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Women's suffrage movement

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Extract from Suffragette Movement Wikipedia

Suffragettes were members of women's organization right to vote movements in the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the United Kingdom and United States. Suffragist is a more general term for members of suffrage movements, whether radical or conservative, male or female.

The term "suffragette" is particularly associated with activists in the British women's suffrage movement in the early 20th century, whose demonstrations included chaining themselves to railings and setting fire to mailbox contents. One woman, Emily Davison, died at the Epsom Derby. It is unsure what she was trying to achieve when she was run down by the King's horse. Many suffragettes were imprisoned in Holloway Prison in London, and were force-fed after going on hunger strike.

In the United States, women over 21 were first allowed to vote in the territories of Wyoming from 1869 and in Utah from 1870, and with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment the suffrage was extended to women across the United States in time for the 1920 presidential election. Women over 21 were allowed to vote in New Zealand from 1893, in Australia from 1894, and in Canada from 1919. Women in the UK were given the vote in 1918 if over 30 and meeting certain property qualifications, and in 1928 suffrage was extended to all women over the age of 21


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Contents

Australia

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Annette Bear-Crawford - Annette Bear-Crawford was a women's suffragist and federationist and women's activist in Victoria Australia she became a leading figure in the women's movement in Australia,forming the Victorian Women's Suffrage League.

Edith Cowan - Edith Dircksey Cowan MBE was an Australian politician, social campaigner she was the founder of Children’s Protective Society and the first woman elected to an Australian parliament

Euphemia Bowes - Euphemia arrived in the colony as a bounty immigrant on the ship 'Fairlie' on 6 Dec 1838 Euphemia Bowes was president of the NSW branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (founded 1882) in her older age

Vida Goldstein - Vida Goldstein was an early Australian feminist politician who campaigned for women's suffrage and social reform. She was the first woman in the British Empire to stand for election to a national parliament

Louisa Lawson - Louisa Lawson née Albury was an Australian poet, writer, publisher, suffragist, and feminist. She was the mother of the poet and author Henry Lawson.

Mary Lee - Mary Lee née Walsh was an Irish-Australian suffragist and social reformer in South Australia by her 75th birthday 60,000 women had enrolled to vote. In 1885 she was nominated to stand for parliament but refused.

Muriel Matters - Muriel Lilah Matters was an Australian born suffragist, lecturer, journalist, educator, actress and elocutionist.Muriel Matters is best known for her work on behalf of the Women's Freedom League.

Dora Meeson Dora Meeson was an Australian Artist she was a member of the British Artists' Suffrage League. A representation of her banner was used on the design of the Australian 2003 dollar coin celebrating the centenary of women's suffrage.

Emma Miller Emma Miller was a pioneer trade union organiser, suffragist, Women's rights activist,labour activist and key figure in organisations which led to the founding of the Australian Labor Party in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Rose Scott - Rose Scott was an Australian women's rights activist who advocated for women's suffrage and universal suffrage in New South Wales at the turn-of-the twentieth century.

Catherine Spence Catherine Spence was a Scottish-born Australian author, teacher, journalist, politician and leading suffragist in 1897 she became Australia's first female political candidate called the "Greatest Australian Woman" by Miles Franklin.




America

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Jane Addams - Jane Addams was a pioneer settlement social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Susan Brownell Anthony - Susan Brownell Anthony was an American social reformer committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856 she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Antoinette Louisa Blackwell - Antoinette Brown Blackwell , was the first woman to be ordained as a minister in the United States, she was co-founder, with Lucy Stone, of the American Woman Suffrage Association

Madeline Breckinridge - Madeline McDowell Breckinridge was a leader of the women's suffrage movement and one of Kentucky's leading progressive reformers whose efforts focused on child welfare, health issues, and women’s rights.

Laura Clay - Laura Clay was co-founder and first president of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association,she was a leader of the American women's suffrage movement. She was the first woman to have her name placed into nomination for the presidency at the convention of a major political party.

Katharine Martha Hepburn - Katharine Hepburn was an American feminist social reformer and a leader of the suffrage movement in the United States, served as president of the Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association before joining the National Woman's Party She was the mother of Academy Award winning actress Katharine Hepburn

Julia Ward Howe - Julia Ward Howe was a prominent American abolitionist,social activist, poet,she helped found the New England Women’s club and the New England Woman Suffrage Association, and the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"

Alice Stokes Paul - Alice Stokes Paul was an American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist. As one of the main leaders and strategists of the campaign, along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920

Hannah Jane Patterson - Hannah Jane Patterson was a pioneer advocate of women's suffrage and a dominant figure in the feminist movement. She was a significant factor in getting both party platforms to endorse suffrage by state action.

Anna Shaw - Anna Howard Shaw was a leader of the women's suffrage movement in the United States. She was also a physician and one of the first ordained female Methodist ministers in the United States.

Elizabeth Stanton - Elizabeth Stanton was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.She wrote the Declaration of Sentiments as a call to arms for female equality.

Frances Willard - Frances Willard was an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist.Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution.



Britian

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Emily Wilding Davison - Emily Wilding Davison was a militant activist who fought for women's suffrage in Britain. She was jailed on seven occasions and force-fed 49 times. She is best known for stepping in front of King George V's horse Anmer at the Epsom Derby on 4 June 1913, sustaining injuries that resulted in her death four days later.

Flora Mckinnon Drummond - Flora Mckinnon Drummond was a prominent militant Suffragette. She was known for leading Women’s Rights marches through the streets of London wearing a military styled coat and riding a large horse, earning her the nickname, The General. Flora was an organiser for the Women's Social and Political Union and was imprisoned nine times for her activism in the Women's Suffrage movement.

Millicent Garrett Fawcett - Millicent Garrett Fawcett was a leading Suffragist and campaigner for equal rights for women. She led the biggest suffrage organisation, the non-violent (NUWSS) from 1890-1919 and played a key role in gaining women the vote.

Annie Kenney - Annie Kenney was an English working class suffragette who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union. She attracted the attention of the press and the public in 1905, when she was imprisoned for several days for assault and obstruction, after heckling Sir Edward Grey at a Liberal rally in Manchester. This incident is credited with inaugurating a new phase in the struggle for women's suffrage in the UK, with the adoption of militant tactics.

Christabel Pankhurst - Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, DBE, was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913. In 1914 she supported the war against Germany. After the war she moved to the United States, where she worked as an evangelist for the Second Adventist movement.

Emmeline Pankhurst - Emmeline Pankhurst was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.

Dora Thewlis - Dora Thewlis was one of the youngest members of the struggle for women’s votes. At 16 she joined protestors trying to storm the House of Commons, became a tabloid sensation dubbed Baby Suffragette, and was sent to Holloway prison after refusing to return home to Yorkshire.



Canada

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Edith Jessie Archibald - Edith Jessie Archibald was a Canadian suffragist and writer who led the Maritime Women's Christian Temperance Union (WTCU) and the National Council of Women of Canada . She was designated a Person of National Historic Significance by the Government of Canada in 1997.

Laura Borden - Laura Borden served as president of the Local Council of Women of Halifax, for women's right to vote until her resignation in 1901.She was the wife of Sir Robert Laird Borden, the eighth Prime Minister of Canada.

Henrietta Louise Edwards - Henrietta Edwards was a Canadian women's rights activist and reformer.She was one of the Famous Five,they were five Canadian women who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons.

Louise McKinney - Louise McKinney was a Canadian politician and women's rights activist. She was the first woman elected to a legislature in Canada and in the British Empire.She was one of the Famous Five who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' include female persons?

Helen Letitia Mooney - Nellie Letitia Mooney was a Canadian feminist, politician, she was one of five women known as The Famous Five they launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate.

Emily Jamima Murphy - Emily Murphy was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author. In 1916, she became the first female magistrate in Canada, and in the British Empire, she is one of the Famous Five who ask the question whether women were "persons" under Canadian law

Irene Parlby - Irene Parlby was a Canadian women's farm leader, activist and politician.She was one of five women who became known as the famous five who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act include female persons

Eliza Ritchie - Eliza Ritchie suffragist,scholar, educator, author, aesthete, Philanthropist, and feminist in Nova Scotia, Canada. She was on the executive of the Local Council of Women of Halifax.She also has a stained glass window in St. Paul's Church (Halifax) dedicated to her.



Ireland

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Frances Power Booth - Frances Power Cobbe was an Irish author, social reformer, anti-vivisection activist, and leading women's suffrage campaigner She founded the National Anti-Vivisect in 1898 She was the champion of higher education for women

Eva Selina Gore-Booth - Eva Selina Laura Gore-Booth was an Irish Aurthor,and dramatist, and a committed suffragist, social worker and labour activist she was the sister of Constance Georgine Markievicz

Anna Maria Haslam - Anna Maria Haslam was a suffragist and a Social Reformer Anna along with husband Thomas founded the Dublin Women's Suffrage Association (DWSA) and was a major figure in the 19th and early 20th-century women’s movement in Ireland.

Mary Teresa Hayden - Mary Teresa Hayden was an Irish historian, Irish-language activist and campaigner for women's causes

Kathleen Florence Lynn - Kathleen Florence Lynn was an Irish Sinn Féin politician, activist Suffragette and medical doctor in 1919 she established St Ultan’s Hospital with the help of her friend Madeleine ffrench Mullen.

Countess Constance Markievicz - Constance Georgine Markievicz was an Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette and socialist the first woman elected to the British House of Commons, formed the first Dáil Éireann. She was also one of the first women in the world to hold a cabinet position.

Helena Maloney - Helena Molony was a Suffragette Feminist and Labour activist,Actress, Trade Union Organiser and Journalist. She was also one of the first women in the world to hold a cabinet position.

Edith MacBride - Maud Gonne MacBride was an English-born Irish revolutionary, feminist ,Maude led the Inghinidhe na hÉireann ( Daughters of Ireland) which was a radical Irish nationalist women's organisation from 1900 to 1914.

Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington - Johanna Mary (Hanna) Sheehy-Skeffington, was a suffragette and Irish nationalist she founded the Irish Women's Franchise League in 1908 she was later a founding member of the Irish Women Workers' Union.

Jennie Wyse Power - Jane "Jennie" Wyse Power was an Irish activist, feminist, politician and businesswoman. She was a founder member of Sinn Féin and also of Inghinidhe na hÉireann n.



New Zealand

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Catherine Wilson Sheppard - Kate Sheppard was the most prominent member of New Zealand's Women's Suffrage ,New Zealand was the first country to introduce universal suffrage and the first country for women to get the vote,Kate Sheppard's work has had a considerable impact on women's suffrage movements in several other countries

Anna Paterson Stout - Anna Paterson Stout was a suffragette, feminist and a social reformer. She was the founder of the Women’s Franchise League in Dunedin and first vice-president of the National Council of Women. She was also a foundation member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.

Sophia Louisa Taylor - Sophia Louisa Taylor was a New Zealand suffragist and landowner she was a member of the women's franchise League Auckland branch and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Ada Wells - Ada Wells was a prominent public figure who played a pivotal role in the advancement of women's equality in New Zealand. She is best remembered for her contribution to the women’s suffrage campaign in the 1880s and 90s, and for becoming the first woman elected to the Christchurch City Council in 1917.







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