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War of 1812 Tennessee

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Contents

War of 1812-1815

Governor Willie Blount (1768-1835)

Governor Willie Blount.

Willie Blount's (whose first name was pronounced "Wiley") support of the war effort gave rise to Tennessee's nickname "The Volunteer State." During the first few months of the war, he struggled with a lack of communication with the War Department as he awaited permission to order the militia (led by an impatient Andrew Jackson) south to New Orleans. Following the Fort Mims massacre in 1813, a call to arms issued by Blount was met by 3,500 volunteers.(During the War of 1812 Blount led the initiative to raise over thirty-seven thousand dollars in funds and two thousand volunteer soldiers[1]) These were divided into two divisions led by Jackson of the West TN. Militia and John Cocke of the East TN. Militia, and ordered south to suppress the hostile Creek tribes[2]


Major General Andrew Jackson

Major General Andrew Jackson

Jackson's family emigrated to South Carolina from the north of Ireland in 1765. Only weeks before he was born in 1767, Jackson's father died, leaving his mother alone to raise three young boys. Andrew grew up in his uncle's household and received some formal education before quitting school at the age of thirteen to fight in the American Revolution. Those war years would leave lasting impressions on the young Jackson. Working as a courier, Jackson witnessed the war up close. His older brother Hugh was killed in combat, and both he and his remaining brother, Robert, were captured by the British. While imprisoned they contracted smallpox which eventually killed Robert. Andrew managed to survive, thanks to his mother's nursing, but she soon succumbed to a fatal illness contracted while treating American prisoners of war at Charleston in 1781.

His immediate family gone, Jackson emerged from the war with a fierce sense of independence, a wild temper and a deep-seeded hatred of the British. Jackson survived on a small inheritance from his grandfather until the age of seventeen when he began to study law. After passing the bar, he moved to the western frontier town of Nashville where he married and began establishing political connections. He became the first congressman from the Tennessee Territory in 1796, and in 1802 he was finally elected as major general of the territorial militia, a position he had long coveted.

By the time of the 1812 conflict, Jackson had seen very little action as head of the militia. He firmly supported Madison's declaration of war and volunteered immediately for service on the Canadian front. Months past and he received no response to his request. He put this down to political blacklisting stemming from a long-standing disagreement with former president Thomas Jefferson's administration. Though he had little military experience to speak of, when the government scrambled to defend the Gulf Coast in late 1812, Jackson's name was submitted as leader of a volunteer force by his friend the Governor. Jackson was an ardent expansionist who wanted to claim all of Spanish Florida for the Union, and to secure lands on both sides of the Mississippi River. In 1813, Jackson took advantage of disagreements in the Creek Nation to achieve these goals. With little British activity in the South, and the American population clamoring for someone to deal with the recent Native revolt targeting homesteaders, the action-hungry Jackson interceded on behalf of the government. After almost a year of disciplined command of his volunteer forces and ruthless elimination of any resistance, Jackson succeeded in crushing the Red Stick Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in spring of 1814. Soon after, he drew up a treaty which won the U.S. an additional 23 million acres of land from the Creek Nation, including the Native populations who had aided Jackson in his campaign against the Red Sticks. His victories against the Indians gave Jackson national recognition and the government rewarded him with a regular commission of major general in the US Army. Putting Jackson in charge of the Seventh Military District, the war administration hoped he could apply his initiative in defending the important, but militarily weak, southern territories. Jackson lost no time in preparing to meet the British who were already gathering on the Gulf Coast. He completed the reinforcement of Fort Bowyer at Mobile in West Florida only days before the British tried unsuccessfully to take it. Jackson subsequently went on the offensive driving the British out of Spanish Pensacola in early November of 1814. Jackson arrived in New Orleans in December and prepared to defend the city against a major British assault.

Wanting to have complete command over all operations, Jackson silenced the bickering city officials with his declaration of martial law. Despite his aggressive authoritarian manner, Jackson pooled the city's diverse resources with his militia units and successfully repelled a larger British advance only a few miles below the New Orleans.

He was hailed as a hero throughout the country and was especially revered in the South. After the war, Jackson continued his conquest of southern territories, often without government sanction. He invaded Spanish Florida again in 1818, ostensibly to retrieve renegade Creeks who were wanted by the US government. The fierce resistance he met there by First Nations became known as the First Seminole War. Needless to say, Jackson furthered his reputation among these Natives and their allies as a ruthless thief and butcher. In the end, Jackson crushed all resistance and took possession of the Florida territory in the name of the United States. Only his unprecedented gains saved him from serious reprimand.

Many people credit Andrew Jackson as the man who first gave the American South and West power and prestige within the developing Union. He rode his successes of the 1812 War and the Seminole campaigns all the way to the White House when, in 1829, he became the seventh President of the United States. He held that office for eight years and was immensely popular. Andrew Jackson died in 1845. [3]


General John R. Coffee

General John R. Coffee.

At the beginning of the War of 1812, Coffee raised the 2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, composed mostly of Tennessee militiamen (and a few men from Alabama). In December 1812, Governor Willie Blount had called out the Tennessee militia in response to a request from General James Wilkinson and the U.S. Secretary of War. Under Jackson's command, Coffee led 600 men in January 1813 to Natchez, Mississippi Territory, via the Natchez Trace, in advance of the rest of the rest of the troops, who traveled via flatboats


Major-General William Carroll (March 3, 1788 – March 22, 1844)

General Carroll.

William Carroll was born March 3rd 1788 on a farm near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He moved to Nashville, Tennessee in 1814 where he started a successful mercantile business; he was the owner of the steam boat, General Jackson, the first such ship to reach Nashville

Carroll joined the Tennessee militia as a captain in 1812, and quickly rose through the ranks. He participated in several engagements during the Creek War. After the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Carroll returned to Nashville to recruit troops for the defense of New Orleans. After Jackson resigned from the militia to accept a commission in the federal army, Carroll was elected major-general of the Tennessee militia. Traveling via the Cumberland, Ohio and Mississippi rivers, his new troops arrived in New Orleans just prior to the British invasion.

In 1821 he won his first gubernatorial victory over Colonel Edward Ward; went on to serve two more successive terms. Re-elected in 1829 to the first of two additional terms as Governor of Tennessee; served longer as Chief Executive than any other person in State history (at present).

Died March 22nd 1844: he is buried in the Old City Cemetery, Nashville, Tennessee.


General John Alexander Cocke

John Cocke served many years in both the Tennessee State House and State Senate. During the Creek War in 1813, he was a major general of Tennessee Volunteers. Following the Fort Mims massacre in 1813, a call to arms issued by Blount was met by 3,500 volunteers. These were divided into two divisions led by Jackson and John Cocke, and ordered south to suppress the hostile Creek tribes.

In November 1814, about 215 Middle Tennesseans under the command of Colonel John Cocke, former Montgomery County sheriff, boarded flat bottom boats for a treacherous journey down the Cumberland, Ohio and Mississippi rivers to join Major General Andrew Jackson’s 7th US Infantry Regiment in New Orleans.

In addition to troops, guns, powder, and supplies, the Militia soldiers also transported cannonballs cast at Ironmaster Montgomery Bell’s Cumberland Furnace in Dickson County that were used in the Battle of New Orleans on the 8th of January 1815.[4]

He was, after the war, elected as a U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1819 to 1827


Andrew Jackson's Call for Volunteers in March 1812


All muster dates and regiment synopsis are extracted from Tennessee State Library and Archives

December 1812 - April 1813

Mounted Volunteers of East Tennessee; Col. John Williams

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Blount, Grainger, Knox, and Washington Counties
CAPTAINS: Samuel Bunch, David Vance, William Walker
Williams, along with approximately 250 volunteers, marched to East Florida to join with the combined forces of U.S. troops and Georgia "patriots" to "liberate" this region from Spanish control. Ostensibly, the expedition was raised to eliminate the threat of marauding Creeks and Seminoles on the borders of Georgia. [5]

Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry; Col John Coffee

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Rutherford, Davidson, Dickson, Robertson, Smith, Sumner, Williamson, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: John Baskerville, Thomas Bradley, John W. Byrn, Blackman Coleman, Robert Jetton, Charles Kavanaugh, Alexander McKeen, Michael Molton, David Smith, Frederick Stump, James Terrill
This regiment of cavalry joined Jackson's forces at Natchez in early 1813. The strength of the regiment was approximately 600 men. While the bulk of Jackson's troops traveled by boat to Natchez, Coffee's mounted men went overland after rendezvousing near Franklin, Tennessee in mid-January 1813. The officers of this regiment were considered to be the elite citizens of their counties. John Coffee was a wealthy landowner in Rutherford County and a one-time business partner of Andrew Jackson.

1st Regiment Tennessee Volunteers; Col. William Hall

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Sumner, Davidson, Giles, Lincoln, Montgomery, Overton, Rutherford, Smith, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: William Alexander, Abraham Bledsoe, William Carroll, Harry L. Douglass, James Hambleton (Hamilton), John Kennedy, Brice Martin, John Moore, Travis Nash, Henry M. Newlin, John Wallace.
Part of Andrew Jackson's expedition to Natchez. Many of the men later re-enlisted under Colonel Edward Bradley and joined Jackson in the first campaign of the Creek War.

2nd Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; Col Thomas Benton

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Williamson, Rutherford, White, Bedford, Davidson, Franklin, Lincoln, and Maury Counties
CAPTAINS: Robert Cannon, George Caperton, George Gibbs, Benjamin Hewett, James McEwen, James McFerrin, William Moore, Isiah Renshaw, Benjamin Reynolds, William J. Smith, Thomas Williamson
This regiment, along with Colonel William Hall's First Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry and Colonel John Coffee's Volunteer Cavalry, comprised the army under Andrew Jackson that undertook the expedition to Natchez in late 1812

1813

September 1813 - December 1813

1st Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; Col Edward Bradley

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Sumner, Giles, Lincoln, Montgomery, Overton, Rutherford, Smith, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: Abraham Bledsoe, Harry Douglass, James Hambleton, John Kennedy, William Lauderdale, Brice Martin, John Moore, Travis Nash, Thomas Haynie, John Wallace
This unit was originally under the command of Colonel William Hall during Jackson's excursion to Natchez. Bradley took over the regiment when Hall was promoted to brigadier general. This brigade participated in Jackson's first campaign into the Creek Nation. Bradley's regiment fought at the Battle of Talladega (9 November 1813)

1st Regiment East Tennessee Volunteer Militia; Col. Samuel Wear

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Knox, Sevier, Blount, Washington, Anderson, Campbell, Carter, and Jefferson Counties
CAPTAINS: John Bayless, Samuel Bowman, Joseph Calloway, John Chiles, Jesse Cole, Robert Doak, James Gillespie, William Mitchell, Rufus Morgan, Simeon Perry, Daniel Price, Jehu Stephens, James Tedford
The regiment, in the brigade commanded by General James White, helped attack a tribe of Creek Indians known as the Hillabees on 18 November 1813.

2nd Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry: Col. John Brown

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Roane, Anderson, Knox, and Sullivan Counties
CAPTAINS: Allen Bacon, Hugh Barton, William Christian, William Neilson, Lunsford Oliver, James Preston, John Underwood, William White
Colonel John Brown commanded two separate regiments at different times during the war. This regiment, along with a unit commanded by Colonel Samuel Bunch, comprised a brigade commanded by General George Doherty of the East Tennessee Volunteer Militia. They most likely protected the supply line to Fort Deposit.

2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen; Col John Alcorn

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Rutherford, Sumner, and Wilson Counties (Winston's company from Madison County, Alabama)
CAPTAINS: John Baskerville, Richard Boyd, Thomas Bradley, John Byrne, Robert Jetton, William Locke, Alexander McKeen, Frederick Stump, Daniel Ross, John Winston
Colonel John Coffee commanded this regiment until the end of October 1813, when Coffee was promoted to Brigadier General. John Alcorn took over as colonel and the unit was incorporated with Colonel Newton Cannon's Mounted Riflemen. Many of the men from this unit were with Andrew Jackson on the expedition to Natchez (December 1812 - April 1813) The regiment participated in the battles at Tallushatchee and Talladega (3 November and 9 November 1813)

2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen: Col. Newton Cannon

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Bedford, Rutherford, Smith, Dickson, Franklin, Lincoln, Sumner, Williamson, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: Robert Allen, George Brandon, Ota Cantrell, John B. Demsey, William Edwards, John Hanby, John Harpole, David Hogan, Francis Jones, William Martin, Andrew Patterson, James Walton, Isaac Williams, Thomas Yardley
Along with Colonel John Alcorn's regiment, this unit was part of General John Coffee's brigade that conducted the first campaign into the Creek Nation. They fought in the battles at Tallushatchee and Talladega (3 November and 9 November 1813).

Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen or Cavalry; Col. Robert Dryer

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Rutherford, Williamson, Dickson, Giles, Overton, Robertson, Stewart, and Sumner Counties
CAPTAINS: (Lt.)James Berry, Samuel Crawford, Nathan Farmer, James Haggard, Charles Kavanaugh, Archibald McKenney, John Miller, William Mitchell, Michael Molton, Edwin G. Moore, David Smith, George Smith, James Terrill
This regiment was part of General John Coffee's cavalry brigade throughout most of the Creek War. The unit participated in most of the battles of the war, including Talladega (9 November 1813), where they formed the reserves, and Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814). There were several companies of "spies" in the regiment.

2nd Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; Col. William Pillow

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Rutherford, White, Williamson, Davidson, Franklin, Lincoln, and Maury Counties
CAPTAINS: John H. Anderson, George Caperton, (Lt.)Joseph Mason, C.E. McEwen, James McFerrin, William Moore, Isiah Renshaw, William J. Smith, Thomas Williamson
This regiment, composed of about 400 men, participated in Jackson's first campaign into Creek territory along with the regiment under Colonel Bradley. Both these regiments fought at the Battle of Talladega (9 November 1813) where Colonel Pillow was wounded. Lieutenant Colonel William Martin, who took over the regiment after Pillow was wounded at Talladega, was later at the center of a dispute with Andrew Jackson over the enlistment terms of the regiment.

October 1813 - January 1814

1st Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Infantry : Col. Samuel Bunch

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Claiborne, Grainger, Cocke, Greene, Hawkins, Jefferson, and Washington Counties
CAPTAINS: James Cumming, William Houston(Huston), John Inman, William Jobe, Thomas Mann, James Penny, Henry Stephens, David G. Vance
This regiment of three-month enlistees, in the brigade of General James White, participated in the action against the tribe of Creeks known as the Hillabees (18 November 1813).
This regiment passed through Fort Armstrong, located on Cherokee land, in late November 1813. The Cherokees claimed that their livestock was "wantonly destroyed for sport" by the Tennessee soldiers.

1st Regiment West Tennessee Militia;

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Wilson, Jackson, Robertson, Bedford, Lincoln, Montgomery, Robertson, Sumner, and White Counties
CAPTAINS: Bailey Butler, Robert Braden, William Carothers, James Cole, James Holleman, William McCall, Bayless E. Prince, John Porter, John Spinks, William Wilson
They participated in Jackson's first campaign into Creek territory where they fought at the Battle of Talladega (9 November 1813).

2nd Regiment East Tennessee Volunteer Militia; Col. William Lillard

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Greene, Jefferson, Sullivan, Cocke, Grainger, Hawkins, and Washington Counties
CAPTAINS: George Argenbright, Zacheus Copeland, Jacob Dyke, William Gillenwater, (Ensign)Abraham Gregg, William Hamilton, Jacob Hartsell, George Keys, Benjamin H. Kings, James Lillard, Robert Maloney, Hugh Martin, Robert McAlpin(McCalpin), Thomas McCuiston, William McLinn, John Neatherton, John Roper, Thomas Sharp
This regiment of about 700 men was assigned to fill the ranks at Fort Strother for Andrew Jackson after the December 1813 "mutiny" of his army. Cherokees friendly to the United States fought with various units of the Tennessee militia and Lieutenant Colonel William Snodgrass commanded a detachment of Cherokees at Fort Armstrong from mid-January to early February 1814.

2nd Regiment West Tennessee Militia; Col. Thomas McCrory

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Williamson, Maury, Giles, Overton, Rutherford, and Smith Counties
CAPTAINS: William Dooley, Thomas K. Gordon, Samuel B. McKnight, Anthony Metcalf, Isaac Patton, John Reynolds, James Shannon, Abel Willis
Part of General Isaac Roberts' Second Brigade, these three-month enlistees were mustered in at Franklin, Tennessee and mustered out at Fort Strother. The regiment participated in the Battle of Talladega (9 November 1813). Famed Presbyterian minister Gideon Blackburn served as regimental chaplain.

November 3, 1813

Battle of Tallussahatchee, Alabama

Creek War.

Maj. General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee Forces

General Coffee commanding
Colonel John Alcorn's 2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, Tennessee
Colonel Newton Cannon's 2nd Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, Tennessee

==Battle of Talladega, Alabama==

Battle of Talladega, Alabama.

Maj. Andrew Jackson's Tennessee Militia, Maj. General Andrew Jackson commanding

Colonel John Alcorn's 2nd Regiment Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, Tennessee
Colonel Newton Cannon's 2nd Regiment Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, Tennessee
Colonel Edward Bradley's 1st Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Infantry
Colonel Robert Dyer's Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
Colonel Thomas McCrory's 2nd Regiment of West Tennessee Militia
Colonel William Pillow's 2nd Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Infantry
Colonel James Raulston's 3rd Regiment West Tennessee Militia Infantry

Total force 800 cavalry, 1200 infantry -est. Casualties 17 killed, 83 wounded

November 18, 1813

The Hillabee Massacre, 20 miles east of Talladega, Alabama

Major General Cocke's troops were supposed to have been placed under Jackson's command upon arrival. Instead, Cocke acted on his own to surround Hillabee, which had relaxed its defenses because of the pending truce. Sixty of the Creek villagers were killed, while 256 people were taken prisoner. Cocke noted in his report to Jackson that the Creek offered no resistance, and there were no casualties among his troops.

Major General John Cocke's Tennessee Militia

Brig. General James White commanding
Colonel Samuel Bunch's 1st Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Infantry
Colonel Samuel Wear's 1st Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Militia
Cherokee warriors

December 1813 - February 1814

1st Regiment West Tennessee Mounted Volunteers ; Col. Nicholas Perkins

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Williamson, Maury, Montgomery, Rutherford, Sumner, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: John Doak, George Elliott, Mathew Johnson(Johnston), George W.L. Marr, James McMahan, Matthew Patterson, Phillip Pipkin, John B. Quarles
This regiment, along with the regiment under Colonel Higgins, comprised the sixty-day volunteers enlisted by William Carroll to fill the depleted ranks of Jackson's rapidly dwindling army after the first campaign of the Creek War. Although the enlistment terms were short, this regiment saw some of the fiercest action of the Creek War at Emuckfau and Enotochopco (22 and 24 January 1814) where Jackson's army was nearly routed by attacking Creeks

2nd Regiment Tennessee Mounted Volunteers; Col William Higgins

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Madison (Ala.), Lincoln, Robertson, Smith, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: Samuel Allen, John B. Cheatham, John Crane(Craine), Adam Dale, William Doak, Thomas Eldridge, Stephen Griffith, James Hamilton(Hambleton), John Hill, Joseph Kirkpatrick
This unit comprised the sixty-day volunteers enlisted by William Carroll to fill the rapidly dwindling ranks of Jackson's army decimated by the desertions of December 1813. Determined to make the most of this new army, Jackson marched these 850 green troops into Creek territory where they encountered the Red Sticks at Emuckfau and Enotochopco (22 and 24 January 1814).

1814

January 1814 - May 1814

1st Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col. Ewen Allison

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Greene, Sullivan, Washington, Carter, and Hawkins Counties
CAPTAINS: Joseph Everett, John Hampton, Jacob Hoyal, William King, Jonas Loughmiller, Henry McCray, Thomas Wilson, Adam Winsell
This regiment was also designated as the First Regiment of East Tennessee Drafted Militia. The unit was part of General George Doherty's brigade, along with Colonel Samuel Bunch's Second Regiment. Doherty's brigade participated in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814) The Nashville Clarion of 10 May 1814 has a complete listing of the dead and wounded from this climactic battle of the Creek War.

2nd Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col Samuel Bunch

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Claiborne, Grainger, Washington, Jefferson, Knox, Blount, Cocke, Greene, Hawkins, Rhea, and Sevier Counties
CAPTAINS: James Allen, Amos Barron, Francis Berry, Andrew Breeden, Edward Buchanan, Moses Davis, Solomon Dobkins, Joseph Duncan, John English, Nicholas Gibbs, George Gregory, Jones Griffin, John Houk, John Howell, John McNair(McNare), Francis Register, Samuel Richerson, (Maj.)Alexander Smith, Isaac Williams, Daniel Yarnell
Andrew Jackson's official report of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814) mentions that "a few companies" of Colonel Bunch were part of the right line of the American forces. This regiment was in General George Doherty's Brigade and many of the men stayed after the enlistment expiration of May 1814 to guard the posts at Fort Strother and Fort Williams until June/July.

3rd Regiment of Tennessee Militia; Col. Stephen Copeland

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Overton, Smith, Wilson, Franklin, Warren, Bedford, and Lincoln Counties
CAPTAINS: John Biler(Byler), John Dawson, William Douglass, William Evans, Solomon George, William Hodges, John Holshouser, Alexander Provine, Richard Sharp, George W. Still, James Tait, Moses Thompson, Allen Wilkinson, David Williams.
Jackson's report of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814) mentions that Copeland's regiment was held in reserve during this engagement.

4th Regiment West Tennessee Militia Infantry; Col. Robert Steele

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Jackson, White, Bedford, Giles, Lincoln, and Maury Counties
CAPTAINS: James Bennett, Robert Campbell, John Chitwood, Samuel Maxwell, James Randals, Richard Ratton, James Shinault
Colonel Steele and his men were left at Fort Strother while Jackson marched the rest of his army to Horseshoe Bend where the climactic battle of the Creek War was fought (27 March 1814). Steele's regiment served as wagon guards for supplies from Fort Deposit and built boats to transport supplies down the Coosa River to Fort Williams.

January 1814 - July 1814

Battalion of East Tennessee Militia; Mayor Thomas C. Clark

MEN MOSTLY FROM
Roane, Bledsoe, and Rhea Counties.
CAPTAINS: Allen S. Bacon, James Berry, John Hankins, (Lt.) John Hixson(Hixon), and Thomas Walker
Order to Fort Armstrong in January 1814. Although little is known of this unit, the battalion was more than likely used to facilitate the transfer of supplies from east Tennessee to the armies fighting in the Creek campaigns.

1st Regiment West Tennessee Militia; Col Richard C. Napier

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Maury, Dickson, Montgomery, Sumner, Giles, and Stewart Counties
CAPTAINS: Drury Adkins, Abraham Allen, Samuel Ashmore, Early Benson, John Chism, Thomas Gray, Andrew McCarty, James McMurry, Edward Neblett, Thomas Preston
. While some detachments participated in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814), others stayed at Fort Williams on guard duty (Capt. Preston)

January 22, 1814

Emuckfau or Amuckfau Creek, Alabama

Major General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee Militia. Major General Andrew Jackson commanding

Colonel William Higgins' 2nd Regiment Tennessee Mounted Volunteers
Colonel Nicholas Perkins's 1st Regiment West Tennessee Mounted Volunteers
Captain David Deadrick's Artillery company, one six-pound cannon, 30 men
Cherokee and Creek warriors, 200 warriors

January 24, 1814

Enitachopoco or Enotachopco Creek, a Hillibee village, Alabama

Maj. General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee Militia. Maj. General Andrew Jackson commanding

Colonel William Higgins' 2nd Regiment Tennessee Mounted Volunteers
Colonel Nicholas Perkins's 1st Regiment West Tennessee Mounted Volunteers
Captain David Deadrick's Artillery company, one six-pound cannon, 30 men
Cherokee and Creek warriors, 200 warriors

March 27, 1814

Horse Shoe Bend, Tallapoosa County, Alabama

Battle of the Horseshoe Bend.

Maj. General Andrew Jackson's Forces. Maj. General Andrew Jackson commanding

Captain Jean Bean's Company of Mounted Spies
Major L. P. Montgomery's 39th U.S. Infantry Regulars
General George Doherty's Brigade
Colonel Ewen Allison's 1st Regiment of East Tennessee Militia
Captain Everett's Company
Captain King's Company
Captain Loughmiller's Company
Captain Winsell's Company
Captain Hampton's Company (was at Fort Armstrong)
Colonel Samuel Bunch's 1st Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Infantry
Captain Francis Berry's Company
Captain Nicholas Gibbs' Company
Captain Jones Griffin's Company
Captain Moses Davis' Company
Captain Joseph Duncan's Company
Captain John Houk's Company
General Thomas Johnson' Brigade
Colonel Stephen Copeland's 3rd Regiment of Tennessee Militia
Captain Moses Thompson's Company
Captain Allen Wilkinson's Company
Colonel Richard C. Napier's 1st Regiment West Tennessee Militia
Captain James McMurray's Company
Colonel John Brown's East Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
General John Coffee's Brigade
Colonel Robert Dyer's Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
Captain David Deadrick's Artillery company, two six-pound cannon
Cherokee, Chickasaw and Choctaws warriors

June 1814 - December 1814

1st Regiment West Tennessee Militia; Col. Philip Pipkin

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Robertson, Williamson, Davidson, Giles, Hickman, Maury, Sumner, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: James Blakemore, Ebenezer Kilpatrick, William Mackay(Mackey), George Mebane, Henry M. Newlin, John Robertson, Peter Searcy, John Strother, David Smythe
They were ordered to man the various forts of the Mississippi Territory: Forts Jackson, Williams, Strother, Claiborne, and Pierce. Many of the men were stationed in the vicinity of Mobile. The unrest caused by conditions at Mobile led to a high desertion rate throughout the regiment. The desertions, along with enlistment disputes, led to court martials in December 1814 at Mobile, resulting in the execution of six soldiers on 21 February 1815

September 1814 - March 1815

Separate Battalion of West Tennessee Militia; Major William Woodfolk

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Jackson, Wilson, Overton, Stewart, and Williamson Counties
CAPTAINS: Abraham Dudney, William McCulley, James C. Neill, Abner Pearce, Ezekiel Bass, John Sutton, James Turner
This battalion was based at Fort Jackson most of the time from late November 1814 to early 1815. Some of the men were stationed at Fort Decatur, where the remnants of the defeated Creek Nation came to surrender, seeking food and supplies (surrendering Creeks also went to Fort Jackson). One company, under Captain Abner Pearce, was stationed at Fort Montgomery.

Separate Battalion of Volunteer Mounted Gunmen; Major William Russell

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Franklin, Bedford, Blount, Madison (Ala.), Rutherford, Warren, and Wilson Counties
CAPTAINS: William Chism, John Cowan, Fleman Hodges, George Mitchie, William Russell, John Trimble, Isaac Williams
This unit served in the Pensacola/Mobile region and was a part of Major Uriah Blue's expedition that roamed along the Escambia River in Florida in search of renegade Creeks toward the end of the war. One of whom was David Crockett, a sergeant in Capt. John Conway's company.

September 1814 - April 1815

2nd Regiment West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen: Col. Thomas Williamson

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Bedford, Davidson, Robertson, Rutherford, Sumner, Williamson, Wilson, Giles, and Smith Counties
CAPTAINS: Giles Burdett, James Cook, John Crane, John Doak, John Dobbins, John Hutchings, William Martin, Anthony Metcalf, Robert Moore, James Nealy, James Pace, Thomas Porter, Thomas Scurry, Robert Steele, Richard Tate, Beverly Williams
They helped Jackson take the port of Pensacola from the Spanish on 7 November 1814. Williamson's men then participated in all of the engagements at New Orleans, where they were part of the left line of Jackson's breastworks. In March 1815 they returned to Tennessee via the Natchez Trace.

September/October 1814 - May 1815

1st Regiment of West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen: Col. Robert Dyer

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Dickson, Williamson, Bedford, Maury, Montgomery, Rutherford, Smith, and Stewart Counties
CAPTAINS: Bethel Allen, Ephraim D. Dickson, Robert Edmonston, Robert Evans, Cuthbert Hudson, Thomas Jones, James McMahon, Glen Owen, Thomas White, Joseph Williams, James Wyatt.
Part of Coffee's brigade at New Orleans, most of this regiment took part in the night battle of 23 December 1814. Portions of this regiment also participated in the capture of Pensacola from the Spanish in West Florida (7 November 1814).

2nd Regiment West Tennessee Militia; Col. Alexander Loury and Lt. Col. Leroy Hammond

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Warren, Humphreys, Lincoln, Maury, Robertson, Smith, Sumner, White, and Williamson Counties
CAPTAINS: James Craig, Thomas Delaney, James Kincaid, John Looney, Gabriel Mastin, Asahel Rains, George Sarver, James Tubb, Thomas Wells, Joseph N. Williamson
Part of General Nathaniel Taylor's brigade, this regiment was scattered throughout the Creek territory and the vicinity of Mobile to man the various forts in the region: Forts Jackson, Montgomery, Claiborne, and Pierce. Some of the companies participated in the taking of Pensacola (7 November 1814)

3rd Regiment East Tennessee Militia; Col. William Johnson

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Knox, Claiborne, Greene, Jefferson, Anderson, Blount, Carter, Cocke, Grainger, Hawkins, Rhea, Roane, and Sevier Counties
CAPTAINS: Christopher Cook, Henry Hunter, Joseph Kirk, Andrew Lawson, Elihu Milikin, David McKamy, Benjamin Powell, James R. Rogers, Joseph Scott, James Stewart, James Tunnell
Part of General Nathaniel Taylor's brigade, this unit of drafted militia (about 900 men) was mustered in at Knoxville and marched to the vicinity of Mobile via Camp Ross (present-day Chattanooga), Fort Jackson, Fort Claiborne, and Fort Montgomery. Along the way the men were used as road builders and wagon guards. Many of them were stationed at Camp Mandeville (near Mobile) in February 1814.

East Tennessee Mounted Gunmen; Mayor John Chiles

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Knox, Anderson, Bledsoe, Blount, Grainger, Jefferson, Hawkins, Rhea and Roane Counties
CAPTAINS: Charles Conway, James Cumming, Daniel Price, Jehu Stephens, Ruben Tipton
This battalion, along with a battalion under the command of Major William Russell, was part of an expedition led by Major Uriah Blue (39th U.S. Infantry) into West Florida in December 1814/January 1815. Their mission was to roam the Escambia River in search of refugee Creek warriors who escaped Jackson's capture of Pensacola (7 November 1814). They were in the vicinity of Baton Rouge, where they were waiting to go to New Orleans to participate in the campaign there. The war concluded before they were called out.

September 12th-15th, 1814

Siege of Fort Bowyer Baldwin County Alabama, September, 1814

November 1814 - May 1815

1st Regiment West Tennessee Militia

2nd Regiment of West Tennessee Militia; Col. John Cocke

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Montgomery, Williamson, Dickson, Hickman, Robertson, Rutherford, and Stewart Counties
CAPTAINS: George Barnes, Samuel Carothers, Richard Crunk, John Dalton, Francis Ellis, James Gault, James Gray, Bird Nance, Joseph Price, John Weakley
This regiment was one of three West Tennessee militia units at New Orleans under the command of Major General William Carroll. They were part of the flotilla that went down to New Orleans via the Cumberland, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers. Colonel Cocke was sheriff of Montgomery County at the time of war. He is not to be confused with Major General John Cocke of East Tennessee who commanded the 1st Division and was counterpart to Andrew Jackson -- Jackson commanding the 2nd Division.

3rd Regiment West Tennessee Militia Infantry; Col. James Raulston

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Jackson, Sumner, Wilson, Overton, Smith, and White Counties
CAPTAINS: James A. Black, Matthew Cowen, Henry Hamilton, Elijah Haynie, Wiley Huddleston, Matthew Neal, Daniel Newman, Edward Robinson, Charles Wade, Henry West
Part of Major General William Carroll's division at the battles for New Orleans. General Carroll's report of the battle tells that Captains Elijah Haynie and Matthew Neal "had the honor of receiving and repelling the attacks of the British forces."

4th Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col. Samuel Bayless

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Washington, Jefferson, Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Greene, and Sullivan Counties
CAPTAINS: Joseph Bacon, John Brock, James Churchman, Joseph Goodson, Joseph Hale, Solomon Hendricks, Branch Jones, James Landen, Joseph Rich, Jonathan Waddle
This regiment, along with Colonel William Johnson's Third Regiment and Colonel Edwin Booth's Fifth Regiment, defended the lower section of the Mississippi Territory, particularly the vicinity of Mobile. The regiment mustered in at Knoxville and was dismissed at Mobile.

5th Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col. William Metcalf

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Bedford, Franklin, Lincoln, Maury, Warren, and Giles Counties
CAPTAINS: John Barnhart, Daniel M. Bradford, Barbe Collins, John Cunningham, Lewis Dillahunty, Alexander Hill, Bird S. Hurt, John Jackson, Thomas Marks, William Mullen, Andrew Patterson, William Sitton, Obidiah Waller
Part of the division under Major General William Carroll's at New Orleans, this regiment comprised the right section of Carroll's line at the breastworks at Chalmette. Captain Daniel Bradford led the elite corps known as "Carroll's Life Guard." The division reached New Orleans in mid-December 1814 after an excursion down the Mississippi River.

5th Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col. Edwin Booth

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Knox, Blount, Sevier, Anderson, Bledsoe, Hawkins, Rhea, and Roane Counties
CAPTAINS: Alexander Biggs, John Lewis, Wilson Maples, Richard Marshall, John McKamy, John Porter, Miles Vernon, John Sharp, John Slatton, Samuel Thompson, George Winton
Along with the Fourth Regiment of Colonel Samuel Bayless and Colonel William Johnson's Third Regiment, this regiment was part of the division under the command of Major General William Carroll. Many of the men may have been stationed at Camp Mandeville, a military post located outside of Mobile. Most of the companies were dismissed at Mobile at the end of the war.

November 7, 1814

Storming and Capture of Spanish Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida

Pensacola in West Florida

Jackson turned to Pensacola, which he had said was his objective of campaign, a year before. At Mims' ferry, the Mississippi Dragoons and other mounted men left their horses, to march the rest of the way on foot due to a lack of forage in the swamps. The soldiers forced an entrance into the town November 7, the British fled to Jackson destroyed the remaining fort and set his army in motion for Fort Montgomery, on the Perdido. The Dragoons did good work in the Pensacola campaign, and in the command of Majors Blue and Kennedy was a party of Choctaw warriors.

U. S. Forces

Maj. General Andrew Jackson commanding
Colonel Thomas Hinds' Mississippi Dragoons (Hind's Battalion of Cavalry, Mississippi Militia)
Major Woodruff commanding:
3rd U. S. Infantry Regulars
Captain Larval's Company
39th U. S. Infantry Regulars
44th U. S. Infantry Regulars 2 cannon
General Coffee commanding
Colonel Robert Dyer's 1st Regiment of West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
Colonel Thomas Williamson's 2nd Regiment West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
Major William Russell's Separate Battalion of Volunteer Mounted Gunmen
Major Uriah Blue commanding
Mississippi Militia
Choctaw warriors
Major Kennedy commanding
Tennessee Militia
Choctaw warriors
Captain Denkins' Artillery Company 3 cannon

December 13-15, 1814

Battle of Lake Bourgne, Waters Between Point Claire, Hancock County, Mississippi and Malheureux Island,

December 23, 1814-January 27, 1815

War of 1812 Project Images Image 7

1815

Battle of New Orleans, Louisiana

Jackson's Forces

On June 14 1814, Jackson was given commission of major general and appointment of military commander of the 7th Military District, headquarters in New Orleans.

Jackson would have a mixed force of regular soldiers, militia, Indians, Free Men of Color and Lafitte's privateers numbering about 4,000.

Tennessee militia, 2,700 strong, reached Natchez, December 13, under Gen. Carroll, whom Judge George Poindexter joined as an aide. The Dragoons under Maj. Hinds, arrived at New Orleans just in time to take part of the first battle, December 23. The Natchez Volunteer Riflemen organized under Capt. James C. Wilkins, reached the city on the day of the battle of January 8, 1815, and took position on the field. Maj. Chotard, a gallant Mississippian, served on the staff of Jackson, and was wounded by a shell near the Villere mansion.

Jackson arrived in New Orleans on Dec 1, 1814

September 1814 - April 1815

2nd Regiment West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen: Col. Thomas Williamson

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Bedford, Davidson, Robertson, Rutherford, Sumner, Williamson, Wilson, Giles, and Smith Counties
CAPTAINS: Giles Burdett, James Cook, John Crane, John Doak, John Dobbins, John Hutchings, William Martin, Anthony Metcalf, Robert Moore, James Nealy, James Pace, Thomas Porter, Thomas Scurry, Robert Steele, Richard Tate, Beverly Williams
They helped Jackson take the port of Pensacola from the Spanish on 7 November 1814. Williamson's men then participated in all of the engagements at New Orleans, where they were part of the left line of Jackson's breastworks. In March 1815 they returned to Tennessee via the Natchez Trace.

September/October 1814 - May 1815

1st Regiment of West Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen: Col. Robert Dyer

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Dickson, Williamson, Bedford, Maury, Montgomery, Rutherford, Smith, and Stewart Counties
CAPTAINS: Bethel Allen, Ephraim D. Dickson, Robert Edmonston, Robert Evans, Cuthbert Hudson, Thomas Jones, James McMahon, Glen Owen, Thomas White, Joseph Williams, James Wyatt.
Part of Coffee's brigade at New Orleans, most of this regiment took part in the night battle of 23 December 1814. Portions of this regiment also participated in the capture of Pensacola from the Spanish in West Florida (7 November 1814).

2nd Regiment of West Tennessee Militia; Col. John Cocke

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Montgomery, Williamson, Dickson, Hickman, Robertson, Rutherford, and Stewart Counties
CAPTAINS: George Barnes, Samuel Carothers, Richard Crunk, John Dalton, Francis Ellis, James Gault, James Gray, Bird Nance, Joseph Price, John Weakley
This regiment was one of three West Tennessee militia units at New Orleans under the command of Major General William Carroll. They were part of the flotilla that went down to New Orleans via the Cumberland, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers. Colonel Cocke was sheriff of Montgomery County at the time of war. He is not to be confused with Major General John Cocke of East Tennessee who commanded the 1st Division and was counterpart to Andrew Jackson -- Jackson commanding the 2nd Division.

3rd Regiment West Tennessee Militia Infantry; Col. James Raulston

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Jackson, Sumner, Wilson, Overton, Smith, and White Counties
CAPTAINS: James A. Black, Matthew Cowen, Henry Hamilton, Elijah Haynie, Wiley Huddleston, Matthew Neal, Daniel Newman, Edward Robinson, Charles Wade, Henry West
Part of Major General William Carroll's division at the battles for New Orleans. General Carroll's report of the battle tells that Captains Elijah Haynie and Matthew Neal "had the honor of receiving and repelling the attacks of the British forces."

5th Regiment of East Tennessee Militia; Col. William Metcalf

MEN MOSTLY FROM: Davidson, Bedford, Franklin, Lincoln, Maury, Warren, and Giles Counties
CAPTAINS: John Barnhart, Daniel M. Bradford, Barbe Collins, John Cunningham, Lewis Dillahunty, Alexander Hill, Bird S. Hurt, John Jackson, Thomas Marks, William Mullen, Andrew Patterson, William Sitton, Obidiah Waller
Part of the division under Major General William Carroll's at New Orleans, this regiment comprised the right section of Carroll's line at the breastworks at Chalmette. Captain Daniel Bradford led the elite corps known as "Carroll's Life Guard." The division reached New Orleans in mid-December 1814 after an excursion down the Mississippi River.



Tennessee at the Battle of New Orleans by ELBERT L. WATSON


Name Branch Rank Unit
Baker, George Unknown Unknown Unknown
Bandy, Epperson Army Unknown Unknown
Bandy, Jameson Army Unknown Unknown
Bass, Ezekiel Militia Captain 1st Regiment
Bateman, Carleton Unknown Unknown Unknown
Cate, Robert T Militia Corporal 4th Regiment, Cpt. Bayles' East Tennessee
Collins, Nathaniel Madison Army Private 1st Regiment Mounted Gunmen (Dyer's)
Crockett, David HawkinsMilitiaSgt 2nd Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Riflemen, Capt. John Cowan Co. of Tennessee Mounted Gunmen
Dunn Jr., Daniel Richard Militia Unknown Unknown
Hatley, Marcus (Mark) Militia Unknown Capt John Underwood's Co H
McLary or McClary, Robert Washington Unknown Captain 5th Cavalry (McKenzie's)
Oliver, John Militia Private Col. Ewen Allison's regiment, Cpt. Adam Winsell's company
Potts, Amos Army Private Captain William Chisum’s Mounted Gunmen
Potts, John Army Unknown Unknown
George Ramsey Militia PrivateClark's Battalion, E Tennessee Militia
Raulston, James Militia Colonel 18th Infantry
Roach, Drury Militia Unknown 2nd Regiment Infantry, Col Wm Lillard, Capt. Thos Sharpe
Robertson, Sterling Clack Militia Major Unknown
Stubbs, Aaron Militia UnknownCapt. J. Brown, Wm White Co.
Tate, James Militia Major 29th Regiment
Wear, Samuel Militia Colonel 1st Regiment
Jackson, Andrew Militia Colonel Major General Multiple
Charles Wells Volunteers LieutenantUnknown
Wilhite, James Volunteers Private 2nd Regiment, Lillard's
Wilhoit, Philip Volunteers Private 2nd Reg't, E Tennessee, Lillard's
Dugger, John Volunteers Unknown 1st Regiment Volunteers
Stone, Thomas S. Militia Unknown 2nd Regiment
Havens, Joseph Militia Sargent or Lieutenant 2nd Regiment Duncan's Co.
Ogle, Thomas J. Militia Private 3rd Regiment
Bartlett, Joshua Militia Unknown 1st Regiment (Wynn's) Capt. Hollowman's Co.
Robertson, Hezekiah Militia Unknown 1st Regiment (Pipkin's)
Hodges, William VolunteersPrivate 1st Reg't (Dyer's) Mounted Gunmen

Resources

E. Book The pictorial field-book of the war of 1812; or, Illustrations, by pen and pencil, of the history, biography, scenery, relics, and traditions of the last war for American independence by Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891

E Book Early History of Middle Tennessee by Edward Albright, Brandon printing Company, 1909

The Tennessee Historical Society

National Society United States Daughters of 1812

General Society War of 1812

War of 1812 Discharge Certificates

THE CREEK WAR OF 1813 AND 1814 By H. S. HALBERT and T. H. BALL, Chicago, Illinois: Donohue & Henneberry; Montgomery, Alabama. White, Woodruff & Fowler 1895; and a facsimile reproduction by University of Alabama Press, May 30, 1995.


Bibliography

Tennesseans in the War of 1812 (Nashville: Byron Sistler and Associates, 1992);

Penelope Johnson Allen, Tennessee Soldiers in the War of 1812: regiments of Col. Allcorn and Col. Allison (Chattanooga, Tn.: Tennessee Society, United States Daughters, War of 1812, 1947);

James L. Douthat, The 1814 Court Martial of Tennessee Militiamen (Signal Mountain: Mountain Press, 1993). The Tennessee State Library and Archives has microfilm of Tennessee War of 1812 rosters.

Wiki Tree Fee Space

Choctaw Detachment of Warriors

Creek War, Battles and Forts





Images: 9
Pensacola in West Florida
Pensacola in West Florida

General John Coffee
General  John Coffee

Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans

War of 1812 Mississippi Territory Image 2
War of 1812 Mississippi Territory Image 2

Willie Blount
Willie Blount

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