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United States in World War II

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WWII
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United States in World War II

As early as 1937 President Franklin D Roosevelt in his 1937 Quarantine Speech, Roosevelt established the United States formal neutrality.. However the United States did provide war materials supplies to Britain, Soviet Union ( Lend-Lease Act of 1941). It also replaced some of the British forces in Iceland (Pacific Theater). Its economic sanctions against Japan was part of the effort to slow down Japan's aggressions in Asia-Pacific. This infuriated Japan and caused the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. [1]

Pearl Harbor.
USS West Virginia Pearl Harbor.

The attack on Pearl Dec. 7, 1941, (sinking of the American battleship fleet in Pearl Harbor, and destruction of the fleet of aircraft at Honolulu) was an impetus that led to the United States declaration of War against Japan. (Pacific Theater). By Dec. 11, 1941, Hitler declared war against the United States. The highest priority was defeat of Germany in Europe. (European theatre)

  • Americans served: 16 million
  • Killed in Action: 290,000
  • Wounded: 670,000
  • Pows : 130,201
  • 116,129 of POWs returned home.
  • $341 Billion in 1945 dollars

D Day- Invasion of Normandy

Normandy.
Doolittle raid.
Hiroshima.

Bombing of Hiroshima: the scientists insisted upon a visual delivery of each bomb. At the time the photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atom. - NARA.

Six planes from 509th Composite Group, performed mission; one to carry the bomb "Enola Gay", one to take scientific measurements of the blast "The Great Artiste", the third to take photographs Necessary Evil". The other planes were an hour ahead to act as weather scouts, 08/06/1945. Bad weather disqualified one target. The primary target was Hiroshima, secondary was Kokura, and tertiary was Nagasaki.

Nagasaki Fat Man.

COMMANDERS

Major General James E. Chaney,
U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower
General Omar N. Bradley
American Generals
  • American public supported the war effort by buying war bonds, enduring a few items rationed, such as nylons for women, sugar, sending care packages to the troops, and work in the factories.
Roosevelt and Generals

BATTLES


  • Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
  • Battle of Wake Island and Guam, December 8, 1941
  • Battle of Bataan, Philippines and Corregidor, December 1941
  • Jan.13, 1942 - Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA.
  • Doolittle Raid- April 18, 1942
  • Battle of the Coral Sea, May 4 – 8, 1942
  • Battle of Midway, June 3 - 7, 1942
  • Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, October 1942
  • Operation Torch - Invasion of North Africa, November 8, 1942
  • Battle of Buna Mission, New Guinea,16 Nov, 1942 - 22 Jan, 1943.
  • Battle of Attu, May 1943
  • Guadalcanal Campaign, August 1942 - February 1943
  • Operation Husky, invasion of Sicily, 9 July 1943
  • Operation Baytown, the British invasion of Italy, 3 Sept 1943
  • Operation Avalanche, Invasion at Salerno, 9 Sept 1943
  • Battle of Tarawa, November 1943
  • Bougainville Campaign, November 1943 – August 1945
  • Battle of Cape Gloucester, December 1943 – April 1944
  • Normandy Invasion (D-Day), June 6, 1944
  • 1st, 2nd 3d Battles for Monte Cassino-- started on 22 Jan 1944 and last was 11 May 1944.
  • Battle of Saipan, June – July 1944
  • Battle of Noemfoor, July – August 1944
  • Battle of Guam, July – August 1944
  • Operation Dragoon - Invasion of Southern France, August 15, 1944
  • Battle of Peleliu, September 15 – November 17, 1944
  • Battle of the Philippine Sea, September – October 1944
  • Battle of Morotai, September – October 1944
  • Philippines Campaign, October 1944 – September 1945
  • Battle of Iwo Jima, February – March 1945
  • Battle of Okinawa, April – June 1945
  • Operation Grapeshot - Spring offensive in Italy, April 6, 1945
  • Hiroshima bombing by Enola Gay
  • Nagasaki bombing
Wake Island
Iwo Jima.
  • Guadalcanal: 7 August 1942 – 9 February 1943 - Was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan. Initially Japanese troops arrived on Guadalcanal on June 8, 1942, to construct an air base. Few of the Allied forces, predominantly United States Marines, had ever heard of the Island. The men who took part in the six month battle to take and then to hold it, definitely never forgot it. The air base, renamed Henderson Field, was the home of the "Cactus Air Force" and helped the Allies secure air superiority. This long battle was arguably a turning point of the war in the Pacific as it marked the Allied transition from defensive operations to offensive operations. Twenty US servicemen were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions on or around Guadalcanal.
  • Oct 25-27, 1942 -Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, also known by Japanese sources as "Battle of South Pacific" occurred as a carrier and airplanes battle. It was fought between the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy in the lengthy and Guadalcanal campaign sending airplanes from the carriers or any bases that were close enough. Other South Pacific battles were Coral Sea, Midway, and the Eastern Solomons.
Guadalcanal.
Battle of the Santa Cruz Island.
Ships of the two were out of visual range of each other. Instead, almost all attacks by both sides were mounted by carrier and aircraft.

Japan made plans for the Imperial Japanese Army to carry out its battle In an attempt to drive Allied forces from Guadalcanal and nearby islands, blocking the supply routes of the U.S., Australia and New Zealand. September 1942, Japanese carriers, and warships moved into position near southern Solomon Islands. Oct. 20-25 the ground offensive began. The plan was to defeat any Allies by navy and air. The Allies were ready, and surprised the Japanese. The Japanese ground offensive on Guadalcanal began with the Battle for Henderson Field while the naval warships and aircraft from the two adversaries battled from sea and air, Oct. 26, 1942 near the Santa Cruz Islands. One carrier sunk and another badly damaged, Allied surface ships retreated from the area. Japanese ships and aircraft suffered also. It was a standoff for several days. The Japanese carrier forces, also had bad damage to 2 carriers. This along with other victories marked a transition for Allies to move from being on the defense to the the offense. Three major land battles, 7 naval and daily aerial battles led to the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal early November. The Japanese removed their forces by Feb. 7, 1943.!! [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guadalcanal_Campaign

REGIMENTS / DIVISIONS


  • 1st Armored Division - North Africa Nov., 1942 to May, 1943. Italy - Oct., 1943 to end of war.
  • 2nd Armored Division: North Africa from Nov., 1942 to May 1943. Sicily - July, 1943, part of liberation of France- June, 1944 to end of war.
  • 3rd Armored Division, 4th Armored Division, 5th Armored Division, 6th Armored Division, 7th Armored Division, 8th Armored Division -NW Europe, June 1944 to end of war.
  • 9th Armored Division, 10th Armored Division, 11th Armored Division, 12th Armored Division, 14th Armored Division: NW Europe Dec. 1944 to end of war.
  • 13th Armored Division, : NW Europe, January 1945 to end of war.
  • 14th Armored Divisio16th Armored Division, 20th Armored Division: NW Europe from October 1944 to end of war.
  • 1st Cavalry Division: Pacific from Dec. 1943 to end of war.
  • 2nd Cavalry Division: never engaged in combat. Constructed airfields in North Africa - 1944.
  • 1st Infantry Division:- North Africa, Nov., 1942 to May 1943; Sicily, June 1943 to Aug., 1943, and NW Europe, June 1944 - end of war.
  • 2nd Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division, 5th Infantry Division, 8th Infantry Division- NW Europe from June 1944 to end of war.
  • 3rd Infantry Division: N. Africa, Nov., 1942, in Sicily, July 1943, in Italy Sept., 1943, and landed in S. France, Aug. 1944.
  • L Company, 127th Infantry Regiment of the 32nd Red Arrow Division, New Guinea Campaign, Pacific Theatre, Nov 16, 1942 - Jan, 1943.[3]
  • 6th Infantry Division: Pacific, January, 1944 to end of war.
  • 7th Infantry Division: -Pacific from May 1943 to end of war.
  • 9th Infantry Division: N. Africa in Nov., 1942, in Sicily, July 1943, in Italy, Sept., 1943, and NW Europe, June 1944 to end of war.
  • 10th Infantry Division: Formed as the 10th Mountain Division - Italy, Feb 1945 to May 1945
  • 11th Infantry Division: Formed as the 11th Airborne Division
  • 12th Infantry Division: (Philippine Division)- surrendered at Bataan in 1942, reconstituted in 1944 - 1947
  • 13th Infantry Division: Formed as the 13th Airborne Division
  • 17th Infantry Division: Formed as the 17th Airborne Division
  • 23rd Infantry Division, 25th, 24th, 27th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 47th Infantry Division - Pacific, October 1942 to end of war.
  • 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 35th, 42nd, 44th Infantry Division: NW Europe from July 1944 to end of war.
  • 34th Division -N Africa 1942-May 1943, 1943 to Italy-to end of war.
  • 36th Infantry Division: - N. Africa, Nov., 1942 - May 1943, and Italy, Sept, 1943; sent to Southern France Aug, 1944.
  • 37th, 38th, 40th, 41st Infantry Division: Pacific July 1943 to end of war.
  • 43rd Infantry Division -New Guinea, Northern Solomons, Luzon. Oct 1942 to End of War.
  • 45th Infantry Division: Sicily- July, August 1943, Italy through July 1944, and in NW Europe via S. France - Aug., 1944 to end of war
  • 63rd, 65th, 66th, 100th Infantry Division: NW Europe , January 1945 to end of war
  • 69th Infantry Division: Germany- 12 Feb. to 7 Sept. 1945.
  • 70th Infantry Division: combat in Germany, 28 Dec., 1944 to end of war
  • 71st Infantry Division: combat in Germany, 11 March, 1945 - deactivation, 1 March, 1946
  • 75th Infantry Division: combat in Battle of the Bulge; active until 13 April 1945
  • 77th, 81st Infantry Division: Pacific, 21 July 1944 to 15 March 1946
  • 76th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 83rd, 84th, 94th,95th, 99th, 103rd, 104th, 106th Infantry Division,: NW and Central Europe, -27 June 1944 to 6 May 1945,
  • 85th Infantry Division: Italy, 10 April, 1944 -2 May, 1945
  • 86th Infantry Div.: Germany -24 March, 1945-Victory in Europe Day; Philippines, Aug., 1945
  • 87th Infantry Division, 102nd Infantry Division, : Europe- 12 Nov., 1944 to end of war
  • 88th Infantry Division: Italy, Dec. 1943 - 2 May 1945[4]
  • 89th Infantry Division: Central Europe -Jan., 1945 until Victory in Europe Day
  • 90th Infantry Division: Europe -6 June 1944 to the end of the war
  • 91st Infantry Division, Italy June 1944 to May 1945
91st & 92nd Infantry Division arrived piecemeal into combat. One regiment would go to the front before the entire division arrived.[5]
  • 92nd Buffalo Division: a segregated division- combat in Italy from 1944 to 1945
  • 93rd Infantry Division: segregated division, - combat, S. Pacific from 1944 to end of war.
  • 96th Infantry Division, : Pacific Theater from October 1944 to June 1945
  • 97th Infantry Division: NW Europe-1945; Pacific Theater-1945 -March 1946—only one of two divisions to serve in these two theaters
  • 98th Infantry Division: Pacific, and Occupation of Japan until its deactivation, Feb.1946.
  • 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Marine Division
218,000 Americans are buried or memorialized overseas.


CHAPLAINS:

A torpedo from a German Uboat struck the USS Dorchester carrying US army troops on Feb 3, 1943. It was part if a naval convoy sailing to Greenland, it began sinking (Labrador Sea). Of 904 on board, 675 died. The 4 chaplains donated their life jackets to save others. They became known as the "Immortal Chaplains" Immortal Chaplains[6]
    • Lt. George L. Fox (Methodist)
    • Lt. Alexander D. Goode (Jewish)
    • Lt. John P. Washington (Roman Catholic)
    • Lt. Clark V. Poling (Reformed Church in America
  • Army Chaplain Lawrence Lynch (Roman Catholic) was known as a member of New York’s “Fighting '’69th,” A fatally wounded soldier on Okinawa was near death 1945, Lynch served Communion and prayed for him under fire. He was killed in the process, apr 24, 1945. Lynch was the 21st Chaplain who died in the war.Later a Silver Star was awarded to him posthumously. He was the third Catholic chaplain to fall from enemy actions. [7][8]

Ships, Merchant Marines

  • Medal of Honor Recipients
  • 294 Army, 57 Navy, 38 Army Air Corps. 82 Marine and 1 Coast Guard Medal of Honor Recipients for World War II. 273 Medals of Honor (58%) were presented posthumously.
  • Roddie Edmonds award Righteous Among The Nations award


RESOURCES:

Wikitree Resources:

Profiles on Wikitree to Honor

SOURCES:

  1. United States
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Santa_Cruz_Islands
  3. https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Battle%20of%20Buna–Gona&sr=50
  4. "The Blue Devils in Italy; A History of the 88th Infantry Division in World War II" by John Delaney, Battery Press, 1947.
  5. Personal communication from Steve Cole
  6. https://www.onfaith.co/onfaith/2013/02/20/military-chaplains-who-died-in-the-line-of-duty/21620
  7. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/9304220085/death-comes-chaplain-lawrence-lynch-okinawa
  8. https://www.onfaith.co/onfaith/2013/02/20/military-chaplains-who-died-in-the-line-of-duty/21620

(Part 1- By name 1941-1945 WABEGAY to WYTTENBACH) posted by Aurora





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World War 2 - United States Navy at War

UNITED STATES NAVY, COAST GUARD and MARINE CORPS CASUALTIES, 1941-1945

http://www.naval-history.net/WW2USCas.htm

posted by Arora (G) Anonymous
World War 2 - United States Navy at War

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS CASUALTIES

Part 1 - BY NAME 1941-45, WABEGAY to WYTTENBACH

http://www.naval-history.net/WW2UScasaaDB-USMCbyNameW.htm

posted by Arora (G) Anonymous
Can the following be added somehow? L Company, 127th Infantry Regiment of the 32nd Red Arrow Division. Part of the battle of Buna Mission, New Guinea, one of the first offensive campaigns of WWII to recover the south Pacific from the Japanese. My husband's grandfather was a colonel on this offensive and I have some battle photos that can be added to the site.
Revise:

88th Infantry Division: N. Africa, Southern and Central Europe, Dec. 1943 - 2 May 1945

TO; 88th Infantry Division: Italy, Dec. 1943 - 2 May 1945

Source: "The Blue Devils in Italy; A History of the 88th Infantry Division in World War II" by John Delaney, Battery Press, 1947. Many divisions headed to Italy stopped in N. Africa for additional training.

posted by Steve Cole
Found another error.

The info is correct for the 1st Armored Division only. it is not correct for the 43rd Division. This is what WikiPedia has for the 43 Division 43rd Infantry Division. New Guinea, Northern Solomons, Luzon. Oct 1942 to End of War.

posted by Steve Cole
Add the following to the list of BATTLES.

Operation Husky, invasion of Sicily, 9 July 1943

Operation Baytown, the British invasion of Italy, 3 Sept 1943

Operation Avalanche, Invasion at Salerno, 9 Sept 1943

1st, 2nd 3d Battles for Monte Cassino-- started on 22 Jan 1944 and last was 11 May 1944.

posted by Steve Cole
The list of US Divisions is missing a few or has them listed in same line with other divisions that did not serve with them.

Please add/correct the following divisions:

First there is an error in the Dates for the 92nd "Buffalo" Infantry Division. They arrived in Italy August 1944 -- not 1942.

91st Infantry Division, Italy June 1944 to May 1945. --- Delete it from the other line that starts with "76th, 78th . . ."

10th Mountain Division - Italy, Feb 1945 to May 1945.

34th, 36th Infantry Division --- split these apart as the 36th Infantry Division was sent to Southern France in August 1944 but the 34th Division remained in Italy.

Some of these divisions, such as 91st & 92nd arrived piecemeal into combat. One regiment would go to the front before the entire division arrived.

posted by Steve Cole
I agree with Juls it really adds to the page wonderful job Mary
posted by Terry Wright
Love Guadalcanal addition great job Mary!
posted by Julia (Balzarano) Ryan
PERFECT! Mary.
posted by Julia (Balzarano) Ryan