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United States in the War of 1812

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Categories: United States of America, War of 1812.


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United States in the War of 1812


War of 1812 American State and Territory page links
Connecticut Delaware Georgia Kentucky
Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire
New Jersey New York North Carolina Ohio
Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee
Vermont Virginia Illinois Territory Indiana Territory
Michigan Territory Mississippi Territory District of Columbia District of Maine


President James Madison

The War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain began on June 18, 1812. It involved about 60,000 U.S. Army forces and 470,000 militia and volunteer troops.The War of 1812 has been referred to as the Second War for Independence

The war was conducted in three theatres

  1. At sea, principally the Atlantic Ocean and the east coast of North America
  2. The Great Lakes and the Canadian frontier
  3. The Southern states and southwestern territories

The War lasted 2 years and 8 months

Henry Dearborn United States Secretary of War

Henry Dearborn was the United States Secretary of War in the War of 1812. He prepared the plans for attacks on Montreal, Kingston, Fort Niagara, and Amherstburg, but it is thought he did not move quickly enough to provide enough troops in the defense of Detroit. He had successes at the capture of York on April 27, 1813, and for the capture of Fort George on May 27, 1813. He was recalled from the frontier on July 6, 1813 and was honorably discharged from the Army on June 15, 1815.


United States Army Commanders and leaders

RANK AND
NAME

INFORMATION
PHOTO
General
William Hull
1753-1825
He is best remembered for surrendering Fort Detroit
to the British,he surrendered Fort Detroit to
General Isaac Brock on August 16, 1812
Major General
Andrew Jackson
1767-1845
Along with his 5,000 soldiers he won a decisive victory
against 7,500 British,in the Battle of New Orleans on
January 8,1815. He became a national hero for his actions,
he received the Congressional Gold Medal
Major General
William Harrison
1773-1841
He won victories in Indiana and Ohio and recaptured
Detroit.He defeated the British at the Battle
of the Thames, in which Tecumseh was killed
he received the Congressional Gold Medal
Major General
Samuel Smith
1752-1839
He was the the Maryland Militia's state commander and
devised the extensive dug-in fortifications
on the east side of Balitmore in the Battle of Baltimore
Brigadier General
Jacob Brown
1775-1828
He was in the Battle of Sackett's Harbor on 29 May 1813.
the captured Fort Erie in Ontario,and defeated the British
the Battle of Chippawa and the Siege of Fort Erie in 1814,
For which he received the Congressional Gold Medal.
Brigadier General
James Winchester
1752-1826
He commanded the American forces at the Battle of
Frenchtown, which led to the Massacre of the River Raisin.
Brigadier General
Zebulon Pike
1779-1813
He commanded troops in the successful attack on York,
on April 27, 1813.He was killed by flying rocks and other
debris when the withdrawing British garrison blew up its
ammunition magazine as he approached Fort York
Colonel
George Croghan
1791-1849
He was at the Battle of Fort Stephenson, Ohio
after which he was promoted to the rank of
colonel. He later led a troop that was defeated
in the Battle of Mackinac Island.He received the Congressional Gold Medal.
Lieutenant Colonel
Winfield Scott
1786-1866)
He was in command of an American landing party during
the Battle of Queenston Heights on October 13, 1812.He
was taken POW,he was paroled and released in a prisoner exchange


Betsy Doyle

Betsy Doyle married Andrew Doyle, a private in the First United States Artillery Regiment. Private Doyle was with the U.S. forces when they invaded Upper Canada. He was captured in the Battle of Queenston and became a prisoner of war. He was recognized by his captors as a native of Upper Canada.He was sent to Dartmoor Prison for treason for the rest of the war,Betsy was left alone with her four children at Fort Niagara.On November 21, 1812 the British opened fire on Fort Niagara.During the exchange, Betsy carried red-hot cannonballs from a fire to the 6-pound cannon . But loading hot shot was difficult and dangerous. The hot iron could cause gunpowder to explode prematurely in the cannon, wounding or killing anyone nearby.Although one man was killed and five others wounded while loading hot shot, Betsy survived , and her bravery was mentioned in official reports.

The story of her actions spread quickly among officers stationed in the region. Fort Niagara’s Commandant, Col. George McFeely described a woman named Betsy Doyle attending a six pounder with “red hot shot” during “the most tremendous cannonading I have ever seen. McFeely further related that Betsy Doyle acted with the fortitude of the Maid of Orleans, a reference to the 15th-century heroine, Joan of Arc.In December 1813, Betsy fled when the British invaded and captured Fort Niagara.In a four month journey Betsy and her children walked over 300 miles to the East Greenbush Cantonment near Albany, New York.

Betsy Doyle loading hot shots at Fort Niagara


Map of American States and Territories in 1812


United States Navy Ships in the War of 1812
Niagara, Detroit and Queen Charlotte at right

The war on the water was a very important aspect of the War of 1812.When the United States declared war on Great Britain in June 1812, the U.S. Navy was an eighteen-year-old institution with a dozen ships. The Royal Navy was had around 140,000 seamen, 31,000 of whom were well trained marines. The U.S. Navy had about 5000 seamen and 1000 marines. But the U.S Navy was commanded by a corps of well trained and experienced officers. Many had seen action in the Quasi-War with France and against Tripoli.

United States Navy Commanders and leaders

Commodore Oliver Perry's battle flag
RANK AND
NAME

INFORMATION
PHOTO
Commodore
Oliver Perry
1785-1818
He fought in the Battle of Lake Erie.Which
was a decisive naval victory for the Americans.
His battle flag, was "DON'T GIVE UP THE SHIP
Commodore
John Rodgers
1772–1838
He patrolled the waters off the American upper
east coast. He commanded the USS President for
most of the war, capturing 23 prizes, one of the
most successful records in the conflict.
Commodore
William Bainbridge
1774-1833
He was appointed to command the USS
Constitution, On 29 December 1812 the USS
Constitution encountered the Java , the Java was
surrendered to the Constitution. He received the Congressional Gold Medal
Commodore
Stephen Decatur
1779-1820
He was on the USS United States in the battle against
HMS Macedonian. And on the The USS President
when the HMS Endymion crippled her on 15 January
1815,which led to the President's final capture
Captain
Arthur Sinclair
1780-1831
He was in command of Argus and, between
12 October and 17 December 1812, cruised
in Argus with the North Atlantic Squadron and took a number of prizes.
Captain
Jacob Jones
1768-1850
In March 1813 he was given command of
the frigate USS Macedonian.He was sent to Lake
Ontario, where he commanded the frigate USS Mohawk.
Captain
Charles Stewart
1778–1869
He commanded, Argus, Hornet, and Constellation.
When the Constellation was closely blockaded in
Norfolk by the British, he took command of Constitution at Boston in 1813
Captain
Jesse Elliott
1782-1845
Was commander of American naval forces in
Lake Erie during the War of 1812, noted for
his controversial actions during the Battle of Lake Erie.
Captain
James Lawrence
1781-1813
He was Captain of the USS Chesapeake against the
HMS Shannon. He is best known for his last words
"Don't give up the ship!", which is still a naval battle cry
Captain
James Barron
1768-1851
He was Captain of the USS Chesapeake against the
HMS Leopard. He is best known for his court martial
for his actions in 1807, which led to the surrender of his ship to the British


Commodore Perry’s Victory on Lake Erie
USS Hornet

In the war of 1812, USS Hornet was the first U.S. Navy ship to capture a British vessel,the Dolphin was captured by the Hornet on 9 July 1812 .On 14 November 1814, the Hornet sailed on a second raiding voyage to the South Atlantic. On 23 March 1815, she captured HMS Penguin in a short battle off Tristan da Cunha.

USS Constitution

On 19 August 1812, the USS Constitution encountered and fired upon the Guerriere. After the battle fifteen men had been killed, six were mortally wounded, 39 severely and eighteen slightly.The Guerriere was too badly damaged to take in, so as soon as the wounded had been taken off, she was set on fire. On the 29th December 1812 the USS Constitution encountered the Java ,after a long battle the Java was surrendered to the Constitution.The Java was not worth taking as a prize. Instead her helm was removed and installed it on Constitution, replacing the one that had been shot away. Two days after the battle,the order was given to set fire to the Java she subsequently blew up.

USS United States

On 25 October 1812 the USS United States met the HMS Macedonian,there was long battle after which ,the Macedonian was a dismasted hulk and was forced to surrender.She had suffered 104 casualties against 12 in the USS United States. The Macedonian was bought back to the United States. It was the first British warship to ever be brought into an American harbor.

USS President

On 17 October 1812,the President captured the British ship the Swallow, which carried a large amount of currency on board.In that time USS Congress captured the merchant ship Argo. The Congress and President remained together, but did not find any ships to capture during November. Returning to the United States, they arrived in Boston on 31 December, having taken nine prizes.The President and Congress were both blockaded there by the Royal Navy until April 1813. The HMS Endymion crippled the USS President on 15 January 1815, which led to the President's final capture.

USS Constellation

In January 1813, the Constellation was effectively blockaded by a British squadron of line of battle ships and frigates.After moving toward Norfolk, twice a force of British estimated to number 2,000 men, tried to take the Constellation by surprise in the night but on each occasion they were discovered and closely watched by her guard boats, the British never made the attack on the USS Constellation.

USS Congress

While in Boston the Congress and the President were blockaded by the Royal Navy, they slipped through the blockade on 30 April 1813 and put to sea for their third cruise of the war. On 2 May they pursued HMS Curlew but she out ran them and escaped. Congress parted company with President on the 8th May and patrolled off the Cape Verde Islands and the coast of Brazil. She captured four small British merchant ships during this period and returned to the Portsmouth Navy Yard for repairs in late 1813.

USS Chesapeake

On 1 June 1813, the USS Chesapeake met the HMS Shannon.After only 15 minutes of firing the Shannon‍ '​s crew pulled down Chesapeake‍ '​s flag and USS Chesapeake was captured.There was between 48–61 killed and 85–99 wounded.

USS Peacock

On the 29 April 1814 he USS Peacock under the command of Master Commandant Lewis Warrington, captured her first prize, the British brig Epervier, which she sent to Savannah.Than on 30 June 1814, she captured the 16-gun brig Nautilus under the command of Lieutenant Charles Boyce

USS Wasp

On 28 June 1814, the USS Wasp came upon the 18-gun HMS Reindeer some 225 miles west of Plymouth, England, and brought her to battle. The fight lasted only 19 minutes the Wasp suffered six hits in her hull, and some of her rigging was shot away, but she remained sailable.After taking prisoners on board, and setting fire to the Reindeer, they watch her explode.The USS Wasp carried out two successful raiding voyages against British trade during the summer of 1814, fought and defeated three British warships. Wasp was lost, cause unknown, in the Atlantic in early autumn, 1814.

U.S. Naval Forces lead to Era of "Good Feeling" Video


Sources





Images: 6
15 Star United States flag - War of 1812
15 Star United States flag - War of 1812

USS Constitution engaging HMS Java
USS Constitution engaging HMS Java

American Infantry attacks at Lundy's Lane
American Infantry attacks at Lundy's Lane

The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812.

Attack on Fort Oswego May 1814, War of 1812
Attack on Fort Oswego May 1814, War of 1812

view all


Collaboration

On 16 Oct 2015 at 05:34 GMT Terry Wright wrote:

Thank you Mary for finishing the last state page :)

On 15 Oct 2015 at 21:49 GMT Terry Wright wrote:

Great job on adding to all the State pages Mary I see there is only one left

On 23 Sep 2015 at 22:30 GMT David Wilson wrote:

Robin- Click on the New Jersey link at top of this page (it is still a shell of a page). When on N.J. page see ZM in the table at the bottom and click on his name for his profile. The tables are set-up to sort by Name, Branch, Rank, or Unit. This should make categorization easier as we move forward.

On 23 Sep 2015 at 22:00 GMT Robin Kabrich wrote:

Their what? Really behind the 8-ball on this project!  :-)

On 23 Sep 2015 at 21:51 GMT David Wilson wrote:

If you find them on their state's sort table, it links to their WT profile.

On 23 Sep 2015 at 20:27 GMT Terry Wright wrote:

Sorry that is my fault Robin I will look today and see how many profiles I can find on Wikitree

On 23 Sep 2015 at 19:45 GMT Robin Kabrich wrote:

I am wondering why the leaders are connected only to their bios on WikiPedia and not also connected t their Wiki Tree profiles? Also, General Pike's father, also named Zebulon, (Pike-528) was also a career military man, beginning with the American Revolution and including the War of 1812. I need to find more information on this Pike.

On 23 Sep 2015 at 14:21 GMT Paula J wrote:

This is fabulous work! I think this beats anything yet!! This is certainly a project to be proud of and a fitting memorial to our War of 1812 Veterans!

On 26 Aug 2015 at 12:52 GMT Terri (Reynolds) Rick wrote:

This is an amazing page -- WONDERFUL WORK!!