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Stor-Elvdal

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Location: Stor-Elvdal, Innlandet fylke, Norwaymap
Surnames/tags: Hedmark Innlandet Norway
Profile manager: Justin Jacobs private message [send private message]
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Contents

Introduction

Stor-Elvdal is a geographic area in Innlandet fylke, Norway. Over the centuries the ecclesiastical and municipal organization and spelling of this region has changed. Currently Stor-Elvdal is a kommune, or municipality, and has been since 1 Jan 1838 when the formannskapslovene, The Presidency Acts, were instituted[1].

This exploration of divisions in which Stor-Elvdal has found itself in over time will start with the broadest, country; become narrower while discussing the various county systems; and narrower still with local divisions.

The region of interest, Stor-Elvdal, will be referred to with the modern spelling throughout except in 'Orthography' to avoid possible confusion despite having been spelt differently for most of recorded history.

Purpose and Methods

The purpose of this profile is to organize the information that I have uncovered while assembling records for profiles of my Norwegian ancestors. The information is sourced and explained to the best of my ability but is in no means exhaustive. I am a native English speaker without Norwegian language familiarity therefor all translations needed for this information were taken from online translators, i.e. Google Translate. Most of the sources used are tertiary translations articles from Wikipedia and Wiki-style websites. I have included primary sources from digitalarkivet when possible. I feel that there is a glut of secondary sources that are hidden behind Norwegian ip address restrictions and books in Norwegian without translation. I believe this article would be more easily strengthened by a Norwegian speaker than I as the time it would take for me to transcribe and translate a source of unknown value would be great.

Jacobs-5597 16:26, 25 September 2020 (UTC)

Etymology and Orthography

Etymology

The Old Norse from of the name was 'Elfardalr', (Elvedalen), which means the valley around the Glomma. The prefix 'Stor' was latter added to distinguish it from Lillie Elvendalen, modern Alvdal[1][2]

Orthography

This section is a work in progress that will expand records are reviewed.

  • Store-Elvedaldens, 1838 matrikkelen[3]
  • Stor-Elvdal, 2020[4]

Sovereignty

Kongeriket Norge/The Kingdom of Norway (872-1536) Stor-Elvdal was a part of the Kingdom of Norway since the Unification of Norway by King Harald Fairhair in 872[5]. Between 872 to present, Norway was in one of three conditions with other kingdoms/nations: independent, in a personal union or in a real union. While in a personal union, separate kingdoms are under a single monarch, and as such saying that Stor-Elvdal was a under the administration of the Kingdom of Norway is still appropriate during these times[6]. This contrasts with a real union where reduced sovereignty was a consequence for the weaker member[7]. During the time Norway was in a real union with Denmark it is appropriate for profiles to have locations listed in Denmark rather than Norway as detailed below.

Norway was an independent state from unification in 873 until briefly forming a personal union with Denmark and England to be a part of Nordsjøveldet, the North Sea Empire, from 1028-1035[8][9]. After leaving the North Sea Empire, Norway was independent until 1397 at which point it joined a personal union with Denmark and Sweden to be a part of Kalmarunionen, the Kalmar Union, until 1523[8][10]. The Kalmar Union came to an end in 1523 when Sweden became independent[10]. This left Denmark and Norway in a personal union, which lasted until 1536[11].

Danmark–Norge/Denmark-Norway (1537-1814) The state of Norwegian sovereignty during this period is complex and contentious. Officially, under Christian III disbanded Norway's riksrådet, parliament, and it became a province of Denmark[12]. Despite this, there is not much to suggest that Norway stopped being its own political entity. If Norway was truly a province of Denmark, then It should have had representation in Denmark's riksrådet, like other Danish provinces, but it lacked this representation[13].

Autocracy was introduced in 1660 with a peaceful coup carried out by Frederick III. Under this system the kingdoms were to be governed as one state and Norway was even more dependent upon Denmark[14].

Despite Norway officially being a province of Denmark and a case could be made to curate profile locations as 'x, Norway, Denmark' it is more appropriate to use 'Denmark-Norway' as the last term in a location. This term reflects the historical roots of the union and is adapted from the Oldenburg dynasty's (The royal family during this time period) official title 'Konge til Danmark og Norge, de Venders og Gothers'[15][16].

Denmark-Norway was on the losing side of the Napoleonic Wars, which resulted in King Frederik VI Signing the Treaty of Kiel. This forced him to cede the former Kingdom of Norway to Sweden[17].

Kongeriket Norge/The Kingdom of Norway (1814-) Viceroy and heir to the thrones of Denmark and Norway, Prince Christian Frederick used the frustration of Norwegians over the results of the treaty to his advantage and claimed Norway. He argued that Norway had a right to self-determination[18]. On 25 Feb 1814 congregations in Christiania and the central parts of eastern Norway, took an oath to the Prince[19]. On May 17, the assembly at Eidsvoll signed the constitution and elected Prince Christian Frederik as King of Norway[17].

This newfound independence was short lived as Norway lost a two-week war with Sweden. This war culminated with the Convention of Moss on 14 Aug 1814 which resulted in the abdication of the Norwegian throne, Swedish approval of the Norwegian Constitution and Norway entering a personal union with Sweden[20].

The strained union was dissolved amicably in 1905[21].

Ecclesiastical Divisions

The Catholic Church played a large role in local administration prior to the Reformation in 1537 and the Church of Norway for centuries thereafter. Many of the records that we use come from church records so that while the higher divisions might not inform locations, a discussion is still warranted.

The Catholic Church was established in Norway during the 900s and was subject to Rome. The church was consolidated and became the dominate and eventually the only faith in Norway[22].

Bispedømme

In the Catholic Church, bispedømme, or diocese, was an administrative unit below the archdiocese. After the reformation, bispedømme was the highest administrative unit in the Church of Norway[23]. Below are the bispedømmene that Stor-Elvdal was in.

Oslo bispedømme (1068-1152) In 1068, Oslo bispedømme, was established. It fell under the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen from 1068 to 1104, Lund from 1104 to 1153 and Nidaros from 1153 on[24].

Hamar bispedømme (1153-1542) Norway became a separate ecclesiastical province in 1153 when Nidaros, modern day Trondheim, became an archbishopric[22]. The Hamar bispedømme was founded and separated from Oslo bispedømme at the same time[24]. During the Reformation in 1537 the last Catholic bishop of Hamar bispedømme was jailed in Denmark until his death in 1542. Hamar was added back to Oslo Bispedømme[25].

Oslo bispedømme (1542-1864) Post Reformation, Stor-Elvdal, found itself in the Lutheran Church of Norway Oslo bispedømme until 1864 when Hamar bispedømme was separated out[25].

Hamar bispedømme (1864-) During the nordiske syvårskrig, the Nordic Seven Years' War, the city of Hamar was burnt and ravaged by Swedish forces in 1567[26]. No effort was made to rebuild the it and it took over 300 years before it was a market town again in 1849. In 1864 Hamar bispedømme was separated again and is current ecclesiastical division of the Church of Norway[25].

Prosti

Prosti is the level of administration under bispedømme. Each prosti is led a prost. The prosti that includes the bispedømme cathedral is called a domprosti[27].

Hedemarken og Østerdalen prosti (1537-1759) Stor-Elvdal is in Østerdalen. This is elaborated on below under len. It is though that this prosti originated with the Reformation in 1537 but the date cannot be confirmed. It lasted until division in 1759[28].

Østerdalen prosti (1759-1867) Hedemarken og Østerdalen prosti was split in 1759 to form Hedemarken prosti og Østerdalen prosti[28]. It lasted until a further division issued in 1867[29].

Søndre Østerdalen (1868-1922) Hedemarken and Østerdalen prosti divided into Søndre Østerdalen and Nordre Østerdalen prostir by royal decree on 30 Nov 1867. The change took place the following year[29]. Sør-Østerdalen is a current ecclesiastical division of Hamar bispedømme[25][30].

Sør-Østerdalen (1922-) The spelling of Søndre Østerdalen was changed to Sør-Østerdalen, with the priosti boundaries unchanged, by royal resolution on 19 May 1922[31]. Sør-Østerdalen is a current ecclesiastical division of Hamar bispedømme[25][32].

Prestegjeld

Prestegjeld is next ecclesiastical division under prosti. A prosti was made up of one or multiple prestegjeld. This division was in use from 1400s as until it was phased out in 2004. Initially prestegjeldet were needed to relate the bispedømmene to the settlement in the years following the black death in 1349 which resulted in the closure of many churches and a shortage of priests. This system allowed on priest to serve a larger area[33][34].

Aamot prestegjeld (~1540-1873) The name comes from the Old Norse 'Ámót,' to meet, and describes the joining of the Rena and Glomma rivers[35].

It is likely that Åmot prestegjeld existed for some time before 1540 but a date cannot be pinpointed. Stor-Elvdal was a part of Åmot prestegjeld until Åmot prestegjeld was divided in 1873[35].

Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld (1873-2004) Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld was created in 1873 when Åmot prestegjeld was divided into Åmot prestegjeld and Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld[35]. In 1969 Sollia prestegjeld was closed and transferred to Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld. Stor-Elvdal, the geographic location, was a part of Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld until prestegjeldet were phased out in 2004[36].

Sokn

Sokn, also spelled sogn, is the smallest level of ecclesiastical division[37]. Both sokn and prestegjeld are translated as parish in English. Due to the difference in size and function of the two levels of parish this translation can be problematic and is something to be mindful of when using church records. A prestegjeld is made up of one or more sokn. With the end of prestegjeldet in 2004, multiple sokn now make up a prosti[37].

Sokn can be specified to be hovedsokn, main sokn, or anneksokn, a sokn with a church that is not a hovedsokn[38]. I feel that the difference between sokn and anneksokn, or just anneks, also has to do with size of the sokn but I have not been able to verify that.

Stor-Elvdal sokn (~1648-) Stor-Elvdal has existed as a parish since at least 1648 as it was mentioned in skattematrikkelen 1647 but has likely been a place name for much longer[39]. Stor-Elvdal has been listed as both sokn and anneksokn under Åmot prestegjeld. With the creation of Stor-Elvdal prestegjeld in 1873, it would make sense for Stor-Elvdal sokn to be reference as Stor-Elvdal hovedsokn until 2004, but I have yet to see it referenced as such.

County Divisions

Syssel

The term for the highest division below kingdom has gone by many names in Norway. Syssel is the earliest system that I have come across. it was introduced in Norway by King Sverre who reigned from 1177-1202. Under this system a sysselmannen was the king's chief representative over an administrative area, the syssel. This system remained in use from the late 1200s until 1307 where it was gradually phased out[40].

Unknown Syssel I have not seen any maps or lists of named syssel, so it is unknown to what syssel Stor-Elvdal was administered by.

Len

Len was the next system of division. During the 1300s as the distinction between syssel and len was blurred. During the 1400s len was increasingly used until the mid-1600s. The division of len at the beginning of the 1500s was uneven and unstable. In addition to the four hovedlen, or main len; Båhus, Akershus, Bergenhus and Trondheim; there were around 30 små-len, or small len. During the 1500s and into the 1600s, the len became more stable and uniform with the number greatly reduced[41].

Østerdalen (late 1400s-1537) Stor-Elvdal is in Østerdalen. Østerdalen is a landskap, a landscape or region used in various contexts in that reference can be made to this geographic area without it being in a given municipal division[42]. In the late 1400s, Østerdalen, when taken together with Solør, was considered a len. The name comes from the Old Norse øistrri dalir which means the eastern valleys. It appears on some maps as Eystridalir. Østerdalen is roughly defined as the valley on either side of the Glomma river between Røros to the north and Elverum in the south[43].

Hamar len (1537-1586) Hamar len was a len subservient to Akershus hovedlen and consisted of landskapene Hedmarken and Østerdalen. This len was created when the administration of Østerdalen was transferred to Hamar in 1537. Hamar len was last mentioned to exist in 1586, and by then Hedmarken and Østerdalen had already been run as fogderier, or shires, under Akershus len for an unknown period of time[44].

Akershus len (1586-1662) With the end of Hamar len, Stor-Elvdal was administered by Akershus len until the end of the len system. The start date for this division coincides with the last mention of Hamar len but since Østerdalen was a fogderier for some time before 1586, this boundary is not firm[44][45][46].

Amt

The len system was replaced with amt over the course of a few years that coincide with the period of autocracy beginning in 1660[46][47].

Akershus amt (1662-1687) The word amt first appears as a designation for an official district in 1662. In 1671, the first nationwide division of counties occurred where Norway was divided into four main amt with Stor-Elvdal being a part of Akershus amt. This division coincided with the bispedømme, or dioceses and were therefore also called stiftamt, or diocesan amt. All amt that Stor-Elvdal was a part of were administered by Akershus stiftamt[46][47].

Gudbrandsdalen og Hedemarkens amt (1687-1694) Gudbrandsdalen og (and) Hedemarkens amt was a short lived amt that was formed in 1687 when it was separated from Akershus amt. No successor was appointed amtmann, county governor, after the death of Ove Lange in 1694. The area was subsequently reabsorbed by Akershus amt[46][48].

Akershus amt (1694-1757) Stor-Elvdal was once again administered by Akersus amt until the separation of Oplandenes amt in 1757[46][49].

Oplandenes amt (1757-1781) Oplandenes amt had the same boundaries as the modern Innlandet fylke with the addition of Hadeland district. In 1781 Oplandenes amt was split in two to form Christians amt and Hedemarkens amt. These amt were also referred to as Vestre Oplandenes amt and Østre Oplandenes amt, respectively[46][50][51].

Hedemarkens amt (1781-1918) Hedmarkens amt lasted from 1781 until the end of the amt system in 1918[46][52].

Fylke

With the passage of Lov om forandring av rikets inddelingsnavn, Act on change of the kingdom's division name, on 14 Aug 1918, amt were known as fylke as of 1 Jan 1919[53][54].

Hedmark fylke (1919-2019) . Some fylke changed names entirely while some, like Hedemark(en) were modified slightly[53][54].

Innlandet fylke (2020-) Through regionreformen 2014–2018, the regional reform 2014–2018, Oppland fylke was merged with Hedmark fylke as of 1 Jan 2020. This process was performed in hope that the region could be better administered as a larger unit[46][55].

Fogderi

A forgerti is an administrative division initially under the len level and eventually under the amt level. A fogderi was run by a fogden who was responsible for tax collection[56].

Hedemarken og Østerdalen fogderi (1595-1634) 54 fogderi were created by a 1595 ordinance with Stor-Elvdal being a part of Hedemarken og Østerdalen fogderi[56].

Østerdalen fogderi (1634-1665) Hedemarken og Østerdalen fogderi was divided in 1634 into Hedemarken fogderi and Østerdalen fogderi with Stor-Elvdal in Østerdalen fogderi[57].

Solør, Østerdalen og Odalen fogderi (1665-1763) Østerdalen fogderi was no longer an independent fogderi in 1665 when it was merged with Solør fogderi to form the Solør, Østerdalen og Odalen fogderi[58].

Østerdalen fogderi (1763-1859) With the 1763 division of Solør, Østerdalen og Odalen fogderi into Østerdalen fogderi and Solør og Odalen fogderi, Østerdalen fogderi was once again independent until a subsequent division in 1859[58].

Søndre Østerdalen fogderi (1859-1901) The 1859 division created Nordre Østerdalen fogderi and Søndre Østerdalen fogderi with Stor-Elvdal in Søndre Østerdalen fogderi[58]. Fogderi were abolished on 21 Jul 1894 and were phased out over a period which lasted over 20 years[59]. Fogderiene in Hedemarkens amt were shut down on 23 Mar 1901[58].

Local Divisions

Tinglag

Fogderi were originally divided into tinglag, translated as 'property' or 'estates'. Tinglag as a fogderi subdivision largely corresponded to medieval skipreide, or shipowners[56]. Tinglag administered similar area to prestegjeldet[60].

Store-Elvedalen tinglag (-1837) Going by the naming patterns for other administrative units I would assume that at some point Stor-Elvdal was included with Aamot tinglag unless tinglag were more in line with sokn than prestegjeldet. Conjecture aside, Store-Elvedalen was its own tinglag in 1837[3].

Formannskapsdistrikt

Formannskapsdistrikt or Presidency Districts were a short-lived administrative unit that was brought about by Formannskapslovene, the Presidency Acts, that were passed on 14 Jan 1837 and went into effect 1 Jan 1838. The purpose was to create a definitive secular unit of administration[61].

Stor-Elvdal formannskapsdistrikt (1838-1853) At the time the Presidency Acts were passed Stor-Elvdal was an anneksokn under Aamot prestegjeld. Becoming its own formannskapsdistrikt in 1838 lead to Stor-Elvdal becoming its own prestegjeld in 1873[62].

Kommune

In 1853 Matrikkelloven became effective which largely replaced the term formannskapsdistrikt with kommune, or municipality[61].

Stor-Elvdal kommune (1853-) Stor-Elvdal kommune is a current administrative unit that shares a boundary with three sokn taken together, Sollia, Stor-Elvdal and Strand[1][63].

Conclusions

Of the many ecclesiastical and secular divisions discussed, some levels no longer exist, and others are not very informative. I suggest that farm/city/place, prestegjeld/formannskapsdistrikt/kommune, county, kingdom with date appropriate names and spellings be used for applicable profiles. This scheme forgoes sokn if a more specific location is known and limits the influence of ecclesiastical divisions to just prestegjeld. the inclusion of prestegjeld is justified in that it was the forerunner to the subsequent secular divisions[34].

Summary Table

This is a table of all the location name combinations for their given years in the format suggested in Conclusions. It is formatted to enable easy copying of a row.

Years Prestegjeld/Kommune, County, Kingdom
872-1400s Norge 
1400s-1536 Østerdalen, Norge 
1537-~1540 Hamar len, Danmark–Norge
~1540-1586 Aamot prestegjeld, Hamar len, Danmark–Norge
1586-1662 Aamot prestegjeld, Akershus len, Danmark–Norge
1662-1687 Aamot prestegjeld, Akershus amt, Danmark–Norge
1687-1694 Aamot prestegjeld, Gudbrandsdalen og Hedemarkens amt, Danmark–Norge
1694-1757 Aamot prestegjeld, Akershus amt, Danmark–Norge
1757-1781 Aamot prestegjeld, Oplandenes amt, Danmark–Norge
1781-1814 Aamot prestegjeld, Hedemarkens amt, Danmark–Norge
1814-1838 Aamot prestegjeld, Hedemarkens amt, Norge 
1838-1853 Stor-Elvdal formannskapsdistrikt, Hedemarkens amt, Norge 
1853-1918 Stor-Elvdal kommune, Hedemarkens amt, Norge 
1919-2019 Stor-Elvdal kommune, Hedmark fylke, Norge
2020- Stor-Elvdal kommune, Innlandet fylke, Norge 

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