Note: Juan II de Aragón, el Grande (Medina del Campo, Castilla, 29 de junio de 1398 - Barcelona; 20 de enero de 1479) fue duque de Peñafiel, rey de Navarra (1425 - 1479) y rey de Aragón, de Cerdeña y de Sicilia (1458 - 1479), hijo de Fernando I de Antequera y de Leonor Urraca de Castilla, condesa de Alburquerque. Juan II se destaca como uno de los monarcas más longevos y memorables del siglo XV.
John II the Great (June 29, 1397 ? January 20, 1479) was the King of Aragon (1458?1479) and a King of Navarre (1425?1479). He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John is regarded as one of the most memorable and most unscrupulous kings of the 15th century.
In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II. Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alfonso V, whose reign was mainly spent in Italy. In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella of Castile which brought about the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, that was to create the Kingdom of Spain. His trouble with his subjects were closely connected with the tragic dissension in his own family.
John was first married to the Queen Blanche of Navarre of the house of Évreux. By right of Blanche he became king of Navarre, and on her death in 1441 he was left in possession of the kingdom for his lifetime. But a son, Charles, given the title "Prince of Viana" as heir of Navarre, had been born of the marriage. John quickly came to regard his son with jealousy. After his second marriage, to Juana Enríquez, this grew into absolute hatred and was encouraged by Juana. John tried to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence. Charles's cause was taken up by the Aragonese, and the king's attempt to make his second wife lieutenant-general was set aside.
There followed a long conflict, with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison given him by his stepmother, in 1461. The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charlesand who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders. King John spent his last years contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it.
In his old age John was blinded by cataracts, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching conducted by his physician Abiathar Crescas, a Jew. The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John carried on a war, in whichhe was generally unfortunate, with his neighbour the French king till his death in 1479. He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already associated with his wife Isabella as joint sovereign of Castile.
From his first marriage to Blanche of Navarre:
* Carlos of Viana (1421-1461)
* Juana of Aragon (1423-1425)
* Blanca of Navarre (1420-1464) married Henry IV of Castile. The marriage was never consummated. After 13 years of marriage, Henry sought and obtained a divorce. Blanca was sent home, where her family imprisoned her, and she was later killed by poison.
* Eleanor, Queen of Navarre
From his second marriage to Juana Enríquez:
* Fernando II of Aragon
* Infanta Juana of Aragon (1454-1517). Married Ferdinand I of Naples.
Note: John II (of Aragón and Navarre), in Spanish, Juan II (1397-1479), king of
Aragón (1458-79) and Navarre (1425-79), the son of King Ferdinand I of
Aragón and father-in-law of Queen Isabella I of Castile. John represented
his brother King Alfonso V of Aragón, Naples, and Sicily in Aragón as
lieutenant general and succeeded him to the throne of Aragón. John in 1420
had married Blanche of Navarre (1385?-1441), who inherited the throne of
Navarre in 1425. For many years, John struggled with his son, Charles,
later King Charles IV of Navarre for control of the two kingdoms. After
Charles's death in 1461, John was faced with a series of revolts in the
province of Catalonia led by former adherents of Charles. He did not
regain control of the province until 1472. During the latter part of his
reign, John engaged in war against King Louis XI of France and was forced
to cede to him the provinces of Cerdagne and Roussillon.