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Siluria

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The Place

Siluria is an informal term often seen in popular genealogies referring to the geographic area of today's southeast Wales occupied by the tribal Silures during the period of Roman rule . There was no actual political entity called "Siluria". "Most archaeologists believe that the people who became known as the Silures were a loose network of groups with some shared cultural values, rather than a centralised society. Although the most obvious physical remains of the Silures are hillforts such as those at Llanmelin and Sudbrook, there is also archaeological evidence of roundhouses at Gwehelog, Thornwell (Chepstow) and elsewhere, and evidence of lowland occupation notably at Goldcliff."[1]

The Silures were a Celtic tribe which settled around, the modern terms, Swansea (Abertawe), Neath Port Talbot (Castell-Nedd Port Talbot), Bridgend (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr), the Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg), Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful), Cardiff (Caerdydd or Caerdyf), Caerphilly (Caerffiu), Newport (Casnewydd), Torfaen (Tor-Faen), and Blaenau Gwent. The boudaries are not precise and their lands may have extended into southern Powys. According to the authority of cadair, or the bardic chair, of Morganwg, they extended over the present Morganwg, including the commot of Garthmathrin, or Brecon, Gwent, or Monmouthshire, and Ergyng, Euas, and Ystrad Yw, partly in Herefordshire, and partly in Breconshire.

“… ancient Siluria was a land of boggy uplands, wooded slopes and narrow valleys and plains, where arable was limited and most land was pasture or wilderness. It was a rougher, harder, more impoverished land, and its people, skilled in war, were doubtless accustomed, like the borderers of later ages, to supplement their meagre incomes by rustling thier neighbour’s’ cattle, carting off their corn-stocks, and abducting their children as farm-hands. …” (Niel Faulkner The Decline and Fall of Roman Britain p.37/8)[2]

Other Information The rocks which formed in the third period of the Palaeozoic era, between the Ordovician¹ and Devonian, are known by modern geologists as Silurian, because outcrops of this geological period occurred in the mountains of south-east Wales, which were the ancient territories of the Silures tribe. The Silurian period lasted 40 million years, during which time, fish first appeared in the oceans of Earth.[2]

Named after the Ordovices tribe of North Wales, where outcrops of rock from this earlier period occur.[2]

Hillforts and Rivers

Geographia of Ptolemy (II.ii) Their hillforts, like those of thier western neighbours the Demetae, show influences of south-west England. Their neighbours to the north were the Ordovices of Central Wales, while to the east lay the Dobunni.[2]

Other passages in Ptolemy Book II Chapter 2 give the ancient names of a number of rivers within the territories of the Silures tribe:[2]

Leuca Fluvius (River Loughor) Possibly marked the western border of the tribe with their neighbours the Demetae. There was a Roman fort sited on the east bank near it’s mouth, likewise named Leucarum (Loughor, West Glamorgan).[2] Aventio Fluvius (Afon Ewenny) empties into the Bristol Channel near Porthcawl. Isca Fluvius (River Usk) Flows roughly southwards through the eastern part of the canton, upon which the legionary fortress at Isca was situated, also it’s precursor further upstream at Usk.[2] Sabrina Fluvius (River Severn) Forms a natural barrier to the south and east of the canton, between the Silures and the Dobunni.[2] The Civitas Silurum The Principal Tribal Centre[2] Caerwent (Venta Silurum)[2] Undoubtedly the civitas capital of the Silures, attested on a stone altar, ‘the Civitas Silurum Stone’, now on display in the portico of Caerwent Church.[2]

Venta Silurum / Caerwent

The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in AD 75. It became a Romanized town, not unlike Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), but smaller.[3]An inscription shows that, under the Roman Empire, it was the capital of the Silures, whose ordo (local council) provided local government for the district.[3] Its massive Roman walls still survive, and excavations have revealed a forum, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, shops, and many comfortable houses with mosaic floors, etc. [3] In the late 1st and early 2nd centuries, the Silures were given some nominal independence and responsibility for local administration. As was standard practice, as revealed by inscriptions, the Romans matched their deities with local Silurian ones, and the local deity Ocelus was identified with Mars, the Roman god of war. [4]

Other Places of Interest Llanmelin Wood Camp – Iron Age camp just north of Caerwent, may have been the pre-Roman tribal centre of the Silures.[2] Machen (Gwent) – Settlement associated with the nearby lead mines, probably under military control.[2] Redwick (Gwent) – A small settlement on the Severn estuary, south-east of Caerwent. Blestium (Monmouth)? – Mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary, was probably a fort established in the centre of the iron mining district.[2] Cardiff (Tamion?)(Glamorgan) – A vicus settlement grew here, outside the Roman fort. Caerleon (Isca Silurum) (Caerleon, Gwent) – A very large settlement or canabae, was attached to the fortress of the The Second Augustan Legion (Legio Secundae Augusta). Industries[2] There are a few Romanized farm buildings in the immediate area of Caerwent. Notable villas have been discovered at Ely (Cardiff) Roman Villa , further west at Llantwit Major Villa, and at Maesderwen (Llanfrynach) Roman Site, which included a large bath-house with elaborate fish mosaics. The Iron Mines around Monmouth and the Forest of Dean, even though they likely lay in the lands of the Silures, were actually administered from Ariconium (Weston under Penyard) in the neighbouring territories of the Dobunni.[2]

“… the camp in Llanmelin Wood may have been the [pre-Roman] tribal centre of the Silures, but the choice of Caerwent for the cantonal capital of Venta Silurum may also have been influenced by its relationship to the Severn ferry. …” (A.L.F. Rivet Town and Country in Roman Britain p.74)[2]

Caerwent seems to have continued in use in the post-Roman period as a religious centre. The territory of the Silures later developed as the 5th-century Welsh kingdoms of Gwent, Brycheiniog, and Gwynllŵg. Some theories concerning King Arthur make him a leader in this area. There is evidence of cultural continuity throughout the Roman period, from the Silures to the kingdom of Gwent in particular, as shown by leaders of Gwent using the name "Caradoc" in remembrance of the British hero Caratacus. [4]

Bulleaum

“More toward the east are the Silures whose town is Bullaeum 16*50 55°00.” [2]

The Tribal Πολις Assigned by Ptolemy[2] Usk (Burrium)– The only polis ascribed to the tribe by Ptolemy, where it appears as Bullaeum. There was a large fortress here, which was no-doubt accompanied by a vicus settlement.[2]

Monuments

There is a cluster of Neolithic and Bronze-Age monuments on the Gower Peninsula which may represent the original tribal homelands, but It would appear that the Iron-Age is not very well represented in Siluria. This is perhaps due to the tribespeople leading an almost wholly pastoral lifestyle, having no permanent stone-built dwellings, and preferring to live in make-shift temporary structures which have left very little archaeological evidence. Their aceramic (pottery-free) culture suggests that they survived mainly off the rich flora and fauna of woodland and marsh in a somewhat carefree hunter-gatherer type of lifestyle.[2]

The People

"The Roman writer Cornelius Tacitus provides us with a racial description of ...the Silures":

“… the swarthy faces of the Silures, the curly quality, in general, of their hair, and the position of Spain opposite their shores, attest the passage of Iberians in old days and the occupation by them of these districts; …” [5]

Due to their appearance, Tacitus believed they had crossed over from Spain at an earlier date. [6]Modern genetic studies have shown a genetic similarity between some Irish and Welsh and the Basques of northern Spain.

Ferocity

The Silures were a powerful and warlike iron-age tribe or tribal confederation located in southern Wales. [2]

The tribal name Silures, may itself be of Latin derivation, meaning simply ‘the people of the Rocks’, alluding to the mountainous region in which they lived.[2] We suggest Tacitus used the word to mean "men of the rocks", that is "mountain men"....literally all the inhabitants of what is now Wales[7]

His account continues: "The natural ferocity of the inhabitants was intensified by their belief in the prowess of Caratacus, whose many undefeated battles - and even many victories - had made him pre-eminent among British chieftans.[8]

His deficiency in strength was compensated by superior cunning and topographical knowledge. Transferring the war to the country of the Ordovices...."[9]

The Silures (UK: /saɪˈlʊəriːz/ sy-LUURR-eez, US: /ˈsɪljəriːz/ SIL-yər-eez)[10] were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, [3]occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas. After reporting that the Brigante uprising was quelled, Tacitus continues: "But neither sternness nor leniency prevented the Silures from fighting. To suppress them, a brigade garrison had to be established. In order to facilitate the displacement of troops westward to man it, a strong settlement of ex-soldiers was established on conquered land at Camulodunum. Its mission was to protect the country against revolt and familiarize the provincals with law-abiding government. Next Ostorius invaded Silurian territory."[9]


Neighbors

They were bordered to the north by the Ordovices; to the east by the Dobunni; and to the west by the Demetae. [6]

Historians and geographers uniformly locate the Celtic-speaking tribe of Silures on the north shore of the Bristol Channel, in what is now called Glamorgan and Monmouthshire...the former kingdoms of Glywysing and Gwent. [9]

The second century geographer, Ptolemy of Alexandria, drew rough maps of Britain on which he labeled southeast Wales as "Silures" and much of the lands north of them as "Ordovices". He said the "Demetae" were located "west of the Silures". [9]

"The Roman army then struck against the Decangi [see Appendix], ravaging their territory and collecting extensive booty. The enemy did not venture upon an open engagement and, when they tried to ambush the column, suffered for their trickery. Ostorius had nearly reached the sea facing Ireland when a rising by the Brigantes recalled him."[9]

The Events and Leaders

The lands of the Silures is known from around 800 BCE. Archaeological sites around Caerau near Cardiff contains evidence of early users of Iron Age materials. Whether this is are part of the second wave of Celtic expansion that is sweeping outwards from the south-east by this time, or of native pre-Indo-Europeans is unclear.

The term "Silurian" Reference is occasionally made to this period of Celtic history by the use of terms such as "Silurian". The poet Henry Vaughan called himself a "Silurist", by virtue of his roots in South Wales. [6]

The geological period Silurian was first described by Roderick Murchison in rocks located in the original lands of the Silures, hence the name. That period postdates the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, whose names are also derived from ancient Wales. [6]

30 BCE Bran Fendigaid

Their original rulers are found in semi-mythical Celtic folklore. However the first named on record is claimed as a son of High King Bran Fendigaid who appears in the late first century BC. The tribe was never encountered during the First Roman Invasion and are only really noticed when Caratacus, deposed ruler of the Catuvellauni, provided leadership for the western tribes in opposing the Roman conquest of the mid-first century AD.

22 Alan ap Bran

c. 22 CE. Alan ap Bran, brother of Caradoc ap Bran. Appears as King of Ewyas. He is followed by his brother.

24 Sadwr ap Bran

c. 24 CE. Sadwr ap Bran. Nothing is heard until the 2nd Roman Invasion.


47 Publius Ostorius Scapula

Publius Ostorius Scapula, legate in Britain from 47AD, had died of natural causes while on campaign against the Silures in 51.[2] Emperor Claudius. Probably the Legio Vicesimae Valeria Victrix (The Twentieth Legion, Valiant and Victorious), recently removed from Colchester(Camulodunum). The attack may have been inflicted upon the legion whilst building the vexillation fortress at Clyro in Powys. The attentions of Gallus were drawn away from the Silures in south Wales by an uprising among the Brigantes tribe of northern England. The Brigantian ruling dynasty was in uproar, and as a client of Rome, queen Cartimandua called upon her allies to support her cause in the civil war between her own clan and factions loyal to her estranged husband, Venutius, who were presumably still unhappy with her earlier betrayal of Caratacus.[2]

The Silures were not subdued, however, and waged effective guerrilla warfare against the Roman forces. Ostorius had announced that they posed such a danger that they should be either exterminated or transplanted. His threats only increased the Silures' determination to resist. They surrounded and attacked a large legionary force occupied in building Roman forts in their territory; it was rescued by others only with difficulty and considerable loss. The Silures also took Roman prisoners as hostages and distributed them amongst their neighbouring tribes in order to bind them together and encourage resistance. [6]

Ostorius died with the Silures still unconquered. After his death, they defeated the Second Legion. It remains unclear whether the Silures were militarily defeated or simply agreed to come to terms, but Roman sources suggest rather opaquely that they were eventually subdued by Sextus Julius Frontinus in a series of campaigns ending about AD 78. The Roman Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur – the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency". [6]

Romanization To aid the Roman administration in keeping down local opposition, a legionary fortress (Isca, later Caerleon) was planted in the midst of tribal territory. [6]

The Silurian Campaigns of Rome Attacked by Ostorius Scapula for harbouring Caratacus 48/49AD Following the short-lived uprisings of the Iceni and the Brigantes in 47, the new governor of Britain, Ostorius Scapula, turned his attention to the Silures.[2]

“… neither severity nor clemency converted the Silures tribe, which continued the struggle and had to be repressed by the establishment of a legionary camp. …”[2]

Tacitus Annales xii.32 Seemingly, the bulk of Legio XX Valeria was moved from its base at Colchester in Essex into a new legionary fortress at Kingsholm near Gloucester; to enable the movement of the legion west, and not to leave the east of Britain undefended, a Colonia of veteran soldiers was established at Camulodunum within the confines of the old fortress recently evacuated by the Twentieth Legion.[2]

“The march then proceeded against the Silures, whose native boldness was heightened by their confidence in the prowess of Caratacus; …” [2]

Tacitus Annales xii.33 We now learn the reason for Ostorius’ interest in the Silures; Caratacus, the fugitive leader of the British forces opposed to the original Roman landing in Kent in 43, had found sanctuary among the hills of south-east Wales. The lands of the Silures were spared the full might of Roman arms in this particular campaign, for according to Tacitus, Caratacus now moved his camp to Snowdonia.[2]

“… on this occasion, favoured by the treacherous character of the country, though inferior in military strength, he [Caratacus] astutely shifted the seat of war to the territory of the Ordovices: where, after being joined by all who feared a Roman peace, he put the final chance to trial. …” [2]

Tacitus Annales xii.33 There was, no doubt, a significant Silurian presence among the army of Caratacus which were subsequently beaten in pitched battle by Ostorius Scapula somewhere in Ordovician territory in 50AD. The site of this famous battle has, to this day, never been identified.[2]

After his defeat in Wales, Caratacus escaped through the lands of the Deceangi in north-eastern Wales and had sought refuge amongst the Brigantes in northern England. Queen Cartimandua, however, in accordance with her agreement as a client of Rome, infamously ordered him bound in chains and handed over to the Roman governor Ostorius. For his part in the capture of the renegade British king, Scapula was awarded the ‘triumphal insignia’, which had in the time of the emperors, replaced the full-blown triumphal procession through the streets of Rome, which was the norm in more liberal republican times.[2]

Following the removal of Caratacus from Britain, the attentions of Rome were brought to bear upon the Silures, who were themselves to keep the next three governors of the province particularly busy.[2]

The Further Campaigns of Ostorius Scapula 51/52AD ” (Tacitus Annales xii.38-39)

47 Caratacus of the Catuvellauni

The first historical record is associated with Caradoc, or Caratacus, a son of High King Bran Fendigaid.

0 Caradoc Ap Bran

c. 30 BCE. Caradoc ap Bran / Caratacus. When his father, Bran, sails with his host to face Matholug, king of Ireland, it is Caradoc who is left in command of the chieftains of the land.

47 CE. Following the campaign by Roman Governor Ostorius, against the Deceangli, Caratacus, former king of the Catuvellauni, still apparently recognised as High King, re-emerges to lead the Silures against Rome. It is not known where he had been or what he had done in he interim. Evidence suggests he may have been in the anti-Roman part of the Dobunni lands, at the Bulwarks stronghold in modern Gloucestershire.

47 - 49. Caratacus, High King. Former king of the Catuvellauni & Cantii. The confrontation with the Romans led to the Roman occupation of the tribal lands. Caractacus drew a significant number of tribes into a confederacy against the Romans. The site of the large-scale battle between the Britons and the Romans is unknown, other than that it lies somewhere on the Severn. Roman tactics and equipment produce an overwhelming superiority against the Britons.

52. After the defeat the Silures fight on creating havoc with the Romans. Roman records suggest that a trapped unit of legionaries suffer the loss of the prefect and eight centurions and evidence suggests the defeat of an entire legion, possibly XX Valeria Victrix, which forces Rome to appoint Aulus Didius Gallus, who manages to bring the situation under control.

c. 55 CE. It is about this time in history, likely because the Silures continue the fight against the Romans, that many of the "High Kings" appointed by the Celtic Kings, now appear in the west. Previously the title had generally fallen on the King of the Catuvellauni who had been completely defeated.

61. During the Iceni-led revolt in the east, the Silures, Ordovices, Dobunni, and perhaps the Durotriges are pinned down by the Roman Second Legion and are unable to join Boudicca.

48 Caratacus of the Catuvellauni

Fierce resistance to Roman forces

The Silures fiercely resisted Roman conquest about AD 48, with the assistance of Caratacus, a military leader and prince of the Catuvellauni, who had fled from further east after his own tribe was defeated. [6]

The first attack on the Welsh tribes was by the legate Publius Ostorius Scapula about AD 48. Ostorius first attacked the Deceangli in the north-east of what is now Wales, however little else is known or recorded of this conflict. He spent several years campaigning against the Silures and the Ordovices. Their resistance was led by Caratacus, who had fled from the south-east (of what is now England) when it was conquered by the Romans. He first led the Silures, then moved to the territory of the Ordovices, where he was defeated by Ostorius in AD 51. [6]

Pedigree evidence indicates that direct male descendants of Caraticus held extensive lands along all three coasts of Wales in the 3rd and 4th centuries, and we posit that this extended family ruled the whole of Wales except for the eastern-central lands held by the Cornovii tribe...both before the Romans came and after they left some 400 years later. We further think they had lavish personal manors at several places along the coast which the Romans converted into forts, including Segontium and Caerleon.[9]


52 Aulus Didius Gallus

The Campaigns of Aulus Didius Gallus 52-57AD “On recieving news of the legate’s¹ death, the Caesar,² not to leave the province without a governor, appointed Aulus Didius to the vacancy. In spite of a rapid crossing, he found matters deteriorated, as the legion³ under Manlius Valens had been defeated in the interval. … In this case, again, the loss had been inflicted by the Silures, and they carried their forays far and wide, until repelled by the advent of Didius. …” (Tacitus Annales xii.40)[2]


57 Quintus Veranius

The Campaigns of Quintus Veranius 57/58AD The intrigues of the Brigantian court were seemingly to keep Gallus occupied for much of the remainder of his tenure as governor of Britain, for no further operations against the Silures were made until the advent of the next governor, Quintus Veranius.[2]

“… Veranius, after harrying the Silures in a few raids of no great significance, was prevented by death from carrying his arms further. …”

Suetonius Paulinus

Tacitus Annales xiv.29 With the premature death of Veranius, the Silures were again given respite from the military advances of Rome. When the next governor Suetonius Paulinus came to Britain, although his plans very likely included an extensive campaign against the Silures, luck was with the tribe once more, for as soon as Paulinus started his campaigns in Wales with an attack upon the so-called “druid stronghold of Anglesea”, the rebellion of Queen Boudicca of the Iceni forced him to cut short his anti-Cymric activities and race eastwards in order to save the province.[2]

74 Marius/Meurig

74 - 125. Marius / Meric/ Merius / Meurig, Son of Arviragus of the Brigantes. Appears as High King. Although possibly a legendary charater he appears during the occupation by Sextus Julius Frontinus. Frontinus uses the Second Augusta Legion to pacify the Silures. A new legionary fortress is constructed at Isca (Caerleon) as part of the process of conquering the tribe, and a port[11] is built nearby so that troops can be landed in the heart of Silures territory. The Twentieth Legion is transferred to Isca from Glevum. The movement of the tribal centre of the Silures from their fortress at Llanmelin Wood to a new Roman town at Caerwent (later capital of Ewyas) is also thought to take place under Frontinus' governorship. More military forts are constructed at Caerdyf (modern Cardiff) and Leucarum (modern Loughor on the river of the same name ) in AD 75.

76 Julius Frontinus

Finally subdued by Julius Frontinus c.76AD This and further calamities, both in Britain, on the continent and in Rome itself, saved the Silures from further harrassment for almost two decades, until the arrival of governor Sextus Julius Frontinus c.76AD.[2]

“… Julius Frontinus was, so far as a subject of the emperor could be, a great man, and he shouldered and sustained the burden cast on him: his arms reduced the Silures, a powerful and warlike race; he surmounted not only the valour of the enemy but also the physical difficulties of their land.” (Tacitus Agricola xvii.2)[2]

125 Coilus/Coel

125 - 154: Coilus / Coel. A son of Marius. He was raised in Rome to a young adult and appears as High King of the tribes although likely as a puppet to the Damnonii.

154 Lucius/Llewrug Mawr

c. 154 - c. 180. Lucius / Llewrug Mawr. He appears as King of the Silures and High King, although his latter status is unclear. He wrote to Pope Eleutherius of the Roman Church to become a Christian. Geoffrey of Monmouth suggests he died, without heir, c. 156 and that his fortress was at Caer Gloui (likely modern day Gloucester). A legend suggests that he is responsible for introducing Christianity into Britain but there is confusion on whether this was Lucius Aelius Megas Abgar IX, Roman client king of Osroene (in Mesopotamia).

After his death the tribe becomes incorporated into the Kingdom of Ewyas

While the following is merely our own conjecture, we suggest that by the year 250AD the ruling family had divided their lands into four quadrants, each ruled by a different family branch. In the northwest was Cernyw, so named for the "horn" formed by the Llyn peninsula. Its royal residence was at Segontium and its lands extended east to the Conwy and south to the Dyfi. The island of Mon was given over to the Druids but the rest was later to be called Gwynedd is Conwy. Its first king was Eudaf Hen, born c. 230.[9]


We have elsewhere[12]mentioned the ancestor of this family, a seafarer known as Llyr Llediath "the man of the seas who spoke with a foreign accent". This man, we think, had his ancestry with the Menapii Celts found both in Spain and Ireland and reknown as seamen plying the trade routes between continental Europe and the British Isles. [9]

===235 Gereint

235 Gereent ap Einudd

Directly to the east was the kingdom of Llydaw, extending from the Conwy to the Dee and bordering Cornovii lands on the south and east. Men from this kingdom were recruited by Emperor Maximianus Herculius for his Gaul campaign in the late 3rd century and rewarded with lands in Brittany which they named after their Welsh birthplace. Its first king was Gereint ap Einudd of c. 235, a brother of Eudaf Hen.[9]

The southwest quadrant was called Demetae, comprising what was later known as Dyfed and Ystrad Tywy. It was ruled from Menevia by Caradog ap Einudd of c. 220, an older half-brother of Eudaf Hen and Geraint. His lands originally included the peninsula of Cornwall across the Bristol Channel, the source of tin for most of the European world. Some early writers called Cornwall "Cernyw" due to its horn shape, but the Cernyw or "Gorneu" of Welsh history was Llyn and the lands around it.[9]


The final kingdom lay to the east and directly south of the Cornovii lands later called Powys, encompassing what we now call Glamorgan, Gwent and Brychieniog. It was called Dumnonia and originally included much of Devon and Somerset across the Bristol Channel. It was first ruled by Arthfael ap Einudd, the uterine brother of Eudaf Hen and Gereint and ancestor of the Gwent dynasty.[9]

Sources

  1. Miranda Aldhouse-Green and Ray Howell (eds.), Gwent In Prehistory and Early History: The Gwent County History Vol.1, 2004, ISBN 0-7083-1826-6 Cited by Wikipedia.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 Roman Britain. Silures Celtic Tribe Accessed 16 July 2023 jhd
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Haverfield, Francis John (1911). "Silures" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 109. Cited by Wikipedia.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Miranda Aldhouse-Green and Ray Howell (eds.), Gwent In Prehistory and Early History: The Gwent County History Vol.1, 2004, ISBN 0-7083-1826-6 Cited by Wikipedia.
  5. Tacitus Annales Xi.ii, translated by M. Hutton. Cited by Wikipedia
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Wikipedia:Silures Accessed 24 August 2023 jhd
  7. Possibly excluding the Cornovii tribe lands. Although their lands later included much of the east-central part of Wales, they may have mainly occupied only the fertile Severn valley in the days of Tacitus. Wolcott note.
  8. This was Caradog ap Bran ap Llyr Llediath of Wales, not the Caraticus son of Cunobelinus of the Catuvellauni tribe. The latter man opposed the original invasion of Claudius and was soundly defeated, while the Welshman of similar name is described as being undefeated in battles when he faced the Romans in AD 51. Most English historians conflate the two men since they both lived in the mid-1st century.Wolcott note.
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 Darrell Wolcott. Ancient Wales Studies The Lands of the Silures Accessed 16 July 2023 jhd
  10. Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0. Cited by Wikipedia.
  11. This port was only rediscovered by archaeologists in 2011 and lies on the banks of the River Usk just north of the modern city of Newport
  12. See the paper "Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees" at the link below: http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id145.htmlWolcott note.

See also:

References for The Silures

  • The Geography of Claudius Ptolemaeus, trans. by E.L. Stevenson (Dover, New York, 1991);

Atlas of Great Britain by the Ordnance Survey (Country Life, 1982); Historical Map and Guide: Roman Britain by the OS (4th Ed., 1990);





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