Rowland Taylor was born at Rothbury, Northumberland.  Nothing is known of his parents.  Wikipedia gives his birth date as 6 October 1510  but without a source; the ODNB gives no birth date and the date in Wikipedia must be regarded as uncertain.
Rowland Taylor studied law at Cambridge and was awarded a Bachelor of Civil Law degree in 1530 and a Doctor of Civil Law degree in 1534. 
In 1528 Rowland was ordained an exorcist and acolyte at Norwich   but he did not take his ecclesiastical career further for about a decade, focusing on law and, among his other roles, working for the Archdeacon of Ely. 
After hearing sermons by Hugh Latimer at Cambridge, Rowland associated himself with the protestant reformers.  Latimer was installed as Bishop of Worcester in 1537, and Rowland became his commissary-general and one of his chaplains.  He undertook a preaching tour in 1538.  In March 1539 Latimer appointed him to the living of Hanbury, Worcestershire, though he was not at that stage ordained priest.  
When Latimer resigned his bishopric in 1539, Rowland became chaplain to Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.  His ordination as priest followed. 
In 1544 Cranmer made him Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk.   In 1547 he became a canon of Rochester Cathedral ; in 1548, Archdeacon of Bury St Edmunds ; in 1551 one of the six preachers at Canterbury Cathedral  ; and in 1553, Archdeacon of Cornwall.  He also helped to oversee the dioceses of Norwich and of Worcester when there was an episcopal vacancy. 
Rowland Taylor was caught up in the attempt to secure the throne for Lady Jane Grey on the death of Edward VI. As a result he was arrested in late July 1553 and held in prison for several months. His subsequent freedom was short-lived. Mary I's council gave orders for his arrest in March 1554, this time for his religious views, which included the denunciation of the Pope, the denial of transubstantiation, and opposition to the compulsory celibacy of priests. He was detained in King's Bench Prison, London and underwent a number of examinations by Stephen Gardiner.  
Rowland Taylor was sentenced to death as a heretic on 4 February 1555.  He was burned at the stake at Aldham Common, Suffolk, not far from his parish of Hadleigh, on 9 February 1555.  John Foxe states that a local butcher refused to help set up the faggots for his burning, and that one of the others ordered to assist in this, a drunkard called Soice, killed Rowland by a blow to the head which dashed out his brains and caused the corpse to fall into the flames. 
Foxe gives a report of Rowland's last words to his wife and children.  They include:
And to his son Thomas:
Rowland married someone with the first name Margaret, probably after 1534. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography states that the marriage took place in the London home of John Tyndale, and that her last name is not known.  They had eight children of their own. Five died in his lifetime :
The others were:
Rowland Taylor has previously been shown as son of John Taylor and Susan Rowland. This is clearly not the case: John Taylor was a Catholic priest who would never have married, and there is no information about Rowland’s parentage. - Cayley-55 07:36, 24 November 2019 (UTC)
WikiTree has previously shown a tenth daughter of Rowland, Ann(e), with the same first name as the wife of William Palmer, who is said to have married a John Hooker. Foxe's Acts and Monuments records only the daughters named above and there is no evidence that Rowland Taylor had two daughters called Ann(e). The likelihood of his having two daughters with the same first name who survived him and married is very small. - Cayley-55 07:36, 24 November 2019 (UTC)
From the Dictionary of National Biography: "By his wife, whom he married probably about 1539, he had nine children, of whom four survived him. The eldest son's name was Thomas, and a daughter Anne married William Palmer (1539?–1605) [q. v.] His widow married one Wright, a divine (Parker Corresp. p. 221). Jeremy Taylor [q. v.] is said (Heber, Life of Jeremy Taylor) to have been a lineal descendant of Rowland Taylor, but the assertion has not been proved (Notes and Queries, 7th ser. ii. 56). 
A 1975 privately-printed family history, A Crane's Foot by E Stuart Gregg Junior, gives, without sourcing, an inaccurate account of the children of Rowland Taylor. It states that the five children whom Foxe records as having died in Rowland Taylor's lifetime all married after his martyrdom. 
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