James Thomson was Professor of Civil Engineering and Mechanics at the University of Glasgow. He made several important inventions and published numerous scientific papers.
Thomson is known for his work on the improvement of water wheels, water pumps and turbines, as well as his innovations in the analysis of regelation, i.e., the effect of pressure on the freezing point of water, and his studies in glaciology including glacier motion. He also had contributions in the realm of fluid dynamics of rivers. It is claimed that the term torque was introduced into English scientific literature by Thomson.
Thomson was elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1877.
Thomson suffered from poor health for most of his life. He, his wife, and one of their daughters all succumbed to pneumonia in one week in May 1892.
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