Mary (Stewart) Stuart Queen of Scots
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Mary (Stewart) Stuart Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587)

Born in Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotlandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Wife of — married 24 Apr 1558 (to 5 Dec 1560) in Paris, Francemap
Wife of — married 29 Jul 1565 (to 10 Feb 1567) in Holyrood, Scotlandmap
Wife of — married 15 May 1567 (to 14 Apr 1578) in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Midlothian Scotlandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 11 Feb 2013
This page has been accessed 26,416 times.
Scottish Nobility
Mary (Stewart) Stuart Queen of Scots was a member of Scottish Nobility.
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Discuss: Scotland
Preceded by
James V
Queen of Scots
14 December 1542 - 24 July 1567
Succeeded by
James VI

Contents

Biography

The House of Stewart crest.
Mary (Stewart) Stuart Queen of Scots is a member of the House of Stewart.
Mary (Stewart) Stuart Queen of Scots is a member of Clan Stewart.

Mary Stuart was born 8 Dec 1542, at Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, Scotland. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She had two older brothers who died in infancy. Mary’s father died when she was only six days old, making her queen of Scotland. Her mother acted as regent on Mary's behalf. Mary, Queen of Scots was queen regnant of Scotland from 14 Dec 1542 to 24 Jul 1567. She was also queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.

At the age of 5, Mary was sent to France, where she grew up in the luxurious French court. Mary's mother was French, and the Scots had a longstanding alliance with France, so Mary was betrothed to the four-year-old French heir.

Marriages

Mary was married three times, with the last union eventually leading to her downfall.

Francis II, King of France

On 24 Apr 1558 Mary I, Queen of Scots married Dauphin Francois (later to become Francois II of France) at Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France.[1] Francis was the eldest son of French King Henry II and Catherine de Medicis. In 1559, Mary's husband was crowned Francis II, making Mary both the queen of Scotland and France's queen consort. Francis died from an ear infection the year after he ascended to the throne, leaving Mary a widow at age 18.

Following Francis’s death, Mary returned to Scotland from France in 1561. By that time, John Knox's influence had changed Scotland's official religion from Catholicism to Protestantism.

As a Roman Catholic raised in France, Mary found herself an outsider. However, with help from her illegitimate half-brother, James, Earl of Moray, Mary managed to rule while creating an atmosphere of religious tolerance.

Henry Stewart, Earl of Darnley

In 1565 Mary married her second husband, her cousin, Henry Stuart Lord Darnley, a grandson of Margaret Tudor. Mary uniting with a Tudor infuriated Elizabeth Tudor. Her marriage to Darnley also turned Mary's half-brother against her. Darnley’s ruthless ambition caused problems. In 1566 Darnley and a group of Protestant nobles viciously murdered David Rizzio, Mary's Italian secretary, stabbing him 56 times as a pregnant Mary looked on. Though she gave birth to their son a few months later, she no longer wished to be married to Darnley. When Darnley was mysteriously killed following an explosion at Kirk o' Field, outside Edinburgh, in February 1567, foul play was suspected. Mary's involvement is unclear.

James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell

In May 1567 Mary married her third husband, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, the main suspect in her previous husband Darnley’s murder. Over the years, Bothwell had become a close confidant of Mary and was said to exert great influence over her. He also had his own ambitions to become king, and he had abducted Mary and held her captive in Dunbar Castle. Mary’s marriage with Bothwell, just three months after Darnley’s murder, made the Scottish nobility rise against her. Bothwell went into exile, where he was arrested and held captive until his death. In July 1567, Mary was forced to abdicate the throne in Scotland in favour of her infant son. She was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle.

Children

On 19 Jun 1566, Mary gave birth to James Charles Stuart, the future James VI of Scotland and James I of England. James was Mary’s only child, conceived with her second husband, Henry Stewart.

Claim to the English Throne and Imprisonment by Elizabeth I

As the great-granddaughter of King Henry VII, Mary had a strong claim to the English throne. Her French father-in-law, Henry II, made this claim on her behalf. But Mary never became the queen of England.

In November 1558, Henry VIII's daughter, Elizabeth Tudor, became Queen Elizabeth I of England following the death of her sister, Mary Tudor. Many Roman Catholics did not recognize the validity of Henry VIII's marriage to Elizabeth's mother, Anne Boleyn, and they considered Elizabeth's rule to be illegitimate.

In 1568, Mary escaped from Lochleven Castle, where she was imprisoned by the Scottish nobility for her unseemly marriage with Bothwell. She raised an army but was soon defeated. She fled to England, where she sought Elizabeth's protection. Instead of helping her cousin, the queen imprisoned Mary. Mary's captivity would last for 19 years.[2]

English Catholics plotted to get Mary, a Catholic herself, onto the throne by assassinating Elizabeth. Mary was involved in several plots to raise the Catholic North of England in rebellion. Mary corresponded with one such plotter, Anthony Babington. When Elizabeth's spymaster uncovered the letters in 1586, Mary was brought to trial. She was found guilty of treason and condemned to death by a court of 40 noblemen.

Mary, Queen of Scots' Death

After Elizabeth signed her cousin's death warrant for treason, Mary was executed 8 Feb 1587 in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire. She was 44 years old. Elizabeth had Mary buried at Peterborough Cathedral. After Mary's son became King James I of England, he moved his mother's body to Westminster Abbey in 1612, only thirty feet from the grave of her cousin Elizabeth I.

Sources

  1. Notre Dame Cathedral : April 24, 1558 Mary I, Queen of Scots married Dauphin Francois (later to become Francois II of France)
  2. Fraser, Antonia; Mary, Queen of Scots; (Delacorte Press; New York; 1969); pg. 368; available to borrow online; accessed 12 Jun 2021

Acknowledgments



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April 24, 1558 Mary I, Queen of Scots, married Dauphin Francois, later to become Francois II of France at Notre Dame Cathedral. This information is on the page for Notre Dame. Please can the information be added and

Notre Dame

be put in for the "Notre Dame" to connect the link?

also this information was found at: History and Events of Notre Dame de Paris, Placesinfrance.com: https://www.placesinfrance.com/history_notre_dame_de_paris.html

posted by Lisa (Kelsey) Murphy
Source: Source: Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols, ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City: the author, 2013), volume I, page 676 BRUS 16iii.

Mary Of Scotland, married (1st) 24 April 1558 Francois Of France, son of Henri II, King of France. They had no issue. She married (2nd) 29 July 1565 Henry Stewart, son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox , by Margaret, daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, He was born 7 Dec. 1545. They had one son, James [VI, King of Scots, afterwards James I, King of England]. Henry, died 10 Feb. 1566/7. Mary, married (3rd) 15 May 1567 (as his 2nd wife) James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. He was probably born in or before 1515.

Thank you!

Source: Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols, ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City: the author, 2013), volume I, page 668 BRUS 15.
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James IV, King of Scots, was slain at the Battle of Flodden 9 Sept. 1513. His widow, Margaret, married (2nd) 6 August 1514 (as his 2nd wife) Archibald Douglas, son of George Douglas, by Elizabeth, daughter of John Drummond. He was born about 1490. They had one daughter, Margaret. They were divorced 11 March 1527/8. Margaret married (3rd) Henry Stewart. He was born about 1495. They had no issue. Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland, died 18 October 1541. Following her death, Henry [Stewart] married (2nd) his mistress, Janet Stewart.

Thank you!

Source: Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols, ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City: the author, 2013), volume I, page 668 BRUS 15.

James IV of Scotland, King of Scots, born in Edinburgh 17 March 1472/3. He married 8 August 1503 Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII, King of England, by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV, King of England. They had five sons, James (1st of name), Arthur, James [2nd of name] [James V, King of Scots], ____, and Alexander [Duke of Ross], and one daughter, ____.

  • continued in next comment