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The Gnadenhutten Massacre

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Date: 8 Mar 1782 [unknown]
Location: Gnadenhutten, Ohiomap
This page has been accessed 386 times.


The following was posted by George C. Williston complete with sources:[1]

ASSOCIATORS AND MILITIA ? COUNTY OF WASHINGTON


A Return 1st and 2nd classes Cap'n Henry Graham's Company of the 4th Batt'n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st day of March, 1782 (c.)


1st Class

William Price Joseph Willson

John Marshal Abner Willson

Henry Cooper James How

Nicholas Smith John Cooper

Isaac Johnston


2nd Class

Thos. McKibbens Robert McCulloch

John Gardner Robert Marshal (Smith)

Daniel McCoy Samuel McKibbins

Daniel McGoogen Samuel Hindeman

Thos. Strain James McMillan


Given unto my hand this 8th day of March, 1782

HENRY GRAHAM, Capt.


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A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Robert Miller?s Company in the 4th Batt?n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day of March, 1782.

1st Class


John Odonel, Ensign Joseph Blair

Samuel Cahoe John Ralston

Mathew Ritchie Arthur Campbell

Stephen Vineyard Aaron Carter

James McCready Jno. Reed

Barney Carter


2nd Class


Edward Davis Nathaniel Cahoe

Thomas Peircifield William Wilson

Jno. Willson William Orr

David Gault David Long

William Black Joseph Holmes


Given under my hand this 8th day of March, 1782 ROBERT MILLER, Capt.


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A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Thomas Renkon?s Company in the 4th Batn. Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day March, 1782 (c)


1st Class


Hugh Patton Daniel McCloud

William Shearor Robert Hayes

William Sinclair Michael Dohertey, Senr.

William Martin


2nd Class


Daniel Currey Daniel Clark

William Hilbit William Hayes

John Roberts Robert McKnight

Jno. Cunning


Given under my hand the 9th Day of March, 1782 THOMAS RANKIN, Capt


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A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Charles Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt?n

Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day of March, 1782 (c.)



1st Class


Shadrack Stillwell, Serj?t. Adam Hickman

James Densmore Charles Reno

Frederick Lesnit Thos. Everet

Wm. Miller John Fosit

Francis Lesnit Miles Willson


2nd Class


Thos. Young, Serj?t. Geo. Thorp

Geo. Reno Tobias Mattocks

John Armstrong Robert Piatt

Thos. Coneyers William Turner

Abraham Slover Isaac Springer



Given Under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 CHARLES REED, Capt.


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A return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. David Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt. Washington

County Militia Ordered to Rendezouze the 1st March, 1782.


1st Class


James Reed Humphrey Aitchison

Christ?r Gaunce Brice McGeehon

Mathew Aitcheson Robt. Boatman

James Kerrlin


2nd Class


Thomas Chenney, Ensign John Coneyers

John Montgomery John Reed

Jams. McBride Jams. Martin

Saml. Scott William Stevenson

John Hudgel


Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 JOHN RENEAN (?) Leut.


+++++++++


A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. Wiliam Scott?s Company in the 4th Batt. Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezouze the 1st March, 1782.


1st Class


Wm. Scott, Capt. Wm. Gill

Henry Nelson, Serjt. Aaron Sackett

Thos. Shannon Jams. Hannah

Walter Hill Wm. Sparks

Valentine Sennet Wm. Hervey


2nd Class


John Carpenter, Leut. Michael Huff, Jun.

Richard Stevenson William Hanks

Edwd. Smith Junr. Morris West

Edwd. Davis William Harris

Charles Norris Charles Stewart

David Baily


Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 WILLIAM SCOTT, Cap?n.


+++++++++


Names added by James Simpson


An Editor of the 1912 edition of Joseph Doddridge?s ?Notes? mentioned above added in a footnote seventeen names which he had apparently collected. These names came from James Simpson who was a historian of the Cross Creek area. This attribution of James Simpson is on the attribution of Dr. Raymond Martin Bell- an authority on the names of Washington County people during the early period.[17] The names of the seventeen men appended to Doddridge are as follows: JOSEPH VANCE, JOHN McWILLIAMS, CHARLES CAMPBELL, ROBERT MARSHALL, THOMAS MARSHALL, THOMAS CHERRY, JAMES ROSS, MOSES PATTERSON, DAVID KERR, JOHN GRAHAM, SAMUEL MERCHANT, ROBERT WALLACE, JUDGE JAMES TAYLOR, SOLOMON VAILE, DAVID GAULT, SOLOMON URIE (died 1830), AND OBADIAH HOLMES JR. Half of these men were from the Cross Creek area. All were included in the Mohler-Bell list by the authors of that list.


THE M-B LIST WITH ADDITIONS; SETTLEMENT, LOCATION AND OTHER DATA;

To provide the answer to the question as to where these men lived search was made of surviving tax lists. A Tax list for Washington County for 1781 arranged by township was searched for every name.18 From the experience of using the index and searching the list it is clear that the index lists men on the wrong pages, and some men are on the list but not in the index. The index is not complete or accurate which means that after using the index one must also search the whole list. It is also clear that the same man may be listed in more than one place. This is clear in looking at the listings of Colonel Dorsey Pentecost as this man with such an unusual name is listed in several places where he owned land. That opens up the clear possibility for confusion if and when a man owned land in more than one township. The amount of land, number of animals and money valuation are listed for every man on the tax list; but only the extremes of ownership are reported here. Only men who had little or nothing, and those who had wealth are pointed out. Single men without anything or single men with land will be listed. One of these men had as many as 1500 acres in one place or township which was the upper end while some men had no land and little more than a horse.

While the massacre was done in 1782 there is no tax list for that year in the Court House at Washington, Pa or in publication. Louise Martin Mohler searched the published 1783 tax list, and put the data in the work she did.[18] That data will also be included as a second source of basic locational information.

A second kind of locational information is the place these men settled on land granted to them by the state of Virginia. The land grants tell in many instances where the land was settled. That information is gained from lists published by Dr. Raymond M. Bell of land grants from the State of Virginia for land in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1782.[19]

Pvt. Humphrey Aitchinson ? in 1783 in Cecil Township.


Pvt. Mathew Aitcheson ? Settled land in 1775 in Mt. Pleasant Township - in Hopewell Twp in 1783.


Pvt. John Armstrong ? in Cecil, Cumberland and Robinson Townships in 1781- so one or three men is unknown - in Cecil Township in 1783; a man of this name one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1782 asking for Congress to increase defense by the army [21]; CDAR- First PA Regt b May, 1750 and d 24 Jan, 1820, Washington, PA Cemetery [so may have been Continental soldier].; PMF- lists two men of this name- one buried at Washington , PA and the other at the Armstrong Cemetery at Cumberland, Greene County, PA; DAR3- lists a man of this name 1766-1844 from Butler Co., Pa buried at Center Chapel, Wells Twp, Jefferson Co., Ohio; CWCW- will 1820.


Pvt. David Baily ? not on these Washington County tax or land grant lists- may be Bailey or Bally as there were men of that name on these tax lists.

A pension application by David Bailey S16,616 under the law of 1832 from Washington County, Missouri says that he served 2 years with Capt. Taylor in Colonel Black?s Regiment of Virginia; and that in 1779 he enlisted for 3 years with Capt Isaac Taylor in Col. Montgomery?s regiment serving along the Ohio River from the falls to the mouth and back, and with George Rogers Clark against the Shawnee on the Big Miami- he says nothing about 1782. This man died 22 Oct, 1822 leaving no children ; and his widow was applying in 1849. This may well be the same man.[22]


Pvt. John Baird ? in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township, and in Strabane Township in 1783 the latter having land and a distillery; CDAR- killed at Fort Duquesne [?], buried at Washington, PA Sec E, lot 190 granite headstone born 25 Nov, 1758 no date of death., PMF.


William Baxter- land granted at Harmon or on Harmon Creek in 1775 and 1776 - not on the Washington County tax lists- PWM- buried at Cross Creek.

Pension application S6591 of 27 August, 1833 from Brooke Co., Virginia lists four periods of service: 1) 3 months in 1776 in the militia under Capt. Isaac Cox, Lt. David Steel served at Holidays Cove on the Ohio River near Harmons Creek now in Brooke Co., Va, 2) when discharged in Nov., 1776 enlisted for three years with Lt. Daniel Steel under Col. John Gibson of the 13th Va Line [at Fort Pitt] where he served 8 months as a Sgt. in Steel?s company, 3) in 1781 he volunteered about l month under Lieut. Col. Williamson for the expedition to the Delaware towns where they captured 10-12 indians; and 4) in March, 1781 served l month under Col. Williamson in the militia where ?declarant again volunteered on an expedition into the Indian Country, against the Indians, under the command of Col. David Williamson, a skirmish took place, and about ninety three Indians were killed. It was the practice on such expeditions for the militia, after they rendezvoused, to elect their officers, and declarant served as a volunteer Lieutenant in the expedition last mentioned.? For some reason he made another statement 31 Dec., 1833 in which he called this Second Williamson expedition a ?volunteer expedition.?. In the militia service he says ?no regular troops or officers present? [meaning no troops or offices of the Continental Army]- and, while claiming 12 months of service exclusive of the scouting parties he says that on the last two [militia] he furnished his own arms, ammunition, horse and provisions and never got any compensation nor any written documentary evidence. [23]


Pvt. Charles Bevington ? in Smith and Nottingham Townships in 1783- the latter being a single man only with horses. and no land.


Pvt. Charles Bilderback ? on the 1888 list only as a Private, but later may have later been a Captain in the militia-in Cecil Township in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists.- a man of this name also listed in Strabane in 1783 with only a horse-; EF-?This is the man who killed the Moravian named Joseph Shabosh. the story is told that seven years later he was captured by hostile Indians, who, on learning of his identity, put him to death with torture?.only a legend without proof?; the identification of this man as the man who fired the first shot wounding Shabosh and afterwards tomahawked and scalped him was also made by the local historian, Isaac Craig in 1881 if not earlier.[24]

Charles has been given terrible notoriety by Allen Eckert as the man who killed the first thirteen Moravians with a mallet with no proof that I can find..[25] This claim has recently been increased in a film aired on public television to claim that Charles Bilderback not only killed the first thirteen men with a mallet, but scalped them as well. That claim is as yet unproven even though the author has searched the index and roll 11 of the Lyman C. Draper papers. Randall Wilkins, the author of this charge, has not proven this contention on Charles Bilderback.[26] While holding no brief for anything but the truth and as egregious as is this event it seems important to have substantive evidence for charges made against individual men.

Charles Bilderback was well enough regarded to command a militia company as a Captain in the ?Crawford? campaign which followed in the summer of 1782. His fighting and leadership was apparently rewarded and appreciated by his peers.


Jacob Bilderback ? name added by Isaac Craig in an 1881 letter as being on this expedition, [27]? single, with nothing in 1783 in Strabane Township.


Pvt. William Black ?settled in Cecil township in 1774- in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Fife?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..

There are three pension applications by men of this name on microfilm. None of them seem possible for this man who had lived in Washington County.


Pvt. Joseph Blair ? not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert Boatman ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1781 asking for more defense for the region out of Fort Pitt [28].


Lewis Bonnet Senior ? from the Virginia Panhandle [now W.Va], was called Capt. or Major, born in Paoli, Md. 1736/7- died 1808, fought under Braddock in his defeat and in Dunmore?s War, settled on Wheeling Creek in 1769 or 1772 with the Wetzels, married a woman named --------Wagener. His son says: ?my father was in Williamson?s Moravian campaign, but he took no part in murdering?.[29] The careers of Sr. and Jr. are difficult to separate. One local historian says Lewis Bonnett (probably Jr.) was born in 1762, from Hardy Co., Va and was pensioned for service 1779-1783. It is a puzzle as to which one was on this expedition. [30]


Pvt. James Bradford ? only on the 1888 list- in Greene and Strabane Townships in the 1781 tax list and in Strabane in the 1783 list; PMF- buried at the Bradford Cemetery, Whiteley Township, Greene County, Pa., CWCW- wills 1801 and 1811 (two men ?).


Pvt. John Breckenridge ? only on the 1888 list- in 1783 in Peters Township- RBE of Youghagania Co.,Va sold 400 acres on ?Shirtees? [Chartiers] Creek 1 Nov, 1779..


Pvt. James Buchanan ? only on the 1888 list- Settled in 1774 at Wheeling Creek and West Finley Township- in Strabane Twp in 1781; EF- Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..


Stephen Burkham ? Burkham admitted in his own memoirs to being at the.[31] He didn?t say whether or not he killed any of the Moravians, but did name John McCulloch and claimed that William Welch killed seven of the Moravians with the tomahawk. Stephen of Ohio County, Virginia was born in 1762 in Berkeley Co, Va and settled in 1768 near Beeson?s Fort [near Uniontown, Pa], fought under General Lachlan McIntosh out of Fort Pitt. His name may have earlier been spelled Burcham.


Pvt. Thomas Byers ? only on the 1888 list- settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek- in Donegal Township in 1781 and in West Finley Township in 1783; EF- Pvt in Capt Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition, CWCW- will 1825..


Pvt. Nathaniel Cahoe (or Kahoe)- not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Samuel Cahoe ? not on these tax and land grant lists.; PMF- Samuel Kahoe (or Cohoe) CDAR- buried at Washington, PA.


Pvt. Arthur Campbell ? Settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 in Smith Twp. and in 1783 in Strabane Township, TLM 2:422 signed a petition with men around Well?s Fort warning General Irvine of the dangerous situation after the massacre- CDAR- ( Revolution and later Indian Fighter) b 1753- d 21 March, 1819, buried Cross Creek Cemetery- Claysville, PA, CWCW- will 1804.


Charles Campbell ?bought 200 acres from Pennsylvania in 1773 in Westmoreland Co.,[32] from the Simpson list- Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783 listed as single; EF- died 21 March 1819 and buried in the old cemetery in Cross Creek, CWCW- wills 1819 (2) and 1832...


Lt. John Carpenter ? settled in 1773 in Buffalo Creek area ?RBE of Ohio Co., Va. sold 400 acres on Doldering Run, a branch of Buffalo Creek in 1780; later moved his family across the Ohio River with other families and was illegally settled in 1782 in the area now Ohio - was captured by Indians on the way to Fort Pitt in Feb 1782, R. H. Richardson says that the Carpenters- John and Nancy- were living near James Maxwell, and John kept moving them West with other families, that in 1773 they were on Jacob?s Creek when John was 41 years old (b 1732) , before marrying John had rescued Nancy from having her head split by Indians , they were friends of the John McCullochs and the Tiltons and others who were on this raid and moved into Ohio country before it was legal [33]-TLM 2:422 after the raid a John Carpenter was among the signers of a petition to Gen. Irvine about their ?dangerous? situation - buried at Prairie Chapel Church near Coshocton, Ohio. A man of this name is listed in 1783 in Fallowfield Township with animals only and no land which makes one wonder whether there were two men by this name.


Pvt. Aaron Carter ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Barney Carter ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783.


Pvt. Joseph Casey ? in the M/B list but not to be found on the Archives lists ? settled in 1774 around Buffalo Creek- in 1783 in Donegal Township without land - will not be included in this study-later pensioned from Pa in Campbell Co, Ky in 1834 at age 71.


Ensign Thomas Chenney ? a Chenney/Chaney not on these tax or land lists.


Thomas Cherry from the Simpson list may be the man above-settled in 1774 on Raccoon Creek - is on the 1781tax list in Smith Twp.- and in 1783 was in Mount Pleasant Twp. DAR3 lists Thomas P. Cherry saying he was a ranger of the frontier in Pennsylvania dying in Va. in 1829 and buried in Walnut Twp, Fairfield Co., Ohio...


Edward Christy ? of the Buffalo Creek area and single, but not on the tax lists- said by EF to have been the principal exhorter against killing the Christian Moravians ?preaching? to the men against killing to the point that the more violent men were threatening him? EF says he was a student of Rev. John McMillan ?he is said to have been a Presbyterian Minister in later years- he was on this raid because the indians had allegedly just recently killed the young woman pledged to be his wife.

We were told in Washington, Pa that Edward Christy left memoirs about the massacre. An imaginary re-visit of Captain Sam Brady [alleged also by some to have been at the massacre and the idea refuted by others] was published years ago, but offers no proof that it is in fact anything but an imaginary conversation, and not a memoir.[34]


Pvt. Daniel Clark ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was in Captain Reed?s Co of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time.


James Cochran ? named by Paul W. Myers with unspecified authority ? not in these tax and land grant lists-PMA- buried in Allegheny County.

Pvt. John Coneyers ? settled in 1774 on Millers Run in Mt. Pleasant Township; RBE- estate accounts 1795 leaving minor children: John, Thomas, Sarah and Samuel.


Pvt. Thomas Coneyers ? not on these Washington County tax and land grant lists.

The pension application of Thomas Conyers Jr. S3200 of July, 1846 says that he served from 1776-1779 as a Private in the 8th Pennsylvania Regt, and was at the battle of Bonbrook [is that Boundbrook ?]. He left Pennsylvania in 1784 and made the application from Robertson Co., Tennessee. The film is very difficult to read.[35]


Pvt. Henry Cooper ? in Smith Township in 1783.


Pvt. John Cooper ? in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Smith Township in 1783; RBE- of Smith Twp. will made 1794.


Pvt. John Cotton ? on the 1888 list as a Captain which is not his Washington County militia rank- in Strabane Twp in 1783; DAR3-may be the man buried in Mahoning Co., Ohio- was an officer in the Connecticut line and had lived at Belpre, Ohio so possibly a former Continental officer who passed through Washington County.


Pvt. Frederick Crowe ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jno. Cunning ? as John Cunning on the 1781 tax list in Cecil Twp.- and in Smith Twp in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel Currey ? in Bethlehem Township in 1783.


Pvt. Edward Davis ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Richard Davis ?only on the 1888 list - in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township; DAR3- may be buried in Union Co., Oh where he died at age 96.


Pvt. James Densmore ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMF- buried in Buffalo, PA; PMA- as James Dinsmore 1742-1817 in the Bedford Co. militia (preceded Westmoreland/Washington Co.), born in Ireland and first settled in Fayette Twp., of Allegheny Co [36], granted land on Millers Run which became in 1788 part of Allegheny County. and later in 1795 got land in Canton Twp., of Washington County, CWCW- wills 1817 and 1831..


Pvt. Michael Doherty Sr. ? in Cumberland Township in 1781 and Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. Wm. Donehey ? as Wm. Donehee in Cecil Township in 1781.


Pvt. John Edie ? only on the 1788 list- as John Eddy in Amwell township in 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Jesse Edginton ? in Strabane Township in 1783; EF- Pvt. in Capt. Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Thomas Everet ? Sgt. Thomas Everett was discharged from Capt. Benjamin Biggs Co. of Col. Gibson?s Regiment at Fort Pitt on 1 Nov, 1780 probably after three years arduous service guarding the frontier against the Indians. [37] Listed as Everight in Cecil Township in 1783 with a horse and no land.


Pvt. Alex Fegan ? as Alex Feggan in Cecil Township in 1783- RBE Alex Feagon bought 400 acres on Mill Creek in 1784.


Pvt. John Fosit - - also spelled Fawcet/ Fosset- settled in 1772 in Cecil Township as John Faucet- and was in Cecil Township in 1783- an early Methodist according to M/B.


Lieut. Hugh Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Somerset Twp in 1783; EF says he was a Lieutenant in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition.; CDAR- buried at Grove United Presbyterian Church in West Middleton, PA on Rte 18.; PMF says buried at Buffalo, PA, CWCW- will 1821 and 1837 (two men?).

A barely readable pension application made at Pittsburgh in 1832 #S2215 says that he served from 1776 for 3 years as a private [in a Continental line] and was at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga, [in the Northern Army] and also in Crawford?s campaign- but it doesn?t mention this expedition.[38]


Pvt. William Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Strabane, Canton and Robinson Townships in 1783. How many men of this name is unknown.

A barely readable pension application S5410 says he served with Capt. Samuel Brady along the Allegheny River and one tour to the Munsey towns so he had apparently served with a Continental line.[39]


Pvt. John Gardner ? in Smith Township in 1783; buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson [40]- he died 10 Sept, 1821 at 64 years, married Elizabeth Clark who died 1 Oct, 1853 at age 95 years, CWCW- will made 1821..


David Gault - from the Simpson list ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and in 1783- in the latter tanyard is next to his name which may mean he ran or owned a tanyard, but was a single man without land- so was probably a tenant; EF says he was from Cross Creek Twp.


Pvt. Christopher Gaunce ? Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. William G.Gill ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- said to have been in the Northumberland Co. Militia, b 1747- d 12 June, 1802 and buried at Mt. Hope Cemetery near West Middleton, PA, CWCW- will 1802. .


Capt. Henry Graham ? settled in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in Hopewell Township in 1783-TLM 2:422 signed a petition from the area of Wells Blockhouse just after the massacre apprising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation,- PMF- buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson Henry Graham died 31 Jan, 1827 at 87 years and his wife, Mary, died 29 Nov 1814 age 70 [41]; was an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1792 till his death and a Justice of the Peace of Washington County..


John Graham - from the Simpson list- Cross Creek Twp in 1783; verified by EF, CWCW-will made 1830 and 1831.


Pvt. Wm. Hanks ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jams Hanna ? as James in Strabane Twp in 1783.


Pvt. William Harris ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Private in the frontier rangers of Westmoreland County so may have been from east of the rivers at the time.


Pvt. Robert Hays ? as Robert Hayes in Cecil and Peters Townships in 1781 and in Cecil Township in 1783. Buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hays ? three such listed in 1781 being in Cecil, Donegal and Morgan Townships - the one in Donegal having no land? and in 1783 only in Cecil Township; RBE- Wm. Hayes will 1795, and CWCW has a will in 1835. .


Pvt. Robert Henry ? only on the 1888 list- both in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township; EF-an early settler of that section of old Strabane now known as North Strabane Twp; WJC- an 1787 land grant., CWCW- will in 1829.

Apparently not the pension applicant S1830 although with an extensive military career and a pension application made from Washington County, Penn when he was 77 years old in 1832. The applicant enlisted from Lancaster Co, Pa and says that in 1778 he moved to Augusta Co, Va and was drafted into the Virginia line. In the fall of 1781 he was in Augusta Co, Va and when drafted went to fight in eastern Virginia at Jamestown and Williamsburg. The massacre expedition could have been worked in, but he does not mention it.[42]


Pvt. William Hervey ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- a William Harvey is buried in Montour Cemetery near Montour, PA, Rte 22; 1758- 1838, CWCW lists a will of 1816.


Pvt. Adam Hickman ? in Cecil Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hilbit ? not in these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Pvt. in Rueben Kemp?s Co of Westmoreland Co. militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time..


Pvt. Walter Hill ? in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township- TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation.


Pvt. Samuel Hindeman ? In Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- probably the Sam Hineman who bought 60 acres on Cross Creek in 1783; the local historian, Isaac Craig, says in a letter to another local historian, Boyd Crumrine,[43]-? a man named Hindman was said by General Richard Butler to be one of the worst;?. this being the only man of that name on the list we have to assume he was talking of Samuel Hindeman/Hindman.- but what does ?one of the worst?; mean ?that he killed the most or was one of the most vicious? General Richard Butler was a well respected Continental officer who as a Colonel was at Fort Pitt near the time of this expedition, and became Indian Agent immediately thereafter so he would have had reason to have been paying attention.


Pvt. Joseph Holmes ? in Smith Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny Co.


Obadiah Holmes Jr. from the Simpson list- in 1781 was listed in Cecil Twp with no land - he admitted in old age that he had been on the raid and claimed to be among the non-killers.[44] It is said that he rescued an Indian boy on this expedition, and brought him home to live for a few years. O.H. died in 1839 at the age of 96 and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt Daniel Leet?s Co on Crawford?s Expedition in the summer of 1782, died in Pittsburgh in June, 1834 aged seventy-four; buried at Woodville, Pa (two dates of death reported for the same man ?)..


Pvt. David Hopkins ? only on the 1888 list ? in 1781 was single with land in Nottingham Township; and was in Nottingham Township in 1783.


Pvt. David Hosack ? only on the 1888 list- in 1782 was living in Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va).


Pvt. James How ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; DAR3- may be the James Howe d 1808 bur at Fairfield, Warren Co., OH..


Pvt. John Hudgel ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Michael Huff Jr. ? in Hopewell Twp with no land in 1781 and in Hopewell Twp. in 1783.


Pvt. James Huston- only on the 1888 list; single with land in 1781 in Strabane Twp.; EF- son of William Huston, the first white settler in Catfish Camp (now Washington, Pa.) and in Capt. Daniel Leet?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. William Irwin ?only on the 1788 list - in Strabane Twp in 1781 and in Canton and Strabane Towship in 1783 ? the latter being listed as Irvin; EF-a settler in Canton Township; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW- has a will of 1822.


Pvt. Eleaser Jenkins ? on the 1888 list only- in Bethlehem Township in 1783; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW lists a will of 1822.


Pvt. Isaac Johnston ? in 1781 in Morgan Township.

The pension applications of 1818/1820 of Isaac Johnston S36642 of Bullitt Co, Kentucky is likely to be the man. He claimed to have served three years under Colonel John Gibson. He said that he had served in Capt. Springer?s Co. of the 7th Va Regt stationed at Fort Pitt. He also made reference to Pittsburgh 1779 and the company of Capt. Samuel Brady with scouting parties against the Indians to the close of the war. He was 72 years old in 1820 with a daughter of unknown age and a son born 12 Oct., 1799.[45]


Pvt. Dennis Jones ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


David Kerr ? from the Simpson list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says probably from Cross Creek Township.


Pvt. James Kerrlin ? or Curlin ? not listed either way on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Ledlie ? from the 1888 list- Wm. Ladley settled in 1774 in Wheeling Township; RBE- may be the Wm. Ladler who bought land on Middle Wheeling Creek in 1778; CDAR? a Wm. Leadlie b 1747 and d 5 Jan, 1835 is buried in the Paris Cemetery- Rte 22, Washington County, Penn.


Pvt. Daniel Leet ? from the 1888 list only- settled land in Franklin and Chartiers Creek in 1773 and at Catfish Camp [now Washington, Pa] in 1776- is said to have been a Revolutionary officer (other than militia) ? was a Sub- Lieutenant of Washington County appointed 2 April, 1781 but resigned that office on 30 March, 1782 - is listed in Cecil Township in 1783; RBE sold 120 acres on ?Shirtee? Creek [Chartiers] in 1784;? taxed in Pitt Township of Allegheny County in 1791 ?is buried in Allegheny County. As sub-lieutenant would have been along with Matthew Ritchie the second highest ranking Washington County militia officer on the expedition going as a private when he had the militia rank of Major;

EF says? a surveyor by profession; settled near Catfish Camp in 1776 after which he served in the Continental Line, and with General McIntosh at Fort Laurens in 1778; Deputy Surveyor General in Yohogania, now Washington County; surveyed in this county in 1780 under Virginia certificates; Brigade Major in Crawford?s Expedition; commanded a division after Colonel Burton was wounded; died 18 June, 1830, at the home of a daughter at Sewickly Bottom;? PMA- says that Daniel Leet was a friend of General Washington and a Major in the Continental Army where he had a distinguished career. It is fully possible that this Daniel Leet was a surveyor for the Ohio Company of Virginia hoping to ensure land for top men of Virginia including George Washington and George Mason.[46]

Could this be the same man who is credited with this career as an officer in the Revolution: ?acted as quartermaster from 1 Jan,1777 to 1 Oct, 1777 and as paymaster from this latter date to 21 Sept, 1778, then as Brigade-Major for three months, to 21 Dec, 1778. He received 5333 1/2 acres of land from the State of Virginia (as bounty).?[47]

Forrest says in the material quoted above that he was from Bordentown, New Jersey and had married Wilhelmina Carson. This seems to conflict with information from Louise M. Mohler which says that the Leets were from Berkley Co, Va.

A remark from an 1881 letter from the local historian, Isaac Craig to historian Boyd Crumrine, [48] has to be passed along although not otherwise corroborated ?I have heard that Daniel Leet was the man who first used the mallet.? If this means that the man with the second highest political and military position on the raid going as a Private began the killing with a cooper?s mallet as this alleges he set a very bad example for most of the men who had less prestige. Is this the unnamed man who actually killed 13 people before he quit as reported in Washington County histories?

If Daniel Leet committed that disgraceful first murdering it is no wonder that he later resigned his position as a Sub-Lieutenant of Washington County. It is also no wonder that the murders were done or that the story of the massacre was covered up from the public. Daniel Leet and the other influential men on this expedition who were politically and militarily powerful whom other men would either have followed or by whom they would be intimidated.


Pvt. Francis Lesnit - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783 ? Buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Frederick Lesnit - listed in Cecil Township in 1781 as single with nothing ? and in Cecil in 1783.


Pvt. John Little ? from the 1888 list only? not on these tax and land grant lists; bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co from Pennsylvania in 1776,[49] PMA-a former Private in the Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Continental Line under General Anthony Wayne; according to Crumrine [50] s/o James, family from Ireland worked a farm and spent the winter at McDonald?s blockhouse [near present town of McDonald], RBE- John Little of Youghania Co., Va sold land on Harmons Run in 1780; John was an elder of the Mt. Pleasant Church, and had land in Strabane or South Strabane Twp.


Pvt. David Long ? on the 1781 tax list in Greene, Robinson and Strabane Townships. In Robinson and Strabane without land so location is indeterminate; RBE- David Long of Washington Co., Pa in 1783 sold 200 acres on ?Shirtee? Creek [Chartiers] and sold land and a house in Washington County in 1784.


Pvt. John Marshal ? settled land in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in the 1781 tax list there was a John Marshall in Hopewell Township; this man is alleged to be the brother of the County Lieutenant, James Marshel. There is puzzling spelling with this name which makes certainty difficult; RBE- sold 202 acres in Washington County in 1784; CDAR- a John Marshall who d 1832 is buried in Montour Cemetery at Montour, PA.

John Marshall pensioned in 1818 age 69 years old pension number S41797 living in Washington County. Pa. He said that he served in 1776 for 2 months in the 2nd PA B?n, and late in 1776 he served in the 13th PA Regt and was wounded at Brandywine, and was later discharged to care for his brother?s big family Nov-.Dec., 1778.[51] There was no mention of militia service or the Massacre- if this man was on it.


Pvt. Robert Marshal ? the Return says Smith in parentheses which may mean Smith Township- in the 1781 tax list there is a man with this spelling in Amwell Township with nothing- in 1783 in Peters Township; a reputable local historian says that Robert Marshel was a brother of the County Lieutenant [in that case he was probably born in Ireland as was his brother] and was on this raid. but expressed his regret all his life, -RBE- bought 100 acres on the middle fork of Cross Creek in 1784; was an elder in the Buffalo Church. [52] .


Robert Marshall- from the Simpson list with two lls- in 1783 in Cross Creek and Hopewell Townships. Crumrine [53] lists a Robert Marshel from Buffalo as on the raid but this is a puzzler- he is listed in 1783 in Hopewell Township with no land and only a horse; a man of this spelling is buried at Cross Creek (white, 1972) died 26 Nov, 1832 in his 74th year, and his stone apparently says he was one of the 18 men under Colonel Williamson who formed a second line in favor of saving the Moravian Indians from massacre at Gnadenhutten.?. THIS COULD BE THE SAME MAN LISTED ABOVE . It is a puzzle whether there were two men of this name on the expedition, CWCW one of these men made a will in 1832.


Pvt. Thomas Marshall ? from the 1888 list- Hopewell Township in 1783.


Thomas Marshel ? from the Simpson list ? EF- says ?County Lieutenant of Washington County; an early settler in Cross Creek Township, and proprietor of Marshel?s Fort; an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1792 till dismissed in 1827 when he moved to Ohio where he died in 1839 aged ninety-six years..? [54]

There was a Thomas Marsheal in 1781 in Hopewell Township. All three spellings may be the same man. People of this name had different ways of spelling their family name.


Pvt. Jams Martin ? a James Martin settled land in Hopewell and Buffalo in 1774 and on Millers Run in 1775. listed in both Cecil and Hopewell Townships in 1781 so could be one or two men - in Hopewell Twp in 1783, CWCW- wills 1814 and 1827.


Pvt. William Martin ? in 1781 listed in Peters and Smith township ? the one in Peters being single and having no land so two men and in Hopewell Twp in 1783.

Pension application S5736 of Booths Creek, Hampshire Co, Va. at the time of the application in 1832. The applicant served in the Ft. Pitt Company of Captain B. Biggs, Colonel Gibson?s Virginia Regiment till the end of the war- 4 ½ years. After being discharged he may have gone on this expedition. Should this be the same man he would have been on active duty while going on this militia expedition. The pension application says on the way home [from the Fort Pitt area] he was fired upon by Indians and shot in both thighs, both legs and one arm were broken- several bones and causing amputation of one leg, he moved in 1791 to Hampshire Co., Va where he died 3 July, 1846. He was born 30 Nov, 1762 at Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia the son of George. His middle name may have been Judson. [55]


Pvt. John Masterson - Somerset Township in 1783.

John Masterson was pensioned in 1832 at 73 years old number S16460 living then in Nelson Co., Kentucky. He says that he was drafted in 1777 or 1778 for 6 months as a Pvt. out of Washington County, Pa into Colonel Crawford?s Regiment, Pennsylvania Line. He was born 1752 in Fairfax County, Va. and had lived on Pigeon Creek in Washington County, PA.[56] There was no mention of being on the Massacre expedition.


Pvt. William Masterson ? in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township.


Pvt. Zachariah Masterson ? only on the 1888 list - on the 1783 list in Somerset Township with horses and no land.


Pvt. Tobias Mattocks ? settled land in 1775 on Raccoon Creek - taxed in 1783 in Robinson Township and in Moon Township of Allegheny Co in 1791 as Tobias Mattox (which could be the same place).


Pvt. Jams McBride ? as James settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1775- in 1781 taxed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships but had no animals in Robinson - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783; charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township.[57]-, CWCW- lists a will in 1827.


Pvt. Thomas McClain ? from the 1888 list- not in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists but well to do- in Pitt Township of Allegheny Co in 1791.


Pvt. William McClain ? from the 1888 list ? taxed in Strabane Township in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel McCloud ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert McComb ? from the 1888 list ? in Somerset Township in 1781 - in Cross Creek Township in 1783; EF- ? a soldier of the Revolution (Continental line ?) , settled in Cross Creek Township where he died in 1827.?


Pvt. Joseph McConnell ?from the 1888 list - buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Daniel McCoy ? in 1781 there were two in Cecil and one in Smith Townships so location is indeterminate.

Jane, widow of Daniel McCoy of West Finley Township of Washington County made application W965. He had served, she claimed, in the 8th Pennsylvania line which would have been at Fort Pitt.. Seven children were listed.[58]


Pvt. James McCready ? in Robinson Township in 1781


John McCulloch ? named by Stephen Burkham as being there as a Private when he was at other times an officer in the Militia ? a well known frontiersman living in Ohio Co, Va or West of the Ohio River illegally at the time, he attended the major conference with General Irvine at the fort after Irvine?s return as a representative from Ohio County [59]- his dates 1770-1821 married Mary Bukey 1757-1846; Mary Bukey MCCulloch d/o Jemima Dunn and John Bukey (her sister married Rev. John Doddridge). John McCulloch was later a civil magistrate in Ohio County, Va living near Short Creek.


Pvt. Joseph McCullogh ? from the 1888 list - buried in Allegheny County. the name has a variety of spellings in this area.


Pvt. Robert McCullogh ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Brice McGeehon ? in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; a Brice McGeechen was charged by General Washington in 1784 with squatting on Washington?s land;[60] WJC- 1785 land grantee half interest as executor of John Milligan..


Pvt. Daniel McGoogen ? in Hopewell Township in 1783 as McGugan ; RBE- estate accounts 1791 as McGoogin leaving wife, Ann..


Pvt. Samuel McKibbins as McKibbin in Hopewell Township in 1783 without land, RBE- bought 300 acres on Mon (Montours?) Run in 1780 and sold land on Mon (Montours?) Run at the narrows in 1784; Simpson [61] reports that this man was buried at Cross Creek 27 Sept, 1836 in his 77th year, and was an old Indian fighter and veteran of the Indian Wars and an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1807 till his death 27 Sept,1836, and his wife, Mary, having died 26 June, 1833 in her 75th year is also buried at Cross Creek .


Pvt. Thomas McKibbins ? in Hopewell Township in 1783 according to Crumrine 728 lived next to Colonel James Marshel, .


Pvt. Robert McKnight ?single in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. James McMillan ? a man named McMullan settled in 1775 in Pike Township ? a Private James McMullan was discharged at Fort Pitt 13 Nov, 1780 at Fort Pitt from Capt. Biggs Co of Col. Gibsons Va Regiment probably after three years arduous service against the Indians,[62] was a brother of the Reverend Jamaes McMillan of Chartiers Creek; CDAR- buried in Washington County..


John McWilliams from the Simpson list ? settled land in 1775 around Buffalo Creek ? in 1781 in Donegal Township; EF says he was a general in the militia of Washington County, but I find no evidence that there was a rank higher than Colonel in the militia, CWCW- lists a will in 1837.


Samuel Merchant ? from the Simpson list ? settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1774 - in 1781 in Donegal Township; EF- settled in Hanover Twp in 1778, but driven away by Indians; returned in 1779 and remained until his death presumably then in Washington County..

Jacob Miller Jr. - admitted later in life to being on this raid ? of Swiss ethnicity- born in 1762 at Hagerstown, Md. and died in August, 1830 at age 67/11/24, married Anne Mary Leffler, was a noted Indian fighter- settled land in 1771 on the Dutch Fork area of Wheeling Creek in Donegal Twp with other families of germanic origin where he is listed in the 1781 tax list;[63] ?Jacob Miller saw the folly of the attack [on the Moravian Indians] and refused to be a party to it and stood aside;? this role for Jacob Miller as a non-participant is verified by Captain Henry Jolly ?a man of that time and place- says ?when it was decided the Moravians must die, Miller and a few others tried to get out of hearing, but [JMJ is quoted as saying] ? the death screams out went us?;[64] RBE- estate accounts of the Senior J.M. 1786 is puzzling with J. JR. of age and the minor children (Jacob, John, Polly, Adam, Catherine, Frederick, Piler, Henry) and a widow, Mary; the Sr. was allegedly killed and scalped by Indians in 1808 so this is a bit of a puzzler.


Capt. Robert Miller ? settled land in 1772 on Chartiers Creek which was in Cecil township in 1781 and 1783.

It may not be the same man, but Robert Miller made a pension application from Augusta Co., Va claiming that he had been an indian spy on several occasions and a First Sgt. of Virginia troops under Captains Robert McCrory, John McCrory, Thomas Hughart and David Gwinn. He served three months in 1780 and three months in 1781 while in Kentucky.

Pvt. William Miller - men of this name in both Bethlehem and Peters Townships in 1781 both having a little land so inconclusive ? only in Hopewell Twp in 1783, CWCW- lists a will in 1802.


Pvt. John Montgomery ? was listed as single with nothing in 1781 in Peters Township; RBE- John Montgomery of Youghania Co., Va sold 400 acres on Kings Creek ( probably Washington County) in 1780.


Pvt. Thomas Montgomery ? in Strabane Township in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783 ? an elder in the Presbyterian Church who died in New Athens, Ohio.


Pvt. John Munn Jr. ? two men of this name in Nottingham Twp. in 1781 one single ? and in Nottingham Twp in 1783 , one of these men may have been a Captain in the Westmoreland and Washington County Militia on other expeditions, CWCW- will listed for 1802.


Sgt. Henry Nelson ? settled land in 1773 in Independence and Buffalo Creek - in Hopewell Twp 1783 TLM 2:421 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation for the settlers.


Pvt.. Charles Norris ? living illegally west of the Ohio River in 1782.[65]


Ensign John Odonel - there were John O?Donalds in 1781 in both Amwell and Cecil Townships ? the one in Amwell being single ? he was listed in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. Thomas Orr ? settled 400 acres of land in 1775 in Middle Wheeling Twp, Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va.); this from Alice Walker, a descendent,[66] ? tradition says he was born about 1749 in Adams Co., Pa, married Margaret Creighton (d/o John and Anne Creighton) in 1789 at Col. David Williamson?s Fort, was on the ?Crawford? expedition as well and may have been a Continental soldier (see DAR), and died 31 Oct, 1835; ? Thomas told his descendents that he was on this expedition, but did not participate in the killing of the Moravian Indians.


Pvt. William Orr ?Private Wm. Orr was discharged at Fort Pitt 2 Nov, 1780 from the Company of Capt. Biggs, Col. Gibson?s Va. Regiment probably after serving three tough years against the Indians,[67] is listed in 1783 in Cecil Township, a man of this name had land next Thomas Orr above in Ohio Co., Va bought in 1793 and sold in 1796 (according to Alice Walker above who has tried unsuccessfully to establish a relationship between these two Orrs).


Pvt. Andrew Pass ? only on the 1888 list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMW- says that he was in Capt. Munn?s Co. of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time and followed Captain Munn as a loyal soldier.


Moses Patterson ? from the Simpson list - not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Hugh Patton ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; RBE- bought 150 acres on the west branch of Chartiers Creek in 1783.


Pvt. Thomas Peircifield- not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert Piatt ? was at that time living in Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va.).


Pvt. John Pollock ? on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1772 on Crooked Run ? in Hopewell Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; RBE- Thomas and John Pollock sold 188 acres on Cross Creek in 1783 to William Pollock; EF says probably from that section of old Strabane Township which is now North Strabane Twp; WJC- 1785 land grant., CWCW- will listed of 1833..


Pvt. William Price ? settled land in Chartiers Creek area in 1774 ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- of Washington County, Pa., sold 900 acres in Washington County in 1783; DAR3- may be the man b 1744 living in 1840 buried at Barnes Cemetery, Seal Twp., Pike Co., Ohio.


Pvt. William Quigley ? only on the 1888 list ? in Nottingham Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. John Ralston ? in 1781 listed in Cecil Township as single with nothing, CWCW- will listed for 1816 and 1828.


Capt. Thomas Rankin ? on the 1888 list as Sgt. ? settled land in 1774 on Raccoon Creek- two are listed in 1781 in Cecil and Nottingham Townships the one in Cecil having no land ? making this indeterminate- listed in Cecil Twp 1783 as Capt.- a big land owner, there is a single man of this name with nothing much in Nottingham in 1783- one of the most affluent men on this expedition; EF identifies most of this and says he was a Captain in Crawford?s Expedition ?a Thomas died in Cadiz, Ohio; RBE- there was also a man of this name of Smith Twp. who made a will in 1793; DAR3- may be the man born 1760 and buried in Rankin Cemetery, Moorefield Twp., Harrison Co., OH.


Pvt. William Rankin ? only on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1770 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 two are listed one being single with nothing in Nottingham Township and the other with 1300 acres and (comparatively land wealthy) in Smith township- one is listed in 1783 in Mt. Pleasant Township and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an early settler in Mount Pleasant Township; DAR3- to make the burial puzzling a man of this name b 1748 in Winchester, Va is buried in Paint Twp., Fayette Co, Oh who was ? a scout on Frontier Pa and Va?. see family history there, CWCW- will listed for 1793.


Capt. Charles Reed ? settled land in 1773 on Miller?s Run ? not listed in either tax list.


Capt. David Reed ? in Cecil township in both 1781 and 1783; RBE- bought 318 acres on Millers Run (Cecil Township) in 1782; charged by General George Washington in 1784 for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township,[68] CWCW- will listed for 1824.


Pvt. James Reed ? two are listed in 1781 in Cecil Township one having only a horse ?both are listed in Cecil Township in 1783 and there is one in Fallowfield Township, CWCW- wills listed for 1817 and 1831.

James Reed from Washington County, Pa was pensioned as destitute under the law of 1818 number S40324 when he was 68 years old. He said that he was a Private in Colonel St. Clairs Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line serving from Jan, 1776 to April, 1777. In that service was in the Battle of the Thames, at Crown Point, Ticonderoga and Philadelphia. He further says that he served ?two terms of duty in the militia against the indians on the Susquehanna,? but makes no reference to the Massacre.[69]


Pvt. John Reed ?RBE- John Reed of Youghagania Co., Pa sold 400 acres on the North branch of Cross Creek in 1779, also bought 98 acres on Bushey Run in 1781, and bought 400 acres on Millers Run [drains into Chartiers Creek] in 1780; there are five listed in various townships in 1781 and six in 1783 making this indeterminate; John Reed Esq. taxed in 1783 in Cecil Twp., a John Reed Esquire charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil township;[70] WJC- a 1785 land grant and one for J.R. Jr. 1786, CWCW- wills listed for 1814 and 1817.


Lt.John Renean ? signed for Captain Reed ? a completely unlisted name.


Pvt. Charles Reno ? in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. George Reno ? may be George Runo of Cecil Twp 1783..


Pvt. John Riddel ? as Riddle in both Amwell Township with land and Fallowfield Township without land in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783, EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition; buried in Allegheny County, CWCW- will listed 1818 for John Riddle.


Pvt. Samuel Riddel ? or Riddle in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the Crawford Expedition; DAR3- may be the man 1759-1825 buried in Mahoning Co., Oh who was a ?Pvt in Rangers of Washington and Westmoreland Co.?


Pvt. Matthew Ritchie ? settled land in 1772 in Chartiers/Cecil Township; and Harmon; and in 1774 in Tomlinson.- in 1781 Matthew Richey Esquire living in Cecil Township with 1000 acres, was appointed 24 Dec, 1781 a Sub-lieutenant of Washington County so with Daniel Leet was the second highest ranking militia officer in this army listed as going as a private when he was in fact of higher rank, and one of the richer men on this expedition, Matthew Ritchie is listed on the rosters above as being a private in the 1st Class (or squad) of Captain Miller?s Company so he is a prime example of that phenomenon. CWCW- will listed for 1798.


Pvt. John Roberts - in 1781 in Greene Township with a horse and no land.; RBE- sold 444 acres on Roberts Home Plantation in 1780 ( township or place not identified by RBE); CWCW- will listed in 1821.


Pvt. James Roney ? a surveyor who settled land in 1774 on Buffalo and Wheeling Creeks - in 1781 in Smith Township ? in 1783 in Donegal Township; EF says ?an early settler in West Finley Township and a brother of Hercules Roney, the proprietor of Roney?s blockhouse [now Finley Twp], both were chainmen for Colonel William Crawford when he surveyed land grants under the old Virginia Certificates."; CDAR- buried in Washington County; RBE- will 1791 and estate accounts 1792 leaving a son , Hercules.


James Ross ? from the Simpson List ? in 1781 listed in Smith and Strabane Townships the latter being without land ? as an educated young man he was teaching for Reverend James McMillan at the time of this raid [71]?- however, due to the two listings in 1781 this is indeterminate as to township of residence; EF says ?also a private in Captain McGihan?s Company on Crawford?s Expedition, taught school in McMillan?s log Academy near Canonsburg, admitted to the bar in 1784, member of the Constitutional Convention of 1790; one of the three commissioners appointed by Federal government to meet the Whisky Insurrection leaders in 1794, United States Senator, died 27 Nov, 1847 aged eighty-five years,? That is an important identification by a local historian if there were two men by this name in 1781; RBE- says J.R. of Cecil estate accounts 1786 leaving son, James- may be the father of the more well known younger man; Kohn says that James Ross in 1794 was a ?trusted confidant of President Washington.?[72] .

There is a bit of a puzzle here as a man of this name is buried in Mahoning Co, Oh, who in DAR3 says he served in Washington Co., Pa, was age 77 in 1833.

A James Ross says in his pension application that in April of 1782 having served in the Western part of Pa, ?I was drafted under Capt. Wm. Scott and marched to a place called Mingo Bottom on the Ohio River below Beemor, we were stationed here to protect the persons and property of a number of our countrymen from the plunder and depredations of the Indians?, served 1 month and then volunteered with 400 others to go to Sandusky on the Crawford cmpg. He didn?t mention this expedition in March.

Pvt. Aaron Sackett ? not in these Washington County tax and land grant lists- TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for the settlers,- in 1783 was single in Manallen Township, Westmoreland County; PMW- was an Ensign in the Westmoreland County militia.


Pvt. Samuel Scott ? in 1781 listed as single with no land in Cecil Township and with land in Nottingham so identification is inconclusive; RBE estate accounts 1794 leaving a wife, Elizabeth, and minor children, John and Jean and RBE lists a sale of land in Washington County on Mingo Creek in 1784 by Samuel Scott of Rostrover Township of Westmoreland County.


Capt. William Scott ? in 1781 is listed in both Hopewell and Nottingham Townships so is inconclusive, CWCW- will listed in 1829 and 1836.


Pvt. Valentine Sennet - not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Thomas Shannon ? settled land in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Cross Creek/Independence - in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township, TLM 2-422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there- CWCW- will listed for 1814.


Capt. Samuel Shearer ? from the 1888 list only as Captain with a question mark as if the editors were not sure ?there is no proof of that rank or his presence in the area- not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Shearor ?as Wm Shearer is in 1781 in Hopewell Township and 1783; PMF- says buried at Cross Creek.


Pvt. William Sinclair in 1781 in Cecil Township and in 1783 in Donegal Township; RBE- bought 294 acres on the West fork of ?Shirtee? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and W.S. Jr. bought land at the same place and year; CWCW- will listed for 1820.


Dave Slaughter ? named in Forrest?s Washington County History [EF] with an important and courageous volunteer role in swimming the cold river to bring over a sugar trough so the men could send over their clothes dry after swimming the cold Muskingum River, not on these tax and land lists.


Pvt. Abraham Slover in 1773 he was in Pitt Township, Bedford County which was around Ft. Pitt, in Feb, 1775 he was on a committee to lay out a road from Ft. Dunmore to Raccoon Creek,[73] he is not in either the tax or the land grant lists- was the brother of John Slover who was one of Crawford?s guides in the ill-fated summer of 1782 expedition ? from around New River, Virginia where their family was massacred before this by Indians.[74]


Pvt. Edward Smith Jr. since the Jr. was used in the return would suggest that his father was in the neighborhood - an Edward Smith settled in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Independence - an Edward Smith was taxed in Rosstraver Twp of Bedford County in 1773 and in Pitt Twp of Allegheny County in 1791.- but not on the lists being used here; RBE- estate accounts 1790 leaving son, Isaac.


Pvt. Nicholas Smith - in 1783 in Hopewell Township; PMF- says N.S. SR. buried in South Strabane.


Pvt. William Sparks ? settled land in 1773 in Buffalo and Independence ? three listings in 1781- two in Hopewell and one in Fallowfield Townships- and in 1783 in Strabane Township.


Pvt. Isaac Springer ? not on these tax or land grant lists, PMW- was in Capt. Joseph Cisna?s Co. of Westmoreland militia- so may have been from East of the rivers.


Pvt. James Steel ? from the 1888 list only ? in 1781 list in both Cumberland and Strabane Townships neither having land so location of his home is indeterminate- and in Strabane Township in 1783.

The pension application of a James Steel #S4882 made 7 June, 1832 where he was living in Hocking Co., Ohio. He was born 80 years previous in Ireland. Served in 1776 for 5 months as a private under Capt. William Steel, Col. Cunningham and General Hand; and 2 months in 1776 under Capt. Marshall and Col. Miles. and in 1779 had gone to Washington County, Pa; and then to Fairfield Co., Ohio[75].


Pvt. Richard Stevenson ? not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Stevenson ? in Peters Township in 1783; a William Stephenson is buried at Cross Creek 1 March,1851 aged 80 years [was he 13 years old at the time of this raid ?]; according to Simpson he came from Berkeley Co, Va s/o James Stephenson., a paymaster of the Revolutionary Army and a nephew of Colonel Wm. Crawford and Col. Hugh Stephenson- a friend of General Washington. William ?served his country faithfully, and he was prominent in the bloody scenes of St. Clair?s defeat.?[76] - name is spelled both ways, CWCW- will listed for 1829- no mention of the massacre.


Pvt. Charles Stewart ? settled land in 1775 on Cross Creek and Buffalo Creek ? Hopewell Twp in 1783; RBE- left a will in 1793, CWCW- will listed for 1814.


Pvt. Samuel Stewart ? only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township.


Sgt. Shadrack Stillwell - not on these tax or land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt. in Captain Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.; RBE- bound out his children Jeremiah and Mary in 1787.


Pvt. Thomas Strain - in Peters Township in 1783; CDAR- buried in Washington County.


James Taylor ? from the Simpson list ? settled land in 1776 in Buffalo and Hopewell Townships- in Hopewell in 1781 and Fallowfield Township in 1783 - told his descendents that he did not kill on this raid[77]


Pvt. George Thorp ? in Cecil township in 1783.


Pvt. William Turner - in 1781 listed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships - so of indeterminate location; RBE-W.T. of Youghagania Co., Va sold 600 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1784 and his estate accounts 1791.


Solomon Urie . ? from the Simpson list died in 1820 or 1836 at Coshocton, Ohio. May be the man mentioned by Farrar as one who in 1812 would talk about the raid when drunk, [78]or that may be the other Solomon below; EF says ? a son of Thomas Urie Sr. of Hopewell Township. Solomon and Thomas Urie Jr., brothers, were noted hunters. While on a hunting trip near Stillwater, Ohio; they were attacked by Indians and Thomas was killed, but Solomon escaped. In 1815 while Solomon was living near Coshocton, Ohio he killed six Indians single handed because one of them boasted that he had killed Thomas Urie, Jr. Solomon was taken to Mad River, tried for this and acquitted. He was killed in 1830 falling from his horse.?


Solomon Vaile - on the Simpson list- not on these tax or land grant lists ? in 1791 in Moon Township of Allegheny County which place could have been in Washington County earlier- see above reference to a ?Sol? who in the 1812 era talked about the raid only when drunk.


Pvt. Isaac Vance ?only on the 1788 list - settled land in 1773 on Pigeon Creek ? in Somerset Township in 1781 and 1783; EF says he was a Pvt. in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMF says he is buried at Pigeon Creek..


Joseph Vance ? on the Simpson list - in Smith township in 1781 and 1783 ; Ef says ?the builder and proprietor of Vance?s Fort one mile from Cross Creek, where the first plans for the Moravian expedition were made?, TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there, -[79] says Joseph and several of his wives are buried at Cross Creek ? an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1782-1832; and afterwards a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, died 6 May, 1832 aged eighty-two years, buried in the old cemetery at Cross Creek,? .CDAR- says he is buried in the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Cemetery at Dunningsville, PA b 1750 and d 5 May, 1832, CWCW- lists wills for 1822 and 1832.


Pvt. Stephen Vineyard ? in Donegal Township in 1781 and 1783.


Robert Wallace ? on the Simpson List only- bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co in 1773 from Pennsylvania,[80] in Cross Creek Township in 1783 ? cited by EF as at the massacre and claimed that he did a lot of killing ? his family was killed and carried off just before this expedition and some historians say that the attack on the Wallace family set off this expedition ; EF says that he died in 1808 and is buried at Florence, CWCW- lists a will in 1808.


William Welch- named by Stephen Burkham who was there: ?William Welch, an Irishman tomahawked seven. The house was crowded according to Burkham with men tomahawking, the Indians had previously sang and prayed.;? [81] not on 1781 tax list; a name used by Allen Eckert (see below).


Pvt. Morris West ? - TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre informing Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for the settlers- Hopewell Township in 1783.


Pvt. Alexander White ? on the 1888 list only ? in Somerset Township in 1783.


Pvt. James White settled land in 1773 in Chartiers and N. Strabane -was in Strabane and Robinson in 1781 and in Strabane in 1783 ? both single in 1781 in Strabane ? man of this name elected a Washington County Justice of the Peace in 1781- is buried in Allegheny County. His land in Strabane could in 1788 have been put into Allegheny County from Washington County.


Pvt. John White ?only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; EF-says settled in old Strabane Township in 1773, elected a Justice of the Peace on 15 July, 1781 [ was he on this expedition while being a Justice of the Peace?]; WJC 1792 land patent; and died in 1806, CWCW lists a will in 1807.


Pvt. Nathaniel White ? in 1781 in Strabane Township without land and in Strabane in 1783.


Pvt. Stephen Wilkins ? only on the 1888 list ? in Strabane Township in 1783.


Lt. William Wilkins ? only in the 1888 list ? in 1783 in Smith Township ; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt. Munn?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; ? buried in Allegheny County.


John Williams- It was recently discovered that the son of this man put in writing to Lyman Draper that his father was on this expedition, and the father blamed Colonel David Williamson for the killing. That letter is reproduced in the microfilm of the well known Draper Manuscripts at the Wisconsin Historical Society.[82]


Lt. Col. David Williamson ?born in 1752 at Carlisle, Pa; after visiting the western country brought his parents into this frontier; settled land in the Buffalo Creek area in 1774, 1775, 1776 and 1777 (about 900 acres) ? listed in Donegal Township in 1781 with 800 acres so owner of one of the larger amounts of land on this expedition- and in Donegal Twp in 1783; WJC- Sr. and Jr. 1787 grants - the highest ranking militia officer on this expedition and supposedly elected to the top ranking position.; EF says that Colonel Williamson was ?strongly opposed? to the killing of the Moravians- Stephan Burkham claimed in later years to have been at the massacre quoted Col. Williamson as saying ?do what you will with the prisoners? as he walked off. This was told by Burkham to Lyman C. Draper well known for his collection of original material now at the Wisconsin Historical Society,[83] Colonel Williamson after the raid was elected Sheriff of Washington County, but died poor in a dispute with the county over a note he had co-signed; CDAR says he was buried in the Washington, Pa cemetery without a stone in 1814 at age 74.

It was the custom of the American militia to elect their own officers. Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson was elected to his position. However, it may not be fair to say he was elected commander. Militia did not always do what they were told by their own officers. It is uncertain how much to charge him with the responsibility for the killing. It is clear that there were other men along who also had high ranking positions in the militia. It is always pointed out that his role in this Massacre did not ruin his political standing as he was elected Sheriff of Washington County a few years later.


Eleazer Williamson- brother of Col. David above; the author was told by letter by Dr. Raymond Bell that this man was on the raid. However, that has been impossible to verify. His pension application says that he was on the expedition in 1781 that took Indian prisoners, and that he was also on the summer, 1782 ?Crawford? expedition which is verifiable.[84] He did not in that application mention being on this March, 1782 expedition which he either forgot or didn?t want to claim among his tours of militia duty- he had been a militia officer in Westmoreland County but was not one on this expedition.


Pvt. Abner Willson ?in 1781 without land in Smith Township - listed in Hopewell and/or Cecil 1783, this name spelled with one and two l?s is a bit of a puzzle.


Pvt. Jno. Willson - in 1781 in Smith, Cecil and Peters without land ?in 1783 there are four Johns in various townships of Washington County - so is indeterminate as to location; RBE- bought 329 acres on Streets Run in 1784 and 100 acres on Two Mile run in 1785; CDAR- a John Wilson who d 14 Feb, 1803 is buried in Washington, PA.


Pvt. Joseph Willson ? settled land in 1773 in Wheeling Township.- in 1781 in Peters Township; RBE-bought 227 acres on Petlore Creek in 1782 .


Pvt. Miles Willson ? in Smith Township in 1781 and Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. William Willson ? several men with this name- one settled land in 1769 on Little Whiteley Creek ?three listings of men of this name and spelling in 1781 in Bethlehem, Cecil and Smith Townships so indeterminate whether one or three men- one man in Hopewell Township in 1783 ; RBE- lists four land transactions of men of this name: of Augusta Co., Va sold 400 acres on Racoon Creek in 1777, of Washington County sold 200 acres on ?Shirtees? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and of Youghania Co., Va sold 300 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1779 and of Pittsburgh sold 300 acres in 1784; WHC- two 1786 grants; CDAR?a William Wilson Sr. buried at the Bethel Presbyterian Church at Clifton, PA- near Rte 19, lived 1757-25 Jan, 1845. buried in Allegheny County.; one man of this name buried at Cross Creek;[85] RBE notes two estates by men of this name: one in 1794 with a son, Robert; and one in 1795 of Cecil Twp leaving minor children (William, Robert, Esther, Margaret and Elizabeth), CWCW- lists a will for 1795. .

There were several pensions made by William Wilsons in this area. Number S3572 was living in Allegheny County in 1832. He said that in 1777 he served under General Wayne in the battles at Princeton, Monmouth, and Trenton for three years; and at Shamokin against the Indians. No mention of militia service or the Massacre. Pension number S22600 was living in Jefferson Twp of Allegheny County, Pa when pensioned having served three enlistments from 1777. No mention of the Massacre or militia service.

The man with pension number S7907 from Monongalia Co, VA is the most likely. His was all frontier service. He says that in 1779 he served under Col. Brodhead against the Munsie towns, in 1780 was an Indian spy on Dunkard Creek; and in June of 1781 he served under General Clark to the Forks of the Ohio. He would be the most likely to have been on the Massacre, but makes no mention of it.[86]

A man of this name with one l in DAR3 was Pvt in lst Pa Regt buried in Hamilton Co., Ohio.; there is also in DAR3 a Major Wm. Wilson 1754-1851 b in Ireland with a brother in the Tygart Valley, Randolph Co., Va buried in the Casner Cemetery near Mt. Ephraim, Noble Co., Ohio.


=== List of known Participants ===


Pvt. Andrew Wineman ? on the 1888 list only ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Thomas Young ? in 1781 in Cecil Township without land ? in 1783 also in Cecil Township.



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