As a politician, he served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1761 to 1790 and from 1796 to 1801. He also served as a Privy Councillor of Great Britain, Comptroller of the Household, a Junior Lord of the Admiralty, Treasurer of the Chamber, Postmaster General, Master of the Mint, and as a Lord of the Bedchamber to George III.
Lord Charles Spencer and his wife Mary Beauclerk are in some secondary sources credited with a third son, Robert Spencer; for instance in the Wikipedia page for Lord Charles Spencer.
It seems likely that the son Robert Spencer has been confused with his uncle of the same name (the death date of 1831 is the date the uncle died). The entry for Robert Spencer in thePeerage website states he is the son of Lord Charles Spencer and Hon. Mary Beauclerk, but is married to Henrietta Fawkener, who was the wife of the uncle, Lord Robert Spencer. See the entry for Lord Robert Spencer in The History of Parliament website for confirmation.
This confusion may have come about because of the numbering in Burke's Peerage. Charles Spencer (the father) is no. 2 (bolded) on page 1340 in the 1949 edition, his two sons, John and William Robert, are no. 1 and no. 2, then Robert Spencer is no. 3 (also bolded), which is following on from Charles Spencer, but could easily be read as being a third son rather than a brother.
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Categories: Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1761 | Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1768 | Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1774 | Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1780 | Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1784 | Members of Parliament, Great Britain 1796 | Members of Parliament, Oxfordshire | Privy Counsellors of Great Britain