' safety to the east or for the Indians to the west. Drovers driving the livestock from Kentucky and Tennessee to the harbors for shipment, stopped here. [2][1]
June, 1776 Capt. Edward Hampton and Capt. Preston Hampton of South Carolina were sent to obtain peace with the Cherokee. The Cherokee captured the Hamptons, confiscating their horses, guns and pistols. The brothers escaped and returned home, the Indian leaders came to their house, where they shot Preston, another threw a tomahawk and killed Preston's father, Anthony, others killed the baby son and Preston's wife.[6]
Skyuka guided Thomas Howard and others from near the Pacolet River to Round Mountain, where the Cherokees were celebrating. After dark, Capt. Howard and men lit bonfires, began yelling as if celebrating and were running past the bonfire light to appear as many men. Capt. Howard and men circled the area to approach the Cherokees from behind. They were able to surprise and kill many Indians. The area is known as Howard's Gap after this action. [7] [6][4][1][3]

1840 North Carolina was one of the USA's main sources for G O L D until the '49 Gold Rush of Colorado and California.. During this same period, North Carolina was the nation's leading producer of gold (until the'49 California Gold Rush). In Columbus, gold was mined along Horse Creek and White Oak Creek. It is said that Hampton found a gold nugget of size and value that he was able to buy many acres of land and other items.[8] Additional settlers came with the GOLD RUSH to either prospect or settle to farm and build plantations.[1]
"Old Bill" Williams was a trapper, mountain man, and scout who helped in the survey of the Santa Fe Trail. He guided the Fremont Expedition, 1848 [8][1]
1847 Polk county area has been a part of many counties. It was formed in 1847 from Henderson and Rutherford Counties. The 1847 act which had created the county, was repealed in 1849. They gave back the demarcated land to Henderson and Rutherford counties. Polk County was re-established in 1855. [1] [4]
Col. William Polk
1854 Dr. Columbus Mills and Colonel William F. Jones of Cleveland were elected to the General Assembly and began lobbying for Polk County to be formed (Ch 10, Public Laws of 1854-1855), was ratified by the General Assembly on January 20, 1855. This provided that the county seat "shall be located by J. J. Irvin of Burke, Major Benjamin Burgin of McDowell and John R. Logan of Cleveland, or a majority of them, at the geographical center of the county, or within two miles thereto." A further section of this provided that the county seat "be named Columbus in honor of Dr. Dr. Columbus Mills whose efforts had resulted in the reestablishment of the county of Polk."
1855 The North Carolina legislature formed Polk County from Rutherford and Henderson Counties, 1855. It was named in honor of Lt. Col. William Polk, a Revolutionarly War hero, "who fought the British and Tories in the Battles of Valley Forge, Germantown, Brandywine and Eutaw, when he was wounded.". It is located in the southwestern section of the state. Boundaries are counties of South Carolina, Henderson and Rutherford counties in North Carolina. [2][8]Disputes continued until 1903.
North Carolina legislators gave instructions to the North Carolina commissioners for Columbus, NC to be named for Dr. Columbus Mills. The commissioners, (Nulls, Walker, Simms and Ward) started laying out the town. The main streets were named for the commissioners. Peak Street was named for the engineer of Columbus. Hampton Street was named for a man who donated land for the town. The commissioners organized the town with White Oak Mountain straight ahead. [8]
1855 Columbus, NC (population 3,600 in 1996) was approved by the North Carolina legislature to be the county seat for Polk County. Columbus has had a few boundary changes.in the Appalachian Mountains foothillsIt is named for Dr. Columbus Mills, a state senator, who helped with the sectioning of Rutherford and Henderson Counties.. [8]
1857 The Railroad reached Spartanburg. Work began to extend the railway into Polk County from Charleston, South Carolina and connect Charleston with the Ohio River.. All wanted the midwest trade from the Mississippi River.The Polk County towns began when the railroad came in, being built along the railroad: Inman, Landrum, Tryon and Saluda are all about the same age. [9]
Columbus, and Tryon, North Carolina
1861-65 Civil War- 1870's When Polk County was barely starting, the USA and southern states went through the four years of conflict of the War between the States, then Reconstruction. It was 1900 before the county recovered. [4] :http://www.polkcounty.org/county/polkcounty/pchistory.html
1861-70 Columbus, North Carolina owned the large plantations outside the city limits. Cotton was raised in these days of Southern Gallant gentlemen, such as "Scarlet Ohara and Rhett Butler.[8]
Pre-1870 Pace's Gap began with traders bringing livestock and wagons on the old Howard Gap wagon road to the Blockhouse Fort. The point where Howard Gap wagon wagon Road crossed the Winging Stairs Road from the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia was Pace's Gap. A drover's inn accommodations run by the Pace family was the meeting place for travelers with pens and fenced-area for their livestock for the night.[10][11]
Polk Co. Train on Mountain track
1870 After the Civil War, the North Carolina recovered, the building of the railroad began. Capt. Charles Pearson of the Confederate Army designed the route from Spartanburg into Asheville, which passed through Mills Gap Road through Polk, Henderson and Uncombe counties. This traversed up Skyuka Mountain to Howard Gap and crossed the continental divide to Hendersonville. Rev. John G Landrum and others formed a corporation to buy stocks in the railway. Spartanburg and Union Counties bought $200,000 in bonds. Polk County was asked to buy $40,000 in bonds, but a group opposed, due to possible noise issues, or bar rooms in Columbus. The Bond election failed when farmers refused to give right of way to the railway..[9]
1870 - 1930 Cotton was grown at the foot of the mountains until 1930. In more current years enterprises began such as textiles, hosiery large industrial plants producing elastic, door hinges, mail boxes, woven carpet, paper folding boxes, commercial printing and publishing, and a host of small products, and nearly 3,000 people in Landrum, NC. [9]
1877 Since Polk County had objected to the railway, Capt. Charles W. Pearson, Confederate, began to re-design the railway with as little as possible passing through Polk county. The Captain found a route coming up the New Cut Road from Spartanburg to the Block House (23 miles) up Melrose and Warrior Mountains, through Paces Gap, across the Green River into Henderson County. [9]
Saluda Railway
The Earl's and Landrums wanted the railway on some of their land, so gave right of way plus (4 acres) for a station at the intersection of the Salem, Statesville, Rutherfordton and Greenville stage and Mail road. As progress began the Landrums and Earl's hired a surveyor to lay out lots and streets for a town of Landrum, NC.. C. Landrum opened a store to sell lots as well as other goods. The spot also happened to have a spring nearby so a well did not have to be dug..This would develop into ((blue|Landrum, North Carolina}}[9]
1878 The railroad past Landrum slowed down as (400 workmen) cut through granite at Bird Mountain. Train operations from Spartanburg to Landrum Station began and the first day was free. All sorts of fanfare accompanied this including an auction selling more lots of land and a barbecue. One lot sold for $39.00 C. M. Landrum had opened a store a very short time before the land sale.[9]
July 4, 1878 Deputy Marshall James Ledford was wounded when an incident occurred before the train left Spartanburg and died before the train reached Spartainburg.[4]
1891 Mr. Frank Stearns built the first elementary school for Columbus, Polk County, NC, and library for the county. The library is still present on Mill's Street. Stearns wanted White Oak Mountain to be a sanitarium. His plat is on display in the White Oak Mountain Development center. He donated the Stearns institute for education which is now the offices of the Polk County Board of Education. The Polk county Administration office for the Polk County Schools is now in the building. The Stearns Park is in front of the old Stearns School with a play ground equipment [1] [12] [4]
Pre-1917 Landrum academy began as a boarding high school for boys and girls. One of the landmarks in the history of Landrum was the presence of Landrum Academy, a boarding high school for boys and girls. The school was moved into Grove, South Carolina near the years of World War I.Landrum's first high school graduated six seniors in 1916. The third high school building is now home to some 250 to 300 students, and serves the upper portion of Spartanburg County's District One.[9]
1917-1918 World War I soldiers of Camp Wadsworth, in Spartanburg, practiced artillery on Hog Back Mountain. The troops were transported by train to Landrum, NC. Then they marched through the mud to the mountain training area. [13]
1930's-68 The Depression hit Saluda, NC, just as it hit the rest of the country with an impact on the inns and boarding houses. Some burned, possibly for insurance. Some were rebuilt. World War II stopped road and train travel.. Passenger trains ended in 1968 when the highways were improved. [10]
The Mutual Bank survived the low cotton prices, the Depression, World War I, and World War II. It is now located in Spartanburg County. [4]


1917 Frank Stearns donated land and building funds for building the Stearns School in Columbus. At a time of few schools, hundreds of children attended Stearns School.
1961, 1976 Recent churches are Columbus United Methodist Church in 1961 and the Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses in 1976.[4]

Communities of Polk County, North Carolina

Columbus, North Carolina was named for Dr. Columbus Mills Columbus Mills of Mill Spring. One of Columbus Mills' ancestors was Colonel Ambrose Mills, a Loyalist who fought at the Battle off Kings Mountain. The Patriots hanged Dr. Ambrose Mills following his capture at the Battle of Kings Mountain which occurred 1780. [14][2][8][1]In 1996 the population for the community was 3,600.
Columbus, North Carolina has the old courthouse which was built of handmade brick. The old slave block still stands on the lawn of the courthouse. [2][8] Its water is obtained from wells as notified by a resident.
1855 Columbus, NC (population 3,600 in 1996) was approved by the North Carolina legislature to be the county seat for Polk County. Columbus has had a few boundary changes.in the Appalachian Mountains foothills [8]It is named for Dr. Columbus Mills, a state senator, who helped with the sectioning of Rutherford and Henderson Counties..
Pre-1870 Pace's Gap Traders brought their livestock and wagons on the old Howard Gap wagon road to the Blockhouse Fort. The point where the Howard Gap wagon road met the Winding Stairs Road, which came from the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia, was Pace's Gap.This was home to a drover’s inn run by the Pace family, which provided accommodations for weary travelers and provided pens and fenced areas for the livestock. [10][15]
Tryon, North Carolina is the largest city for the area and Polk County.. The mild climate and colorful mountainsides tend to interest US Citizens as tourists, who sometimes settle here. Many professions have settled here, such as writers, artists, educators, professionals, and industrial executives. The county has many large estates and stables. The hunting country is an equestrian paradise with miles of marked riding trails. The fox hunts, horse shows, and steeplechase are well known throughout the country.[2][8]
Saluda now and 1881
Saluda, North Carolina began 1881 on the western side on the railway, with a one- street downtown district. This was first called "Pace's Ridge", partly due to the plains area rising 1,000 feet. This town's settled by Scots Irish from Pennsylvania before the "Whiskey Rebellion". The Cherokee had owned land extending from the Saluda River in South Carolina through Tryon, North Carolina in the French Broad River Basin.M.A. Pace's store was a stopping point. Thompson’s Store & Ward's Grill are said to have anything from heating oil to chili cheeseburgers. Saluda is a vacation and retirement area for low county people. Apple orchards are the grown here The train does not run through town now. [16][2] [17]
When people visited this region and county, they stayed for the pleasant climate. Inns, hotels and boarding houses for railroad workers and passengers were built.. Dr. Lesesne Smith of Spartanburg treated respiratory problems in children. A hospital, post office, stores, drug store, doctor, private school and (8) boarding houses were built. [10]
Bank in Tryon
Tryon, North Carolina is Polk County's largest city in the area and is most unusual in the versatility of its residents. Half the population has migrated from other parts of the country to enjoy the mild climate and beauty of the surrounding countryside.[4][18]
Landrum, North Carolina After the station was built for the railroad, and the trains running Landrum began rapid growth. Its several stores quickly made the little village a center of trade for the increasing number of farmsteads in Upper Spartanburg County, Northeast Greenville County and a part of Polk County. As progress began the Landrums and Earl's hired a surveyor to lay out lots and streets for a town of Landrum, NC. with a spot with spring nearby so a well did not have to be dug.. C. Landrum opened a store to sell lots as well as other goods. The spot had a spring nearby so a well did not have to be dug. By 1884 Landrum was incorporated, then re-chartered 1897. W. T. Daniel was the first depot agent. The town has about 3,000 people.The high school had (6) students1916. The 3rd high school building serves 250-300 students of Spartanburg County.[9]

Some of these residents are the direct descendants of the earliest setters who had located at the base of the White Oak Mountain range and fought in the Revolutionary War.[8]

From White Oak Mountain a visitor can cross Shukawakan Falls, which provides the water for Columbus. The water is stored in a reservoir on Foster Mountain, Chocolate Drop-One of the most beautiful views of the Columbus area can be seen from White Oak Mountain. On your way to the top of the mountain, you will cross the Shukawakan Falls which is a main source of water for Columbus. This water goes to a reservoir on Foster Mountain (called Chocolate Drop).
Polk County, NC and its citizens are proud of its mountains. These are high, but not as high as the Colorado mountains.The Tryon range, which ends in Tryon Peak at the north, lies in a NE by SW direction, and the northern portion, easily visible from the town, extends for about 10 miles.[3][19]

Name Altitude Descrip Landmark Named for
Tryon range ( 3231 feet)N part- visible from Tryon, NC. NE to SW Runs 10 miles
Tryon Peak (altitude 3231 feet)named for the Cherokee Boundary Gov. William Tryon & Cherokee & Catawba Indian Tribes negotiatedGov. Tryon
Hogback Mountain (3226 feet)in the southRadio towers Blinking night lights
Rocky Spur (2500 feet)
Melrose (2638 feet) SouthGreen light on it
Saluda Gap LOW Highway, River, Railway from AshevilleSaluda
Warrior Mountain(2466 Feet)to the North,South of Saluda GapCalled Little Warrior Indian Chief
Little Warrior (2,421 Feet) Southern tip of Warrior Mt.
Round mountain (1831 feet) Southwest Perfect cone shape
Miller Mountain 2,552 feet beyond gapappears part of Tryon Peak
White Oak Mountain(3102 feet)Northern part of RidgeTrees
Foster Mountain known as Chocolate Drop)
A list of the Polk County Mountains are listed here as well as the table: Starting at the south, the mountain bearing the radio towers with their blinking night lights, is Hogback, 3226 feet; then Rocky Spur, 2500 feet. Melrose, 2638 feet, is next and can be identified at night by its green light. Beyond Melrose comes the Saluda Gap, which brings highway, river and railroad down from Asheville. Next mountain to the north is Warrior, 2466 feet. This attractive little mountain rises to a smaller peak at its southern rip, which is sometimes called Little Warrior. Beyond Warrior is a lower peak, in shape a perfect cone. This is Round mountain, 1831 feet. U.S. Interstate Highway 26 after being built, will go through the gap to Round Mountain's north. Miller mountain is large, located on the other side of the Saluda gap and seems to be part of Tryon Peak. The highest mountain, Tryon Peak, 3231 feet. The radio installation on its summit may easily be seen. The northern portion of this ridge is known as White Oak, 3102 feet.[3]
Tyron Mountain marker.

Many Polk County residents today are descendants of many of the early families and still live here. The names of Gibbs, Laughter, Pace, Arledge, Lankford, Newman, Wilkins, Green, Williams, Fagan, Durham, Bradley, Fisher, Jackson, Nodine, Mills are the 4th generation of Polk County Pioneers.

Currently the wilderness which surrounded a single early home of 1877 is now surrounded by industrial plants and 3000 people of the town of Landrum, NC. [9]
to ViewPolkCounty foothills

Adjacent counties

  • South Carolina
  • Henderson county

*Rutherford county

Government Offices

  • Polk County voted with Henderson and Rutherford until after the Civil war.'
  • There have no fires or losses of records since the county ws created..
  • Polk county has only had four County clerkssince it was formed. rmy, who was wounded at the battles of the Brandywine, Germantown and Eutaw Springs. County seat Columbus, named for Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America. The first court house was built in 1855, of wood ; a temporary structure for use until one of brick was finished in 1858. This is yet in use. There have been no fires or losses of records. There have been only four clerks of court since the county's formation—R. S. Alexander for 31 years; N. B. Hampton 8 ; S. B. Edwards 4 ; John P. Arledge 23 ; a total of 66 years. The first will book begins in 1855 and the second one is now in use. The first deed book begins in 1855.

1st Courthouse, 1855 this was built of wood as a temporary structure for use until the next one was built.Genealogy Trails Polk Co. History

Polk Co. NC Courthouse painting.

2nd Courthouse, 1857-588 - This was built of brick. There have no fires or losses of records. hed in 1858. This is yet in use.  :1857 - It is situated in the center of town. [20] Genealogy Trails Polk Co. History

  • Four clerks of court since the county's formation—R. S. Alexander for 31 years; N. B. Hampton 8 ; S. B. Edwards 4 ; John P. Arledge 23 ; a total of 66 years
  • The first will book begins in 1855 and the second one is now in use. The first deed book begins in 1855.[21]


Size -area depending on the year is 237.85 sq. mi, total area- 250 square miles.
Weather -Temperate as in the "Thermal belt"
Mountains- Blue Ridge Mountains
Lakes - Lake Adger and Lake Lanier which provide skiing, boating, and fishing. The mountain creeks also have trout fishing, when in season. Other activities are golf, riding, and hiking trails for nature enthusiasts.[2]
Climate - the Mountain slopes of the region create a thermal belt, due to a temperature inversion which results in a belt, rather indefinite in width, wherein the frosts of the valley - or the freezes of the higher altitudes - do not occur.
Native Flora -Botanically, the area is rich in native flora. [2]
Climate -temperate
Traditions -recreational, cultural, and equestrian traditions.
Minerals - epidote and hornblende crystals are mined in the county
Plantations - Green River Plantation, established in the early 1800s, and the Mills-Screven Plantation, established ca. 1820
Railways The Saluda Grade, the steepest standard-gauge, mainline rail line in the nation, opened in 1878 in the county The estimated population of Polk County was 19,000 in 2004.
Water for Columbus is from wells.

Population 8,832.

Protected areas


In 2000, there were 18,324 peopleg in the county with a population density of 77 people/sq. mi. The racial makeup of the county was 92.26% White, 5.89% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. 3.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.The largest self-reported ancestry groups were: English - 17%, Irish - 13%, German - 13%,Scotch-Irish - 7%, African - 5.89%, Scottish - 4% Italian - 3%. The median income for a household in the county was $36,259, and the median income for a family was $45,096. The per capita income for the county was $19,804. 10.10% of the population and 6.40% of families were below the poverty line. 11.70% of those under the age of 18 and 8.80% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[22]

  • Mill Spring, Polk county, North Carolina is the location for the 2018 FEI World Equestrian Games at the Tryon International Equestrian Center, Sept 11 to Sept 23, 2018 (the 8th edition of the games which occur every four years are run by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI).

County Resources

  • Lakes - two Lakes, Lake Adger and Lake Lanier which provide skiing, boating, and fishing. The mountain creeks also have trout fishing, when in season. Other activities are golf, riding, and hiking trails for nature enthusiasts.[2]
  • The Polk County, North Carolina (small museum) is currently located in a baggage room of the Southern Railway Station in Tryon, North Carolina. [2]
  • Polk County Museum 1800’s stage coach, antique farm tools, a school display, a home setting, a doctor’s office.
  • Lakes Anger provide aquatic sports and fishing.
  • Lake Lanier provide aquatic sports and fishing.
  • Trout fishing in the clear, cold mountain streams
  • Golf, riding and hiking attract nature enthusiasts
  • Polk County Historical Museum
  • Polk County Community Arts Council
  • Tryon Little Theater
    • Polk County farms produce corn, hay, soybeans, apples, and peaches
      • Manufactured products include synthetic fibers, yarns, knits, crafts, glass, golf carts, and diamond dies.
  • Rogers Park Images


  • I-26
  • US 74
  • US 176
  • NC 9
  • NC 108



  • Mill Spring
  • Tryon
  • Cooper's Gap
  • Green Creek
  • White Oak


  • 2010 population was 20,510.
  • County’s current population is 19,226 (a 2006 estimate



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 http://www.polkcounty.org/county/polkcounty/pchistory.html
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 http://www.carolana.com/NC/Counties/polk_county_nc.html
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 http://www.polkcounty.org/county/tryon/tryon.html
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 https://northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/polk-county-1855/
  5. 6.0 6.1 http://www.carolana.com/NC/Revolution/revolution_round_mountain.html
  6. https://kirkhneely.com/2013/07/07/the-legend-of-skyuka/
  7. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 http://www.polkcounty.org/county/columbus/columbus.html
  8. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 http://www.polkcounty.org/county/landrum/landrum.html
  9. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 https://saluda.com/saluda-history/
  10. https://www.american-rails.com/saluda-grade.html
  11. http://www.polknc.org/stearns_park.php#.XCrqcS2ZP5Y
  12. https://www.ncpedia.org/kings-mountain-battle
  13. https://www.american-rails.com/saluda-grade.html
  14. http://www.historicsaluda.org/historic-district/
  15. http://www.polkcounty.org/county/saluda/saluda_history.html
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tryon%2C_North_Carolina
  17. https://listsofjohn.com/searchres?c=1053
  18. Genealogy Trails Polk Co. History
  19. Genealogy Trails Polk Co. History
  20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polk_County%2C_North_Carolina

*http://wncwinetrail.com *http://www.carolana.com/NC/Counties/polk_county_nc.html

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