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World Pandemics

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Date: Oct 2014
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CURRENT ALERTS

Zika Virus Travel Alert

Contents

PANDEMIC TIMELINES

Hun migrations 'linked to deadly Justinian Plague' By Paul Rincon, Science editor, BBC News website, 10 May 2018[1]

ZIKA VIRUS

The Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, and now in the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.[2]

The History of Zika the Virus

The following map illustrations chronical the presence of Zika only in those countries for which there is evidence of indigenous transmission by mosquitos, excluding the many countries that have notified imported Zika infections.[3]
WHO Timeline map of the Zika Virus #1
WHO Timeline Map of the Zika Virus #2
WHO Timeline Map of the Zika Virus #3
The spread of Zika infection, country by country, from the earliest discovery in 1947 to the latest information as of 7 February 2016. Zika virus infection appears to have changed in character while expanding its geographical range.[4]

First Signs

🔹 1947: Scientists conducting routine surveillance for yellow fever in the Zika forest of Uganda isolate the Zika virus in samples taken from a captive, sentinel rhesus monkey.
🔹1948: The virus is recovered from the mosquito Aedes africanus, caught on a tree platform in the Zika forest.
🔹1952: The first human cases are detected in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania in a study demonstrating the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Zika virus in sera.[5]

Potential Complications of Zika Virus Disease

During large outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of Zika virus disease. Recently in Brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome which coincided with Zika virus infections in the general public, as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast Brazil. Substantial new research has strengthened the association between Zika infection and the occurrence of fetal malformations and neurological disorders. However, more investigation is needed to better understand the relationship. Other potential causes are also being investigated.

Transmission & Spead of the ZIKA Virus

Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. However, sexual transmission of Zika virus has is also possible. Other modes of transmission such as blood transfusion and perinatal transmission are currently being investigated.
Zika outbreaks were reported for the first time from the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 (Yap and French Polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the Americas (Brazil and Colombia) and Africa (Cabo Verde). In total, 64 countries and territories have reported transmission of Zika virus since 1 January 2007.

Signs & Symptoms

Most people infected with Zika virus won’t even know they have the disease because they won’t have symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week. See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a place where Zika has been reported.[6]

RECENT EBOLA TIMELINE

EBOLA

The current epidemic in West Africa is the largest Ebola outbreak on record. In less than a year, the virus has killed more than 4,000 people. The CDC has said that in a worst-case scenario the disease could infect as many as 1.4 million people by January. If the current death rate holds steady around 70%, that could mean up to 980,000 by next year. We will see how this epidemic compares with others throughout history.
'Ebola is a virus that is affecting people thousands of miles away in West Africa, and is now in America with two transmissions on U.S. soil confirmed in Dallas and officials calling additional transmissions to health workers a "very real possibility."
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has sickened 8,399 people since March, killing 4,033 of them -- making it the worst outbreak of the virus in history, according to the World Health Organization.
Find out how the virus first arrived in the United States-- -- via U.S. missionaries flown here for treatment over the past summer -- and then how Ebola was unwittingly imported via Thomas Eric Duncan, who flew from Liberia to Texas with the virus and later died in Dallas.[7]

2015

July 2015

01 July 2015: Liberia confirmed a second case of Ebola on Tuesday, just a day after the first case since the virus was declared eliminated in May.
It's bad news for Liberia, which had worked hard to eliminate the virus. It suggests that Ebola may still be circulating undetected. Liberia's neighbors, Sierra Leone and Guinea, are still recording several new cases every week.
Liberia was declared Ebola-free by the World Health Organization on May 9 and aid workers had closed Ebola treatment units.
The West African epidemic has killed more than 11,200 people and infected more than 27,000 since it began in December 2013. "We have two confirmed cases today in Liberia," said Dr. Moses Massaquoi of Liberia's Ebola Task Force. He did not provide details of the new case.
The body of a 17-year-old boy from a rural area outside of Monrovia tested positive for the virus on Sunday. It is not clear how he was infected, WHO said.
"After presenting at a local health facility the patient was treated for malaria and discharged," WHO said in its weekly update on Ebola.
"He died on 28 June and received a safe burial the same day. An oral swab taken before the burial subsequently tested positive twice for Ebola."
WHO said the boy had been in close contact with at least 102 people, who will be followed.
"The case reportedly had no recent history of travel, contact with visitors from affected areas, or funeral attendance." [8]

March 2015

Sierra Leone Ebola lockdown exposes hundreds of suspected cases [9]

2014

November 2014

‘’Gave It Everything’’: ‘’Ebola-Infected Surgeon Dr. Martin Salia Dies’’
‘’’Dr. Martin Salia’’’, infected with ‘’Ebola’’ in his native ‘’Sierra Leone’’, died Monday at ‘’Nebraska Medical Center’’. His doctors told a news conference that ‘’’Salia’’’ was already very, very sick when he was flown to the United States.[10]
  1. Source Maggie Fox, Senior Health Writer for NBCNews.com and TODAY.com. Source URL: http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ebola-virus-outbreak/gave-it-everything-ebola-infected-surgeon-dr-martin-salia-dies-n250106 First published November 17th 2014, 11:34 am.

October 27, 2014

United Nations On October 25 the WHO announces that the Ebola outbreak has passed 10,000 cases worldwide; of the 4,922 deaths, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea account for all but ten.[169][170] United Kingdom Also on October 25, a paper published in The Lancet[171] forecasts that the scale of the current international response is too slow to prevent numerous further deaths in West Africa.[172] United States Also on October 25, nurse Kaci Hickox, who had treated EVD patients in Sierra Leone, expresses frustration at her quarantine after her arrival at Newark International Airport the previous day under a state policy which exceeds the recommendations of the CDC.[173] Mauritania Also on October 25, Mauritania closes its border with Mali.[174] United States On October 26, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn signs an order mandating a 21-day quarantine for those who have had direct contact with EVD patients in Liberia, Guinea, or Sierra Leone.[175] Japan On October 27, a middle aged Canadian journalist was accosted at Tokyo International Airport upon returning from a two-month visit to Liberia and stating he had felt feverish. He was then handed to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare and was ordered to be quarantined at the National Medical Research Center in Shinjuku, Tokyo. While he was the first suspected EVD case in Asia, tests on the following day proved him negative for EVD.[176][177] Australia Also on October 27, Australia instigates visa restrictions on travellers from the three countries most affected by the Ebola epidemic.[178][179] United States On October 28 nurse Kaci Hickox is permitted to undergo quarantine at her home in Maine and leaves her hospital tent in New Jersey.[180] United Nations On October 29 the WHO reports that the rate of infections in Liberia has slowed, due in part in changes in cultural mortuary practices. It warns, however, that the crisis is far from over.[181] The WHO also reports, in its tenth Ebola Roadmap Situation Report, that as of October 27th, there are 13,703 EVD cases with 4,920 deaths; that all districts in Liberia and Sierra Leone are affected; and that UNMEER will have been in operation (as of October 30) for thirty days.[182] United States Also on October 29, a Connecticut school is sued for not allowing a seven-year-old student who had attended a wedding in Ebola-free Nigeria with her father to attend until November 3 due to "concerns" expressed by other parents and by teachers.[183] Also on October 29, Louisiana state health officials asked those who had treated EVD patients to not attend the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.[184] North Korea On October 30 North Korea imposes a mandatory 21-day quarantine on all foreign nationals arriving from abroad; furthermore, internal travel and travel abroad are even more tightly restricted.[185] United States Also on October 30, Science and Science Translational Medicine offer their articles on the Ebola epidemic for free for both the public and for researchers given that it is "unprecedented in terms of number of people killed and rapid geographic spread."[186] United States On October 31 Maine Judge Charles C. LaVerdiere ruled that nurse Kaci Hickox (who had previously gone on a defiant bicycle ride, breaking her quarantine) must continue to undergo mandatory monitoring by public health officials, but that her movements were not to be restricted inasmuch as she was asymptomatic. "The court is fully aware that people are acting out of fear and that this fear is not entirely rational,' the judge noted.[187][188] United Nations By the end of October, WHO statistics showed 13,540 cases and 4,941 deaths overall.[189] References

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* Hartocollis, Anemona; Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (25 October 2014). "Tested Negative for Ebola, Nurse Criticizes Her Quarantine". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
* Diarra, Adama; Diagana, Kissima (25 October 2014). "Mauritania closes border with Mali over Ebola fears". Reuters. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
* Sadovi, Carlos (26 October 2014). "Illinois orders mandatory Ebola quarantine for high-risk travelers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
* リベリア滞在の男性発熱 エボラウイルス検査へ (in Japanese). NHK News. 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
* "First suspected Ebola case in Japan: Man arriving at Haneda Airport from west Africa tested for virus". The Japan Times. 2014-10-28. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
* McKirdy, Euan (28 October 2014). "Australia instigates Ebola-prompted ban on travel from West Africa". CNN News. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* "Ebola outbreak: Sierra Leone angry at Australia visa ban". BBC News. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* "Ebola outbreak: US advises against quarantine". BBC News. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* "Ebola crisis: Infections 'slowing in Liberia'". BBC News. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* "Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report (29 October 2014)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* "Opayemi family sues Connecticut school after daughter banned". BBC News. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* Enserink, Martin (29 October 2014). "Been to an Ebola-affected country? Stay away from tropical medicine meeting, Louisiana says". Sciencemag.org. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* Fifield, Anna (31 October 2014). "North Korea’s reaction to Ebola makes fears of a zombie apocalypse look rational". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* "The Ebola Epidemic". Sciencemag.org. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* The Associated Press (31 October 2014). "Ebola outbreak: Judge rejects Maine bid to quarantine nurse Kaci Hickox". CBC News. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* Bidgood, Jess; Phillips, Dave (31 October 2014). "Judge in Maine Eases Restrictions on Nurse". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
* "EBOLA RESPONSE ROADMAP SITUATION REPORT UPDATE". World Health organization. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
* "U.N. Employee With Ebola Evacuated to France for Treatment". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
* "Liberian Traveler At Duke Hospital Shows Preliminary Negative Result For Ebola". Forbes Magazine. November 2, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* /ebola-surging-sierra-leone-amid-lack-treatment-centers-125553363.html
* /white-house-to-ask-for-more-than-6-billion-in-ebola-funding-omb-says/
* ebola-france-airport-screening-eu-health/
* Robotics and Ebola.
* Decline in Liberian cases.
* Dr. Spencer is declared virus-free.
* http://www.cbsnews.com/news/nyc-doctor-craig-spencer-heads-home-ebola-free/
* http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30015329
* /liberia-ends-ebola-state-emergency
* ~343 Malian contacts.

Medicine portalViruses portalAfrica portalevents portal


<img src="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from: :# Source: "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2014_Ebola_virus_epidemic_timeline&oldid=633941439" Categories: • 2014 Ebola outbreaksDisaster timelines

Sources

  1. Source: Text available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Update: 15 November 2014 at 14:19. Accessed 17 November 2014. Main Wikipedia.org Source URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Ebola_virus_epidemic_timeline#October_2014
Young Boy Being Tested for Ebola
A five-year-old boy who recently returned from Guinea is being tested for Ebola at Bellevue Hospital after showing symptoms of the illness on Sunday, October 26, 2014. Results of blood work should be ready on Monday afternoon.[11][12]
New York and New Jersey Quarantining Returning Health Workers
NJ Gov. Chris Christie and NY Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced on Friday, October 24 that they would be quarantining returning health workers who had been working with Ebola patients in West Africa. On Sunday, October 26, Gov. Cuomo modified policy to allow people to self-quarantine at home if they showed no symptoms. As of October 27, Kaci Hickox, a nurse who worked with Ebola patients in Sierra Leone and returned to the U.S. via Newark airport, will be returned to her home in Maine where she can wait out her quarantine period at home.[13][14]
Case Diagnosed in NYC. : On October 23, 2014 the New York Times reported that a doctor in New York City had tested positive for Ebola. The doctor had been in Guinea treating patients with Ebola with the organization Doctors Without Borders and had returned to his home in New York City on October 17, 2014.[15][16]

Sources

  1. Source URL: About.com. ‘’What You Need To Know About Ebola in New York City’’. 27 Oct 2014. Accessed same. URL: http://gonyc.about.com/od/tipsforvisitingnyc/tp/What-You-Need-To-Know-About-Ebola-in-New-York-City.htm?utm_source=cn_nl&utm_medium=email&utm_term=About%20Today%20Channel%20Newsletter&utm_campaign=todaysl&utm_content=20141025
  2. Source: New York Times. 24 Oct 2014; accessed same. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/nyregion/craig-spencer-is-tested-for-ebola-virus-at-bellevue-hospital-in-new-york-city.html?_r=0

---

  • Oct 23, 2014: NEW: (New York) City is expected to activate emergency center to track doctor's contacts.[17]
  • Oct 23, 2014: New York (CNN) -- A Doctors Without Borders physician who recently returned to New York from West Africa has tested positive for the Ebola virus, becoming the first diagnosed case in the city, a law enforcement official briefed on the matter told CNN[18]
  • Oct 20, 2014: 17 Texas Kindergarteners Contract Ebola After Exposure To Liberian Foreign Exchange Student [19]
  • Oct 19, 2014: The unused wing of a retirement community in Wortham, Texas was transformed into a makeshift Ebola ward early this morning after 17 kindergarten students fell violently ill and tested positive for the Ebola virus. - See more at: http://nationalreport.net/17-texas-kindergarteners-contract-ebola-exposure-liberian-foreign-exchange-student/#sthash.BkRirugY.dpuf
  • Oct 17, 2014: WHO officially declares the Ebola outbreak in Senegal over and commends the country on its diligence to end the transmission of the virus.[20]
  • Oct. 16, 2014: Dallas nurse Nina Pham, 26, the first person to contract Ebola in the United States, is expected to be flown from Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas to the National Institutes of Health Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. Pham treated Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person diagnosed with Ebola on American soil, at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital.
  • Oct. 15, 2014: Amber Vinson, 29, another nurse who treated Duncan at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, is diagnosed with Ebola shortly after midnight and flown to Emory University Hospital that evening.
  • Oct. 14, 2014 - Vinson is taken to Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas with a fever.
  • Oct. 13, 2014 - Vinson flies from Cleveland to Dallas on Frontier Airlines Flight 1143, arriving at 8:16 p.m. She has no symptoms, but her temperature was 99.5 degrees that morning. She called the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention before boarding, and no one told her not to fly.
  • Oct. 12, 2014: Pham tests positive for Ebola.
  • Oct. 10, 2014 - Vinson takes a commercial flight from Dallas to Cleveland, Ohio, to prepare for her upcoming wedding.
  • Oct. 9, 2014: Dallas county Sheriff's deputy who had signs of Ebola tests negative for the virus.
  • Oct. 8, 2014: Duncan dies at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital.
  • Oct. 6, 2014: Ashoka Mukpo, 33, a freelance American cameraman who contracted Ebola in West Africa, arrives at Nebraska Medical Center for Ebola treatment.
  • Oct. 6, 2014: Dr. Rick Sacra, 51, who contracted Ebola while treating patients in a Liberian maternity ward a month earlier, is released from his second hospitalization since returning to the United States. He had been hospitalized at UMass Memorial Medical Center on Worcester, Massachusetts, with what doctors initially thought was an Ebola relapse but soon diagnosed as a respiratory infection.
  • Oct. 5, 2014: Sacra hospitalized in Massachusetts with what doctors fear is an Ebola relapse. They isolate him out of what they said was an abundance of caution.
  • Oct. 2, 2014: Mukpo is diagnosed with Ebola in Liberia. He worked for Vice News, NBC News and other outlets.
  • Sept. 30, 2014: The CDC confirms that a the first patient -- who would later be identified as Duncan -- has been diagnosed with Ebola on U.S. soil.
  • Sept. 28, 2014: Duncan returns to the hospital in an ambulance and is isolated.
  • Sept. 26, 2014: Duncan goes to Texas Presbyterian Health Hospital in Dallas with a fever and tells a nurse he has been to Liberia. But he is sent home with antibiotics and Tylenol.
  • Sept. 25, 2014: Sacra is deemed virus-free and released from Nebraska Medical Center, where he had spent several weeks in an isolation ward recovering from Ebola.
  • Sept. 20, 2014: Duncan arrives in the United States from Liberia to visit family.
  • Sept. 9, 2014: An unnamed American Ebola patient arrives at Emory University Hospital for treatment. This patient had been working for the World Health Organization in Sierra Leone. The patient was still there as of Oct. 15, 2014. "Given the national focus on Ebola, particularly with the diagnosis in two health care workers, I want to share the news that I am recovering from this disease, and that I anticipate being discharged very soon, free from the Ebola virus and able to return safely to my family and to my community," the unnamed patient said in a statement released on Oct. 15.
  • Sept. 5, 2014: Sacra arrives at Nebraska Medical Center for treatment. He eventually gets a blood transfusion from Brantly.
  • Sept. 3, 2014: Sacra was diagnosed with Ebola even though he was treating patients in the maternity ward of the ELWA Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia, not Ebola patients.
  • Aug. 21, 2014: Dr. Kent Brantly, 33, is discharged from Emory University Hospital, where he was undergoing treatment for Ebola after contracting it in Africa. In a news conference, he hugs several members of the hospital staff.
  • Aug. 19, 2014: Missionary Nancy Writebol, 59, is quietly discharged from Emory University Hospital, where she was undergoing treatment for Ebola. She also contracted the virus doing aid work in Liberia.
  • Aug. 5, 2014: Writebol is flown from Liberia to Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, for Ebola treatment in its isolation ward.
  • Aug. 2, 2014: Brantly is flown from Liberia to Emory for treatment. He surprises everyone by walking out of the ambulance into the hospital in his protective suit.
  • July 31, 2014: In Liberia, Brantly gets the first dose of an experimental drug called ZMapp, though it was unnamed at the time. Though doctors initially thought there was only enough for one person, Writebol was administered the drug as well.
  • July 27, 2014: Missionary groups report that two Americans are sickened with Ebola while helping patients in Monrovia, Liberia. Brantly and Writebol were working for aid groups Samaritan's Purse and SIM, respectively. Brantly later told reporters he held patients' hands as they were dying.
  • March 19, 2014: What would become the largest Ebola outbreak in history begins in March 2014 with 23 deaths from what is then called a "mystery" hemorrhagic fever.

1976

  • 1976: Ebola is first discovered in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo near the Ebola River in 1976. Thirty-two Ebola outbreaks would follow, bringing the total number of cases before this outbreak to 2,361, including 1,438 deaths, according to the World Health Organization.

EBOLA SOURCES

1. Source: Lupkin, Sydney. Author URL: more from sydney » Health Reporter Oct 16, 2014, 11:02 AM ET; Twitter URL: Follow @slupkin via Parent URL: World News
Ebola in America: Timeline of the Deadly Virus Source.
Primary Article URL: http://a.abcnews.com/Health/ebola-america-timeline/story?id=26159719
2. Source: http://nationalreport.net/17-texas-kindergarteners-contract-ebola-exposure-liberian-foreign-exchange-student/#sthash.BkRirugY.dpuf
3. Source: Sanchez, Ray; Prokupecz, Shimon. Doctors Without Borders physician in NYC tests positive for Ebola. www.cnn.com. CNNupdated. 9:38 PM EDT, Thu October 23, 2014. URL: http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/23/health/new-york-possible-ebola-case/index.html
4. Source: NEW: (New York) City is expected to activate emergency center to track doctor's contacts. www.cnn.com. URL: http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/23/health/new-york-possible-ebola-case/index.html
  1. Source: Hun migrations 'linked to deadly Justinian Plague'
  2. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  3. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  4. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  5. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  6. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/
  7. Source: Lupkin, Sydney
  8. ‘’Liberia Reports Second Case of Ebola’’. NBC News. Jul 1 2015, 10:25 am ET. Accessed: 01 Jul 2015. URL Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/liberia-reports-second-case-ebola-n385116
  9. By By Umaru Fofana | Reuters – 8 hours ago https://ca.news.yahoo.com/sierra-leone-ebola-lockdown-exposes-hundreds-suspected-cases-103939050.html
  10. # Source Maggie Fox, Senior Health Writer for NBCNews.com and TODAY.com.
  11. # Source: New York Times
  12. # Source URL: About.com
  13. # Source: New York Times
  14. # Source URL: About.com
  15. # Source: New York Times
  16. # Source URL: About.com
  17. new-york-possible-ebola-case
  18. Doctors Without Borders
  19. 2. Source: http://nationalreport.net
  20. (WHO)

INFLUENZA

Including human cases of avian and swine influenza viruses

Major Influenza Pandemics[21]

The appearance of a new influenza strain in the human population

1918

“SpanishFlu” H1N1

The most devastatingFlu pandemic in recent history, killing more than 500,000 people in the United States, and 20 million to 50 million people worldwide.

1957-58

"AsianFlu" H2N2

First identified in China, this virus caused roughly 70,000 deaths in the United States during the 1957-58 season. Because this strain has not circulated in humans since 1968, no one under 30 years old has immunity to this strain.

1968-69

"Hong Kong Flu" H3N2

First detected in Hong Kong, this virus caused roughly 34,000 deaths in the United States during the 1968-69 season. H3N2 viruses still circulate today.

1976

Four soldiers in a US army base in New Jersey are infected with swine influenza, resulting in one death.

1977

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

“Russian Flu” H1N1

Isolated in northern China, this virus was similar to the virus that spread before 1957. For this reason, individuals born before 1957 were generally protected; however children and young adults born after that year were not because they had no prior immunity.

1997

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H5N1

The first time an influenza virus was found to be transmitted directly from birds to people, with infections linked to exposure to poultry markets. Eighteen people in Hong Kong were hospitalized, six of whom died.

1999

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H9N2

Appeared for the first time in humans. It caused illness in two children in Hong Kong, with poultry being the probable source.

2002

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H7N2

Evidence of infection is found in one person in Virginia following a poultry outbreak.

2003

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H5N1

Caused two Hong Kong family members to be hospitalized after a visit to China, killing one of them, a 33-year-old man. (A third family member died while in China of an undiagnosed respiratory illness.)

H7N7

In the first reported cases of this strain in humans, 89 people in the Netherlands, most of whom were poultry workers, became ill with eye infections orFlu-like symptoms. A veterinarian who visited one of the affected poultry farms died.

H7N2

Caused a person to be hospitalized in New York.

H9N2

Caused illness in one child in Hong Kong.

2004

Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H5N1

Caused illness in 47 people in Thailand and Vietnam, 34 of whom died. Researchers are especially concerned because thisFlu strain, which is quite deadly, is becoming endemic in Asia.

H7N3

Is reported for the first time in humans. The strain caused illness in two poultry workers in Canada.

H10N7

Is reported for the first time in humans. It caused illness in two infants in Egypt. One child’s father is a poultry merchant.

2005

H5N1

The first case of human infection with H5N1 arises in Cambodia in February. By May, WHO reports 4 Cambodian cases, all fatal. Indonesia reports its first case, which is fatal, in July. Over the next three months, 7 cases of laboratory-confirmed H5N1 infection in Indonesia, and 4 deaths, occur.
On December 30, WHO reports a cumulative total of 142 laboratory-confirmed cases of H5N1 infection worldwide, all in Asia, with 74 deaths. Asian countries in which human infection with H5N1 has been detected: Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia and China.

2006

H5N1

In early January, two human cases of H5N1 infection, both fatal, are reported in rural areas of Eastern Turkey, while cases in China continues to spread. As of January 25, China reports a total of 10 cases, with 7 deaths. On January 30, Iraq reports its first case of human H5N1 infection, which was fatal, to the WHO.
In March, the WHO confirmed seven cases of human H5N1 infection, and five deaths, in Azerbaijan. In April, WHO confirmed four cases of human H5N1 infection, and two fatalities, in Egypt.
In May, the WHO confirmed a case of human H5N1 infection in the African nation of Djibouti. This was the first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa. Throughout 2006, 115 human cases of H5N1 infection occur, with 79 deaths.

2007

H5N1

In early January, two human cases of H5N1 are confirmed in Indonesia. By the end of 2007, 88 confirmed cases occur in Indonesia, Cambodia, China, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan and Vietnam, with 59 deaths.

H7N7

In May, four cases of H7N7 avian influenza were confirmed in the United Kingdom among individuals exposed to infected poultry.

2008

H5N1

On May 28, Bangladesh reports its first case of human H5N1 infection to the WHO. By the end of the year, 40 cases are confirmed in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Indonesia and Vietnam.

2009

H5N1

On January 7, Indonesia confirmed a new case of human infection with H5N1 influenza. Since that time, new cases have been identified in Egypt, China, Indonesia and Vietnam.
Appearance of a New Influenza Strain in Humans

H1N1

In April, human infection with a new strain of H1N1 influenza is confirmed in Mexico. Within weeks, human infections spread to the United States and cases begin occurring in other regions around the world.
See Also:

Related Links:

INFLUENZA SOURCES

1. Source: Timeline of Human Pandemics. www.niaid.nih.gov. * URL: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/research/pandemic/pages/timelinehumanpandemics.aspx
  1. Source: Hun migrations 'linked to deadly Justinian Plague'
  2. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  3. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  4. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  5. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  6. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/
  7. Source: Lupkin, Sydney
  8. ‘’Liberia Reports Second Case of Ebola’’. NBC News. Jul 1 2015, 10:25 am ET. Accessed: 01 Jul 2015. URL Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/liberia-reports-second-case-ebola-n385116
  9. By By Umaru Fofana | Reuters – 8 hours ago https://ca.news.yahoo.com/sierra-leone-ebola-lockdown-exposes-hundreds-suspected-cases-103939050.html
  10. # Source Maggie Fox, Senior Health Writer for NBCNews.com and TODAY.com.
  11. # Source: New York Times
  12. # Source URL: About.com
  13. # Source: New York Times
  14. # Source URL: About.com
  15. # Source: New York Times
  16. # Source URL: About.com
  17. new-york-possible-ebola-case
  18. Doctors Without Borders
  19. 2. Source: http://nationalreport.net
  20. (WHO)
  21. 1. Source: Timeline of Human Pandemics

== TYPHOID FEVER ==[22]

More sources coming...

BLACK DEATH TIMELINE

BLACK DEATH

  • The Black Death is also known as the Bubonic Plague.
  • 430 B.C.- During the second year of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides writes about a disease that is believed to have been the Plague.
  • 540 A.D.- An outbreak of Plague occurs at Pelusium, Egypt.
  • 542 A.D.- Plague reaches Constantinople.
  • 1334- Plague occurs in Constantinople.
  • 1339-1346- The famine occurs. This goes on for seven years and is known as "the famine before the plague."
  • 1347- The Black Plague began spreading through Western Europe.
  • Fall 1347- Reports of the plague are recorded in Alexandria, Cyprus, and Sicily.
  • Winter 1347- Plague then reaches Italy.
  • Jan. 1348- Next, the plague reaches France and Germany.
  • 1349- 1/3 of the population in Western Europe was dead from the plague. That is roughly 25 million people.
  • May 1349- It then reaches Norway.
  • 1350- Afterwards the plague reaches Eastern Europe. More specifically, it reaches London, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
  • 1351- The Plague reaches Russia.
  • 1353- Giovanni Boccaccio finishes writing The Decameron, a fictional narrative that opens with a description of the 1348 outbreak of Black Death in Florence, Italy.
  • March 1665- The Great Plague of London begins, and 43 people died by May.
  • June 1665- 6,137 people die by June.
  • July 1665- 17,036 people die by July.
  • Aug. 1665- 31,159 people die by August.
  • 1666- The Great Fire of London destroys most of the rats and fleas that carry the plague bacillus.
  • 1679- The Plague devastates Central Europe.
  • 1711- Plague breaks out in Austria.
  • 1722- Daniel Defoe publishes A Journal of the Plague Year, a fictional recounting of the great Plague of London in 1665.
  • 1770: The Balkans battle the Plague for two years.
  • 1877: The Pandemic starts up again and flares up in Russia, China, and India.
  • 1889: The Pandemic begins to near an end.
  • 1894: Working independently, bacteriologists Alexandre Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato both isolate the bacterium that causes the Black Death. Yersin discovers that rodents are the mode of infection. The bacterium is named Yersina Pestis after Yersin.
  • 1896: The pandemic in China and India is over.
  • 1947: Albert Camus publishes The Plague, a novel about a fictional outbreak of plague in Oran, Algeria.
  • Sept. 2005: Three mice infected with Bubonic Plague disappear from a laboratory at the Public Health Research Institute in New Jersey.
  • The Bubonic Plague is endemic in wild rodent populations worldwide <CDC>

All Profile Sources

Ebola Sources

  1. Source Maggie Fox, Senior Health Writer for NBCNews.com and TODAY.com. Source URL: http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ebola-virus-outbreak/gave-it-everything-ebola-infected-surgeon-dr-martin-salia-dies-n250106 First published November 17th 2014, 11:34 am.

Influenza Sources

  1. . Source: Timeline of Human Pandemics. www.niaid.nih.gov. * URL: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/research/pandemic/pages/timelinehumanpandemics.aspx

Black Plague Image Citations

Black Death Sources

1. Source: Timeline. Accessed 10 Oct 2014. URL: http://blackdeathreglit.weebly.com/timeline.html
2. Source: Secondary Works Cited from Primary Source above.[23]
a. Berk, A., Darnell, J., Kaiser, C. A., Krieger, M., Lodish, H., Matsudaira, P., et al (2003). Molecular Cell Biology (5 ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
b. Cohn, Samuel K. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. London: Arnold, 2003. Print.
c. Dahmus, Joseph Henry. A History of the Middle Ages. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1995. Print.
d. Di Giuseppe, M., Vavitsas, A., Ritter, B., Fraser, D., & Arora, A. (2003). Nelson biology 12. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
e. Harmon, K. (n.d.). Observations: Uganda embarks on bubonic plague prevention program. Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. 6 November 2012.
f. Jordan, William C. Europe in the High Middle Ages. New York: Viking, 2003. Print.
g. Leone, Bruno. The Middle Ages. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002. Print.
h. Mate, Mavis. “Agrarian Economy After the Black Death: The Manors of Canterbury Cathedral Priory, 1348-91.” JSTOR. Vol. 37, No. 3 (Aug., 1984). 16 October 2012.
I. Obstfeld, Raymond, and Loretta Obstfeld. The Renaissance. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002. Print.
j. Zahler, Diane. The Black Death. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2009. Print.
k. Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. illustrated ed. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Pub., 1991. Print.
3. Source: World Health Organization (WHO) URL: http://www.who.int/entity/mediacentre/news/statements/2014/senegal-ends-ebola/en/index.html
  1. Source: Hun migrations 'linked to deadly Justinian Plague'
  2. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  3. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  4. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  5. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  6. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/
  7. Source: Lupkin, Sydney
  8. ‘’Liberia Reports Second Case of Ebola’’. NBC News. Jul 1 2015, 10:25 am ET. Accessed: 01 Jul 2015. URL Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/liberia-reports-second-case-ebola-n385116
  9. By By Umaru Fofana | Reuters – 8 hours ago https://ca.news.yahoo.com/sierra-leone-ebola-lockdown-exposes-hundreds-suspected-cases-103939050.html
  10. # Source Maggie Fox, Senior Health Writer for NBCNews.com and TODAY.com.
  11. # Source: New York Times
  12. # Source URL: About.com
  13. # Source: New York Times
  14. # Source URL: About.com
  15. # Source: New York Times
  16. # Source URL: About.com
  17. new-york-possible-ebola-case
  18. Doctors Without Borders
  19. 2. Source: http://nationalreport.net
  20. (WHO)
  21. 1. Source: Timeline of Human Pandemics
  22. Under Construction
  23. Source: Timeline. Accessed 10 Oct 2014




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