yDNA is passed intact from father to son with a small chance of mutation. When a mutation does occur, it is passed on to all patrilineal descendants of the man it occurred in. By analyzing the yDNA, these permutations are identified as differences between the universe of tests available. Once a permutation is identified the location and protein change are recorded and the SNP is named and listed for all analysts to use.
FTDNA policy is to call all the SNPs which have not been found in another test "Novel Variants". When a given mutation is found in a second test, the Novel Variant becomes a named SNP. The policy at YFull (another yDNA test option) is to call the SNPs which have not been found in another test "Novel SNPs". You can request that Novel SNPs be named and made available for specific testing for a fee.
The current knowledge is not sufficient to determine precise dating for each mutation (SNP) or even to separate them chronologically in most cases. However, they can be separated into groups (haplogroups) which have been seen to go together. The list of haplogroups below take us back beyond the genealogical time frame but are "recent" haplogroups from human history.
- This haplogroup previously had 16 SNPs but now has 25 SNPs! The additions all came from Robert's novel variant list. However, the nine additional SNPs have still only been found in Robert's test. In Clinton and William's results, these nine SNPs were all "No reads found".
- Robert's results initially showed that he and William shared a variant, 21639896 C A, but this variant appears to have been dropped. Two others were also dropped, leaving Robert with 7 novel variants. William now has 2 novel variants. Unfortunately, this means that we cannot say anything yet about where William fits.
- William Richmond
- Robert Richmond
- Clint Richmond
I-BY60653 (6803829 G A)
- This SNP appeared as Clinton's only novel variant. Robert's results (with the many novel variants) appear to have shaken things up a bit. FTDNA has currently determined that Clinton's novel variant can be promoted to an SNP even though Robert and William do not appear to be positive, so Clinton still must be the only one. This seems like a violation of policy that a novel variant must be found in two tests. Clint has no novel variants remaining, which likely means this SNP occurred close to him.
- Clint Richmond
Chromosome 22, 15-27 (22N)
- There are 81 kits matching in this range. Of these, 17 are confirmed descendants of John Richmond (abt.1594-1664) as of 26 Feb 2022.
- The descendants are currently spread over three of John's children:
- John Richmond-165
- Edward Richmond-14
- Mary (Richmond-46) Paull
Erin, Paul and Greg are first cousins who descend from John along four different routes.
- KNet, RNet and CNet descend from
- WCol, CCol
- Shar, Selb, JonS
- LNel, MNel