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Scotland - Duke of Albany

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Duke of Albany

Duke of Albany is a peerage title that was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland to his brother, Robert Stewart, in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a territorial term referring to the area of Scotland north of the River Forth and equivalent to the previous Kingdom of the Picts.

The second creation was established in 1458 for Alexander Stewart and was forfeited in 1483. His son, John Stewart, was restored to the title in 1515 and died without an heir in 1536.

The third creation, in 1541, was bestowed upon Robert (died in infancy); second son of James V of Scotland.

The fourth creation was granted to Henry Stewart (Lord Darnley), king consort of Mary, Queen of Scots. It was merged, along with the title Duke of York, with the Scottish Crown upon their son's ascension to throne.

The fifth creation, as well as Duke of York, were bestowed upon Charles, son of James VI and I, in 1604. They were again merged with the crown upon his ascension in 1625.

In 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown. Charlotte, daughter of Charles Edward Stewart, was given the title Duchess of Albany. She died in 1789.

The combined title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings (see Dukes of York and Albany).

The title of "Duke of Albany" was granted once again; this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold. He was the fourth son of Queen Victoria. Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward (who had succeeded as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900), was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I.

Under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, the legitimate lineal male heir of the 1st Duke of Albany (his senior agnatic descendant is currently the 2nd Duke's great-grandson, Hubertus Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) may petition the British Crown for the restoration of the peerages. However, because none of the descendants of the 2nd Duke, being estranged from the British Royal Family due to their German loyalties, asked the British monarch to consent to their marriages, a strict reading of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 would render all of the 2nd Duke's grandchildren illegitimate in the eyes of British law, which would mean that the dukedom is not simply suspended but truly extinct.

Dukes of Albany, first Creation (1398)

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374–1406), Earl of Atholl (1403–1406)
  • Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. 1340–1420), third son of Robert II
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of Menteith (bef 1189), Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374)
  • Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1362–1425), eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425

Dukes of Albany, second Creation (1458)

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of March (1455), Earls of Mar and Earl of Garioch (1482)
  • Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. 1454–1485), second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482, then forfeited them again in 1483
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of March (1455)
  • John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1481–1536), only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515. The honours went extinct upon his death without issue

Dukes of Albany, Third Creation (1541)

  • Arthur Stewart, Duke of Albany (1541), second son of James V, died eight days after his baptism

Dukes of Albany, Fourth Creation (1565)

Other titles: Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch (1565)
  • Henry Stuart, 1st Duke of Albany (1545–1567) was king consort to Mary, Queen of Scots
  • James Stuart, Duke of Rothesay (1566–1625), only child of the 1st Duke, became King in 1567

Dukes of Albany, Fifth Creation (1604)

Other titles: Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1616), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Rothesay etc. (1469), Duke of York (1605), Marquess of Ormond (1600), Earl of Carrick (1469), Earl of Ross (1600), Baron Renfrew (1469), Lord Ardmannoch (1600), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)

Dukes of Albany, Sixth Creation (1660)

Other titles: Duke of York (1644), Earl of Ulster (1659)
  • Prince James Stuart, Duke of Albany (1633–1701), second son of Charles I, became King in 1685

Dukes of York and Albany

See: Dukes of York and Albany for profiles.

First creation (1716)

Other titles: Earl of Ulster (1716)
  • Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (1674–1728), brother of George I, died without issue

Second creation (1760)

Other titles: Earl of Ulster (1760)

Third creation (1784)

Other titles: Earl of Ulster (1784)
  • The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), second son of George III, died without issue

Dukes of Albany, Jacobite Peerage (1783, or earlier)

  • Charlotte was Charles Edward Stuart’s illegitimate daughter by his mistress Clementina Walkinshaw (known as the Countess of Albestroff) and his only child to survive infancy. She was also created a Lady of the Order of the Thistle (LT) by her father on 30 November 1784.

Dukes of Albany, eighth Creation (1881)

Other titles: Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow (1881)
  • The Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (1853–1884), fourth son of Queen Victoria
  • Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 2nd Duke of Albany (1884–1954), posthumous only son of the 1st Duke, had his British honours suspended in 1919 for taking arms against the realm

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