Pony Express

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The Pony Express was founded by William H. Russell, William B. Waddell, and Alexander Majors. Plans for the Pony Express were spurred by the threat of the Civil War and the need for faster communication with the West.


The Pony Express Route

The Pony Express consisted of relays of men riding horses carrying saddlebags of mail across a 2000-mile trail. The service opened officially on April 3, 1860, when riders left simultaneously from St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. The first westbound trip was made in 9 days and 23 hours and the eastbound journey in 11 days and 12 hours. The pony riders covered 250 miles in a 24-hour day.

Eventually, the Pony Express had more than 100 stations, 80 riders, and between 400 and 500 horses. The express route was extremely hazardous, but only one mail delivery was ever lost. The service lasted only 19 months until October 24, 1861, when the completion of the Pacific Telegraph line ended the need for its existence. Although California relied upon news from the Pony Express during the early days of the Civil War, the horse line was never a financial success, leading its founders to bankruptcy. But the route taken by the Pony Express riders proved that the route could be traveled all winter and supported the future of the transcontinental railroad.

Pony Express Riders

Pony Express Oath: “I,………..,do hereby swear, before the Great and Living God, that during my engagement, and while an employee of Russell, Majors and Waddell, I will, under no circumstances, use profane language, that I will drink no intoxicating liquors, that I will not quarrel or fight with any other employee of the firm, and that in every respect I will conduct myself honestly, be faithful to my duties, and so direct all my acts as to win the confidence of my employers, so help me God.”
List of Riders provided by the Pony Express National Museum.

Pony Express Riders A-C

  • “Black Sam"
  • “Black Tom”
  • Alcott, Jack (James) (nothing found)
  • Anson- Anson, John
  • Anton
  • Aubrey, F.X Francois was born France died California 1885. One of the Older Rider's was born 1825.
  • Avis, Henry born Mo. died in Mo. 1927 "The last living Pony Express Rider."
  • Babbit Rodney born NY, lived in Fort Laramie, Shorter, Nebraska Territory, 1860 near B.W. Thompson
  • Ball, L W (SW Lafayette)
  • Banks, James W
  • Barnell, James
  • Baughn, Jim (Boston)
  • Baughn, Melvin Melville Baughn, usually known as "Mel," had a pony run between Fort Kearny, Nebraska and Thirty-two-mile Creek. Once while "laying off" between trips, a thief made off with his favorite horse. Scarcely had the miscreant gotten away when Baughn discovered the loss. Hastily saddling another steed, "Mel" gave pursuit, and though handicapped, because the outlaw had the pick of the stable, Baughn's superior horsemanship, even on an inferior mount, soon told. After a chase of several miles, he forced the fellow so hard that he abandoned the stolen animal at a place called Loup Fork, and sneaked away. Recovering the horse, Baughn then returned to his station, found a mail bag awaiting him, and was off on his run without further delay. With him and his fellow employees, running down a horse thief was but a trifling incident and an annoyance merely because of the bother and delay which it necessitated. Baughn was afterward hanged for murder at Seneca, Kansas but his services to the Pony Express were above reproach.
  • Beardsley, Seth Marvin, known as "Marve". He was born 30 Apr 1850 in Rock Island, Illinois. He rode for the firm of Russell, Majors, and Waddell, who established 190 stations, direct through from St. Joseph, Missouri to the West Coast. At various times, after leaving the Pony Express, he was a sheriff, deputy sheriff, and a deputy U.S. Marshall in Colfax County, New Mexico; Dodge City, Kansas; and in the Indian Territory. Seth was killed in collision between trains (Alabama & Vicksburg Railway) at Jackson MS 17 Nov 1900.
  • Beatley, James (Foote), Jim Beatley, whose real name was Foote, was another Virginian, about 25 years of age. He rode on an eastern division, usually west out of Seneca, Kansas. On one occasion, he traveled from Seneca, Kansas to Big Sandy, Nebraska 50 miles and back, doubling his route twice in one week. Beatley was killed by a stage hand in a personal quarrel, the affair taking place on a ranch in Southern Nebraska in 1862.
  • Becker, Charles
  • Bedford, Thomas
  • Billman, "Hy" Charles listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census. Died 1910 Idaho.
  • Bills, G R born 1835 Penn. -- listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Black, Thomas
  • Bliss, Harry J newspaper clipping re: "Places the name Bliss high on the Pony Express Riders" (copy attached) & his Pension for Batt. A Colorado Light Artillery. Died in Texas 1916
  • Bolwinkle, Lafayette (Bolly)
  • Bond
  • Boulton, William], William Boulton was one of the older riders in the service; his age at that time is given at about 35. Boulton rode for about three months with Jim Beatley. On one occasion, while running between Seneca and Guittards' Station in Kansas, Boulton's horse gave out when five miles from the latter station. Without a moment's delay, he removed his letter pouch and hurried the mail in on foot, where a fresh horse was at once provided and the schedule resumed.
  • Brandenburger, John
  • Brink, James W (Doc, Dock), James W. Brink, or "Dock" Brink as he was known to his associates, was one of the early riders, entering the employ of the Pony Express Company in April, 1860. While "Dock" made a good record as a courier, his chief fame was gained in a fight at Rock Creek Station, in which Brink/ Wild Bill Hickok "cleaned out" the McCanles Gang of outlaws, killing five of their number. 1867-1868 Doc served as 1 of the 48 White Scout's for Co.I 10th US Cavalry, aka: Buffalo Soldiers. He was serving during the Battle of Beecher Island.
  • Brown, Hugh
  • Brown, James Born England, 1840--listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Willow Spring Station census with Josiah Taylor/his wife.
  • Bucklin, James this might be him, still researching. Born 1844, Missouri. 1870 "RR Agent"
  • Burnett, John
  • Bush, Ed
  • Campbell, William
  • Carlyle, Alex (Carlisle, Carlistle) 1850 in Ky/1860 he is in Arapahoe, Kansas Territory with 2 other Carlyle's ages:26/31 all from KY..
  • Carr, William
  • Carrigan, William
  • Carson
  • Carter, James
  • Cates, William A
  • Cayton, Francis M
  • Clark, Jimmy (James), Jimmy Clark rode between various stations east of Fort Kearny, usually between Big Sandy, Nebraska and Hollenberg, Kansas. Sometimes his run took him as far West as Liberty Farm on the Little Blue River.
  • Clark, John
  • Clarke, Richard W. (Deadwood Dick)" Clarke fought alongside George Armstrong Custer, Little Bighorn against the combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne/ Arapahoe peoples. In his work with the Pony Express, Clarke often had to defend himself, others/his cargo from Sioux raiders. Clarke lived long enough to see his country make peace with the Sioux, and met President Calvin Coolidge on the day the latter became an honorary member of the Sioux people. He died in the town in which he spent much of his life: Deadwood, South Dakota.
  • Cleve, Richard (Cleave)
  • Cliff, Charles, Charles Cliff had an 80 mile pony run when only seventeen years of age, but, like Brink, young Cliff gained his greatest reputation as a fighter, - in his case fighting Indians. It seems that while Cliff was once freighting with a small train of nine wagons, it was attacked by a party of one hundred Sioux Indians and besieged for three days until a larger train approached and drove the redskins away. During the conflict, Cliff received three bullets in his body and twenty-seven in his clothing, but he soon recovered from his injuries, and was afterward none the less valuable to the Pony Express service.
  • Cliff, Gustavas (Gus)
  • Cody, William Frederick (Buffalo Bill), On a return trip to Kansas, he stopped in Julesburg, Colorado, where he was recruited to ride in the Pony Express in 1860. Most of his time with the Pony Express was spent in Kansas, although he occasionally traveled across northeast Colorado.
  • Cole, Buck
  • Combo, James (Sawed-Off Jim)
  • Corbett, Bill
  • Covington, Edward
  • Cowan,James
  • Crawford, Jack

Pony Express Riders, D-G

  • Danley, James
  • Dean, Louis
  • Dennis, James William He is listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.1 line#5 age:22 KY Mail Carrier
  • Derrick, Frank
  • Diffenbacher, Alex
  • Dobson, Thomas
  • Dodge, J
  • Donovan, Joseph Scout for [1]]Battle of Beecher Island]
  • Donvan, Tom
  • Dorrington, W.E. William E. b:NY-d: Neb 1860 census his older brother John J. was a "Mail Carrier"
  • Downs, Calvin
  • Drumheller, Daniel M
  • Dunlap, James E
  • Eckels, William born Missouri listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • 67 Egan, Major Howard He was not a Rider but a Scout/Trailblazer into Utah..
  • 68 Egan, Howard Ransom (Ranson) brother to Ras, below/ listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • 69 Egan, Richard Erasmus (Erastus, Ras), Richard Egan rode for the Pony Express the short time the mail delivery service was in operation, between 1860 and 1861. Like most of the approximately 80 riders, Egan was a young, single man. In fact, the company advertised for "Young, skinny, wiry fellows, not over 18. Must be expert riders. Willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred." Riders were paid between $100 and $125 a month./listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Elliot, Thomas J
  • Ellis, JK (Jack)
  • Enos, Charles
  • Fair, George 13 years old from England. at the Rush Valley Station 1860-- His name is FARR on all other censuses, headstone in Idaho.
  • Faust, H J (Doc, Henry Jacob)
  • Fisher, Johnny Billy Fisher has a brother, John Fisher...listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Fisher, William Frederick (Billy), William F. "Billy" Fisher was one of the first riders hired by the Pony Express in 1860. Fisher, born in England, became a rancher in Idaho after the Pony Express stopped operating. His great-grandson, Dr. William Fisher, is a former NASA astronaut, continuing the family tradition of exploration./listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Flynn, Thomas this is a probable, d:1868, buried in Montana, Scout for the 10th Cavalry, aka: Buffalo Soldiers
  • Foote, James [see James Beatley]
  • Foreman, Jimmie
  • Fry, Johnny (Johnnie, Johnny, Johny Fry), Johnny Fry was the first rider out of St. Joseph, Missouri and was little more than a boy when he entered the pony service. He was a native Missourian, weighing less than 125 pounds. Though small in stature, he was every inch a man. Fry's division ran from St. Joseph to Seneca, Kansas for 80 miles, which he covered at an average of 12.5 miles an hour, including all stops. When the war started, Fry enlisted in the Union army under General James Blunt. His short but worthy career was cut short in 1863 when he fell in a hand-to-hand fight with rebel bushwhackers in southeast Kansas. In this, his last fight, Fry is said to have killed five of his assailants before being struck down.
  • Fry, Joseph Johnny Fry's little brother
  • Fuller, Abraham Maple (Abram)
  • Gardner, George (Irish)
  • Gentry, James
  • Gilson, James
  • Gilson, Samuel H
  • Gleason, James found, 1870 census Soldier at Ft. Buford, Dakota Terr. 7th Infantry
  • Gould, Frank Author of "A Pony Express Rider Writes from Raytown, Missouri" -A dispatch in the [Kansas City] Star, April 28 [1921] re: Henry Avis.
  • Grady, Thomas “Irish Tom”

Pony Express Riders H-L

  • Hall, Martin
  • Hall, Parley
  • Hall, Sam
  • Hamilton, Samuel aka: William Sam Hamilton b:1830 Tenn. d:Calif 1865
  • Hamilton, William (one/same as above)
  • Hancock, John (there is a photo of John Hancock with the Fisher brothers, attached)
  • Harder, George
  • Hardy
  • Haslam, Robert (Pony Bob), "Pony Bob," by which name he is most famous, was a Pony Express rider in the Old West and credited with making the longest uninterrupted ride during the brief duration of the Pony Express. He was born in London, England in 1840 and as a teen, immigrated to the United Sates. He made his way to Salt Lake City where he worked on a ranch and as a government messenger. He was at home on a horse. He was loyal, brave, and committed to getting the job done. Pony Bob fit the model for what a Pony Express rider should be.
  • Hawkins, Theodore (Thee)
  • Haws, Sam Sampson G. Haws, this is MAYBE? There is another Samuel Haws]] listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Helvey, Frank [citation needed] to prove him
  • Hensel, Levi 1st Lt. 13th Kansas, Inf. Newspaper Correspondent in Colorado...
  • Hickman, Bill (William)
  • Hickok, James Butler (Wild Bill) Later the Legendary Scout, Frontiersman, etc.
  • Higginbotham, Charles born Mo. age 17 in 1860.. not sure this it the right man...
  • Hogan, Martin (this is 1 Martin Hogan of Colorado) of whom little is known, rode northwesterly out of Julesburg, Colorado across the Platte River and to Mud Springs, some 80 miles distant.
  • Holladay, Benjamin "purchased the Pony Express" 1862, not a RIDER???
  • Huntington, Clark Allen LDS Leader, Pvt. Mex-Am War,
  • Huntington, Let (Lester, Lee)
  • Huntington, Lou aka: Lot Elisha, brother to Clark
  • Irish Jim
  • James, William, William James, always called "Bill" James, was a native of Virginia. He had crossed the plains with his parents in a wagon train when only five years old. At eighteen, he was one of the best Pony Express riders in the service. James's route lay between Simpson's Park and Cole Springs, Nevada, in the Smoky Valley range of mountains. He rode only sixty miles each way but covered his round trip of 120 miles in just 12 hours, including all stops. He always rode California mustangs, using five of these animals each way. His route crossed the summits of two mountain ridges, lay through the Shoshone Indian country, and was one of the loneliest and most dangerous divisions on the line. Yet, Bill never took time to think about danger, nor did he ever have any serious trouble.
  • Jay, David Robert "David Jay, at 13 years old, the youngest rider ever hired by the Pony Express, carried mail in Kansas from Seneca to Big Sandy (Marysville), sometimes on to Ft. Kearney, Neb."
  • Jenkins, William D (there is a Dr. William D Jenkins b:1834 Ohio, Neb. 1870
  • Jennings
  • Jobe, Samuel S b:Mo. d:1933 California
  • Jones, William
  • Kates, William
  • Keetley, Jack H (The joyous jockey of the Pony Express) , Another Eastern Division man was Jack Keetley, who also rode from St. Joseph, Missouri to Seneca, Kansas, alternating at times with Fry and Baughn. Keetley's greatest performance, and one of the most remarkable ever achieved in the service, was riding from Rock Creek Station in Nebraska to St. Joseph; then back to his starting point and on to Seneca, and from Seneca once more to Rock Creek Station - 340 miles without rest. He traveled continuously for 31 hours, his entire run being at the rate of eleven miles an hour. During the last five miles of his journey, he fell asleep in the saddle and in this manner concluded his long trip.
  • Kelley, Hi ("Hi" is usually abrv. Hiram)
  • Kelley, Jay G (Kelly), Jay G. Kelley, later a citizen of Denver, was a veteran pony man. He entered the employ of the company at the outset, and helped Superintendent Roberts to lay out the route across Nevada. Along the Carson River, tiresome stretches of corduroy road had to be built. Kelley relates that in constructing this highway willow trees were cut near the stream and the trunks cut into the desired lengths before being laid in place. The men often had to carry these timbers in their arms for three hundred yards, while the mosquitoes swarmed so thickly upon their faces and hands as to make their real color and identity hard to determine.
  • Kelley, Merrit P
  • Kelley, Mike (IC)
  • King, Thomas wen
  • King, Tony
  • Koerner, John P (John Phillip) "he was the youngest Rider, at age 15.
  • LaMont, Harry d:1921 - Klickitat County, Washington
  • Larzelere, Charles
  • Lawson, William
  • Leonard, George *needs more research to be sure, right man?
  • Little, George EdwinHis Pony Express route, first route lying between Salt Lake City and Rocky Ridge. . d: Idaho 1915
  • Littleton, Elias “Tough” his father was Capt. M Littleton. Elias retired 1915 New Mexico. He served with Co. G 1st US Cavalry-Spanish War
  • LytIe, N N (Nicholas N) 5th US Inf,/ 4th Reg. Calif. Infantry-d: 1878

Pony Express Riders M-R

  • Macaulas, Silas Sye (Macoulas) He is listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.1 line#5 age:22 KY Mail Carrier
  • Martin, Robert
  • Maxfield, Elijah Hiett d:1925 Salt Lake: Brigham Young Express/Carrying Co./ Pony Express rider,Central Overland California/Pikes Peak Express Co & served as a spy in Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's Army of Utah.
  • Lt. Maze, Montgomery Original Pony Express Station keeper/rider, Civil War Officer, City Clerk. While station keeper at Sand Springs, Montgomery escaped death at the hands of the Pah-Utes/ with a small band of other employees, he marched to Cold Springs Station, where the keeper had been massacred only a few days before.
  • McCain, Emmet
  • McCall, J G (Jay)
  • McCarty Charlie there is only 1 in wikitree possible McCarty-2901
  • McDonald, James
  • McEnaney, Pat (McEnamey, McEnearrny, McEneammy, McEneany)
  • McLaughlin, David
  • McNaughton, James served-Co 2nd Reg Colorado Cav. older brother to William, listed next.
  • McNaughton, William
  • Meacona, Lorenzo
  • Mellen, JP NOT sure which one this is, father John Mellen or son John Ramsden-441 f-a-g says son is the Rider.. but the father may have been involved as well because of the Overland Trail and the family came from England via Brigham Young
  • Mifflin, Howard1860 was living in Salt Lake City, Utah Terr. with Newton/ Henry Worley.
  • Miller, Charlie B (Broncho Charlie) nee: Julius Mortimer was born in 1858 so he could not have been a Rider. However, he states he was born 1850 & "was the youngest Rider at age 11 Charlie rode from Sacramento, Calif. to Carson City, Nev. for the Pony Express, and for a year he worked in the Express relay between St. Joseph, Mo., and San Francisco.." "The last living Pony Express Rider." DIED 1955 at the age of 105......................................
  • Moore, James, "Jim" - One of the first Pony Express riders hired at the St. Joseph, Missouri division, he is known for making his greatest ride was made on June 8, 1860. While at the Midway Station, half way between the Missouri River and Denver, the westbound messenger arrived with important Government dispatches to California. He ran continuously the 140 miles to Julesburg, Colorado, where he was to be relieved. However, once he got there, he found his relief rider had been killed the day before. Without even stopping to eat, Moore was back in the saddle within ten minutes, turning around and making the return trip. By the end of his journey had completed a round-trip of 280 miles in 14 hours and 46 minutes -- roughly 18 miles an hour. After the Pony Express went out of business, he became a rancher in the South Platte Valley, Nebraska. He died at Cheyenne, Wyoming.
  • Murphy, Jeramiah H
  • Myrick, Newton aka: Merrick, Corp. in Smith's Co., Utah Cavalry/Mormon Battalion, Iowa.
  • Orr, Matthew Arrived in America 16 Oct 1853 with his younger brother, Robert, listed next
  • Orr, Robert Arrived in America 16 Oct 1853 with his brother, William, listed above
  • Pace, Thad Thaddeus d:1937 buried MO.
  • Packard, G Horatio "G Rash" died in Arkansas 1913--- listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Page, William
  • Parr, Dick
  • Paul, John
  • Paxton, Joe “Mochila Joe”
  • Perkins, George Washington (Wash) Along with Joseph Perkins listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.1 line#8 age:24 Illi. Mail Carriers & his cousin,
  • Perkins, Josh Joseph is listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.1 line#7 age:17 Illi Mail Carrier, & his cousin,
  • Pridham, William (Prindham)
  • Ranahan, Thomas J (Irish Tommy, Happy Tom)
  • Rand, Theodore (Little Yank, Yank), Theodore Rand rode the Pony Express during the entire period of its organization. His run was from Box Elder to Julesburg, Colorado 110 miles and he made the entire distance both ways by night. His schedule, night run though it was, required a gait of ten miles an hour, but Rand often made it at an average of 12, thus saving time on the through schedule for some unfortunate rider who might have trouble and delay. Originally, Rand used only 4-5 horses each way, but this number, in keeping with the revised policy of the Company, was afterward doubled, an extra mount being furnished him every 12-15 miles.
  • Randall, James served with 7th Infantry Sept 1 1880-Aug 31 1885, joined Ft. Buford Wyoming. died 1888 Wyoming
  • Reynolds, Charles MAYBE Charley Reynolds probable?
  • Reynolds, Thomas J too many and does not look like he is Charles' brother..........
  • Richards, William Minor Sr.
  • Richardson, H
  • Richardson, Johnson William
  • Riles, Bartholomew,(Riley) "Bart Riles the pony rider, died this morning from wounds received at Cold Springs, May 16." (newspaper extract)
  • Riley, J. G. Colorado Newspaper article There is a Jay G. Kelley listed.
  • Rinehart, Jonathon John is listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.1 line#4 age:29 Tenn. Mail Carrier/ listed as Express Rider's on the 1860 Rush Valley Station census
  • Rising, Donald Clarence Don C. Rising, who afterwards settled in Northern Kansas, was born in Painted Post, Steuben County, New York, in 1844, and came West when thirteen years of age. He rode in the pony service nearly a year, from November, 1860, until the line was abandoned the following October, most of his service being rendered before he was seventeen. Much of his time was spent running eastward out of Fort Kearny until the telegraph had reached that point and made the operation of the Express between the fort and St. Joseph, Missouri no longer necessary. On two occasions, Rising is said to have maintained a continuous speed of twenty miles an hour while carrying important dispatches between Big Sandy and Rock Creek Station in Nebraska.
  • Roberts, Bolivar b:Ill. d:1893
  • Roff, Harry L (Harvey) b: MO. died San Francisco, 1921
  • Ruffin, CH
  • Rush, Edward

Pony Express Riders S-Z

  • Sanders, Robert
  • Sangiovanni, Guisspe G(Guglielmo, GR) D: Utah 1916
  • Scovell, George
  • Seerbeck, John nothing else found.........
  • Selman, Jack John Selman Lawman, Outlaw, killed John Westley Hardin, and lived in TEXAS???
  • Serish, Joseph found death record 1918 Montana Sarish, Joseph
  • Shanks, James Dock (James Dock, Doc) d:1921 Utah
  • Sinclair, John
  • Slade, Joseph Alfred "Jack"
  • Smith, Rasmus Julius, a.k.a. Erastus Julius Smith, and presumably born Rasmus Julius Sorensen, Rasmus served as a Pony Express Rider between Malad, Idaho and Brigham City, Utah (as per his FindaGrave biography, written by his granddaughter, Donna Smith Packer, wife of the late Boyd K. Packer - not on Historic list).
  • Spurr, George
  • Streeper, William Henry (Black Bill) is listed on the attached 1860 census, pg.3 line#14 age:22 Tenn. Mail Carrier
  • Stricklen, Robert C (Strickland) born Baden, d:1926 Mo.
  • Strohm, William found a f-a-g that looks good, requested photo.......
  • Sugget, John W (Sugget)
  • Tate, William (Pate) 14 yr. old killed on ROUTE, by Paiute Indians, Ruby Valley, Nevada
  • Taylor, Josiah is with his wife, Mary, as Express Rider's on the 1860 Willow Spring Station census
  • Thatcher, George W.LDS Rider.
  • Thomas, JJ
  • Thompson, Bill 1860 B. W is an Express Rider living down the road from Rodney Babbit
  • Thompson, Charles P (F, Cyclone Charlie)
  • Thompson, James M
  • Toponce, Alexander (Topence) "Mr. Toponce helped install the first overland stage line from Missouri to California, in about 1850. This line went from Missouri by way of Texas and New Mexico, but when Johnston's Army was sent to Utah in 1868, the route was changed to run by way of Salt Lake City. Mr. Toponce drove stage on this route." Was not a Express Rider, but major player in the Routes...
  • Tough, WS aka Capt. William Sloan Tough, US Marshal, Capt. Kansas Red Legs.
Capt. William Sloan Tough, Scout


  1. National Pony Express Association
  2. Pony Express National Museum
  3. Pony Express National Historic Trail

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