||Charles II Stuart was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.|
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Charles I (deposed 1649)
|King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
29 May 1660 - 06 Feb 1685
James II & VII
|King of Scotland
30 Jan 1649 - 03 Sep 1651
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685), second but eldest surviving child of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic, and the Spanish Netherlands.
A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649.
Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James.
Charleston County, South Carolina is named in his honor, as is Kings County (Brooklyn), New York.
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