Categories: Norway Project.
This page is used to address common questions that come up in the Norway project. Part of the Norway Project
Project Norway - FAQ
Norway Project Link
(Note: This guidance has changed as of 7 May 2018. We invite you to discuss these changes in the G2G thread, Name guidance updated on Project Norway FAQ.)
The convention for using Norwegian names, pre the adoption of surnames in Norway in 1921, can be a complex topic for non-Norwegian genealogists. The convention also varied across the class structure with nobility later adopting the Patronymic (sometimes the mother's name) as a surname. At times, particularly when migrating to countries with hereditary surnames (like United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) an individual chose a surname either based on their departure location (a farm name) or a parent, generally a father.
Also note that records were generally not written by the individual concerned. They were often written by civil servants, mostly clergy, who were either Danish or who had their education in Denmark – and wrote Danish. Thus there are variations in names of a person depending on the record concerned (e.g., Stephenson vs. Steffensen).
The Wikitree convention is to use the name that the person was known by at birth for the LNAB. These can often be found in the family records and family books. A good source for records is at the Digital Archives Norway.
Norwegian names tend to use a three-part naming system:
- First name: all given names
- Patronymic: Olsdatter, Sveinsson, Nilsen etc, showing the given name of their father
- Farm name: the name of the farm where they were born or lived – this would change when people moved, but is the name that can best be used to find a person’s origin
There has been much discussion on the unique characteristics of Norwegian naming and how it should be entered in to WikiTree. This standard varies from some other genealogy platforms but for WikiTree, it has been determined that the best overall standard for entering Norwegian names is:
First Name at Birth
All given names should be placed in the First Name at Birth field, e.g. Christiana Marie. Norwegians rarely used middle names in the American sense.
Last Name at Birth (LNAB)
- Use the patronymic as LNAB for most Norwegians born before the legal requirements for surnames. Don’t use the common abbreviations found in records (Steffensdtr.) but the full name (Steffensdatter)
- If there are multiple records showing the use of an inherited surname at birth, this should be used as LNAB.
- Many Norwegian profiles are created with an LNAB consisting of Patronymic + Farm name, like "Olsen Berg". This has the unfortunate effect that neither the Patronymic nor the Farm name will show up in searches or as possible matches, and is strongly discouraged.
Current/Married last Name
- For most Norwegians before 1923 this would be the farm name where they spent the most time in their life or the last part of their life.
- For women who adopted a husband's surname, enter it here.
- For Norwegians who emigrated to countries where inherited surnames were used (USA, Canada, Australia etc.) enter the surname they adopted here.
Other Last Names
If they used more than one farm name in their lifetime, the farm names not used in Current Last Name would go here. There could be several.
- This field would not be used for most Norwegians prior to the adoption of inherited surnames.
- For modern Norwegians who now use a middle name it would be entered here.
Record the full names as given in important sources, with source references, at the start of the biography. This will help us when it comes to rationalizing and merging profiles.
A good discussion on Norwegian naming can be found on the Norwegian Names page at www.norwaydna.no Note that this article does not use the WikiTree standard. It suggest Farm Name as LNAB but this is not the standard in WikiTree
What's a patronymic?
In many cultures, a child's surname is based on his or her father's first name. That was the case in Norway. If the father was Ole Nelsen, his son's name might be Lars Olsen (Ole's son). His daughter might be Olava Olsdatter (Ole's daughter). Yes, the son and daughter had slightly different last names. These last names were sometimes abbreviated. The "datter" suffix could be shortened to "dtr" or "dr". This naming practice died out in more modern times (close to the 1900s). At that point, the last name often became frozen for subsequent generations.
What do you mean by Farm Name?
The "farm name" is a location, often a farm or small community, sometimes a village. This location statement was often used by migrants arriving in the United States, in particular, to identify themselves and differentiate one Olafson from another. It became common practise, particularly in the United States, to adopt this as a "surname".
Where Do I start?
The below may help in determining what date is being referenced in parish records, since many don't provide the actual date, but the name of a religious event, such as "søndag etter Hellig Tre Kongers Dag". The calendar below may help you find the actual date of the event. https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Moveable_Feast_Day_Calendar_for_Norway
This topic is addressed on: the category page which has localities defined. The project is also working to further define the Parishes used by genealogists and this work, not yet complete, is here: Categorizing Norwegian Parishes.
The Norwegian Digital Archives were recently updated. Here is a link to the English version of the Digital Archives: https://www.digitalarkivet.no/en/
Some of the words one may find on a Norwegian census or other record:
|Norwegian Word||Abbreviation||English Word|
|bo; bodde||live; lived|
|dø; død||die; death|
|enke; enkemann||e.||widow; widower|
|født(e); Fødeår||birth; birth year|
|gutt; gutter||boy; boys|
|kone; hans kone||wife; his wife|
Here is a link to a Norwegian to English translation page, by Smartlink Corporation. The site can be used for non-commercial, personal use. Translations are limited to 1000 characters. Be aware that translations are not always perfect.
Æ Ø Å æ ø å
You can cut and paste the characters above, or, when using an English keyboard on a Windows computer, an alternative method is to use the numbers keypad, and type the code by holding down Alt key + the number below for the desired symbol:
|Alt +||4-digit code||symbol|
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On 29 Oct 2018 at 22:36 GMT Jodi (Trogstad) Brennan wrote:
On 29 Oct 2018 at 22:32 GMT Jodi (Trogstad) Brennan wrote:
On 28 Oct 2018 at 12:21 GMT Eric Hoffman wrote:
On 27 Oct 2018 at 00:41 GMT Jodi (Trogstad) Brennan wrote:
On 8 May 2018 at 19:42 GMT Eric Hoffman wrote:
On 8 May 2018 at 16:47 GMT Jamie Nelson wrote:
The middle name field does not get compared to any of the last name fields when searching or matching. So having the patronym as the middle name is horrible for searchability.
On 8 May 2018 at 07:18 GMT R (Østenstad) Teschner wrote:
On 7 May 2018 at 17:23 GMT Rolf Holte wrote:
On 7 Mar 2018 at 09:25 GMT Leif Biberg Kristensen wrote:
On 23 Feb 2018 at 02:49 GMT Don (MacLean) Gibson wrote:
1. Farm names can be very hard to find, particularly Farm Names At Birth. Almost everyone has their Patronymic. This means to start a WikiTree Profile many people will either use the patronymic in last name or label it Unknown. Both situations will result in a LOT of LNAB edits. 2. WikiTree doesn't appear to search on Middle Name. With the single most important piece of data most people have not searchable it makes the database very unrelaible and will result in a great many dupicate profiles. Lots of future merges