Surnames/tags: Moyer Thobie Williams
Part of a DNA research projects for beginners to make sense of their DNA connections
- 1) The Seven Daughters of Eve- The science that reveals our genetic ancestry by Brian Sykes
- A) All European genetic genealogy can be trace back to 7 females:
- 2) Named each of the 7 branches modern names which were: P. 9
- Ursula' (Mt. Parnassus -Greece Ch. 15 p. 203), Xenia (Britain to Kazakhastan Ch 16 p. 213), re: David: Helena (Scandinavia, Berlin and Warsaw Ch.17 p. 221) , Velda (Ukraine, Southern France, Italy, and Iberian Peninsula Ch 18. p. 234), Tara (Tuscany and North West Italy Ch 19 p. 243), Katrine (Croatia to Ancona Italy Ch 20 p. 252)' and Jasmine (Mile from Euphrates in Sumer Ch. 21 p. 260) Moyer-780 17:34, 4 November 2021 (UTC)
- Velda: Mountains of Cantabria, a few miles behind what is now Port Santander. (p. 234)
Diet = some hunted bison that lived in high plateaus to the South: but ours hunted in the thick forests of the coastal plain (See Ancient Ancestors = will source later)
- She had 3 daughters and her man kept his family well fed.(p. 235)
- She was around 5'4, her skin was light brown, she had brown eyes and brown hair
- The women were probably all related and a close family (p. 236)
- Men had nothing to do with birthing children but protected family against wild animals.
- Her husband was kind. Hunting meant he was away for 2-3 weeks at a time.
- She lived with her family in a crevice where she would light a fire.
- Velda was a light sleeper and her mother snored loudly.
- Velda only slept well when her man was home.
pp. 3-21: The historical drama behind discovery of DNA in ancient bones and their impact on modern humanity.
pp. 22-31: Details on the process and mechanism triggered within our genes:
- There is a process of fertilization, the fusion of a single large egg cell and a single small determined sperm.
- When cells divided, strange thread-like assembled and separated equally into the two new cells that became known as chromosomes.
- One set comes from the father and one from the mother.(24)
- :Chromosomes work as the physical messengers of heredity.
- DNA has only 4 components and is located in the cell nucleus.
- Watson and Crick focused on DNA as primary to genetic inheritance (25)
- They published a scientific paper which stated "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairings we have postulated immediately suggest a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.
- Now the process of fertilization, the fusion of a single large egg cell and a single small determined sperm, could be observed. When cells divided, strange thread-like structures could be seen assembling and then separating equally into the two new cells. (26)
One of the essential requirements for the genetic material had to be that it could be faithfully copied time and again, so that when a cell divides, both of the two new cells -- the daughtr cells, as they are called -- each receive an equal share of the chromosomes in teh nucleus. Unless the genetic material in the chromosomes could be copied every time a cell divided, it would very soon run out and the cells had to be very high in quality or they wouldn't work.
Watson and Crick discovered each molecule of DNA is made up of two very long coils, like to intertwincd spiral staircases -- a 'double helix'. When its time for copies to be made, the two spiral staircases of the double helix disengage. DNA has just four key components which are always known by the first letters of the chemical name, A - adenine; C for cytosine; G for guanine and T for thymine. They are known as nucleotide bases, or bases for short. Just remember the four symbols A, C, G and T.
Watson and Crick realized that the only way the two strands of the double helix could fit together properly was if every 'A' will fit perfectly with "T" but not with 'G' or 'C' or with another 'A'. In exactly the same way, 'C' and 'G; on opposite strands can fit only with each other, not with 'A' or 'T'. This way BOTH strands retain teh complementary coded sequence information. For example, the sequence 'ATTCAH' on one strand has to be matched by the sequence 'TAAGTC' on the other. When the double helix unravels this section, the cell machinery constructs a new sequence 'TAAGTC' opposite 'ATTCAG'on one of the old strands and builds up 'ATTCAG' opposite 'TAAGTC' on the other. The result is two new double helices identical to the original. Two perfect copies every time. Preserved during all this copying is the sequence of the four chemical letter. An what is the sequence/ it is the information pure and simple. DNA doesn't actually do anything itself. (27)
It just instructs other things how to do it. Think of a binary code. So, how is the message written and how is it read? DNAis confined to the chromosomes, which never leave the cell nucleus. It is the proteins that do all the real work. They are the executives of the body. They are the enzymes which digest your food and run your metabolism; they are the hormones that coordinate what is happening in different parts of your body. They are the collagens of the skin and bone, and the haemoglobins of the blood. They are the antibodies that fight off infection. They are made up of a string of sub-units, called amino-acids whose precise order dictates their function. (28)
Amino-acides in one part of the strung attract amino-acids from another part, and what was a nice linear string crumples up into a ball. But this is a ball with a particular shape, that then allows the protein to do what it was made for; being a catalyst for biological reactions if it is enzyme, making musles if it is a musccle protein, trapping invading bacteria if it is an antibody, and so on. Tehre are twenty amino-acids in all, some with vaguely familiar names like lysine or phenylanine (one fo the ingredients of the sweetner aspartame) and other most people haven't hear of. The order in which these amino-aceids appear in the protein precisely determines its final shape and function, so all tha tis required to make a protein is a set of DNA instructions which define the order. Somehow the coded information contained in the DNA within the cell nucleus must be relayed to the protein production lines in another part of the cell.
The translucent blob at the end of a strand of hair is the root or follicle. There are roughly a million cells in each hair follicle and their only purpose in life is to make hair, which is mainly made up of the protein keratin. If you pull out a strand of hair, the cells will still be working. They are all busy making keratin, but how do they know how to do it? It's a matter of the amino-acids being in the right order. What is the right order? You find it in the DNA which is on the chromosome in the cell nucleus. Every cell in the strand of hair has a full set of DNA instructions. The hair only "listens" to instructions for hair, not bone or skin tissue so those instructions are shut down. But the keratin instruction, the keratin GENE, is open for consultation. (29)
First the cell reads the code in groups of 3 symbols. ATGACCTCCTTC becomes ATG-ACC-TCC-TTC. Each set of 3 symbols is called a "Triplet" which identifies a specific amin0-acid. ATG=Threonine, TCCC=serine; TTC=phenylalanine, etc. This genetic code is used by all genes in the cell nuclei of all species of plants and animals.