Henry VII (Tudor) of England
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Henry (Tudor) of England (1457 - 1509)

Henry (Henry VII) "King of England, 2nd Earl of Richmond" of England formerly Tudor
Born in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
Ancestors ancestors
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of — married 18 Jan 1486 in Westminster, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Richmond Palace, Richmond, Surrey, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 30 Aug 2010
This page has been accessed 28,618 times.
British Aristocracy
Henry VII (Tudor) of England was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.
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The House of Tudor crest.
Henry VII (Tudor) of England is a member of the House of Tudor.
Preceded by
Richard III
King of England
22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509
Succeeded by
Henry VIII

Contents

Biography

Henry Tudor the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond and Margaret Beaufort was born posthumously in Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457, [1] as the Earl of Richmond. He lived at Pembroke Castle under the care of his uncle Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, until 30 Sept 1461, when the castle was surrendered to Lords Herbert and Ferrers of Chartley. Henry lost the earldom before 12 Aug 1462 when he and his uncle fled to Britanny after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471.[1]

Origins

Henry's paternal grandparents were Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois and via his mother he was the great-great-grandson of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford.[2]

Henry's claim to the English throne was tenuous at best. His mother descended from John of Gaunt's affair with Catherine Swynford.[3] Though their children born out of wedlock were legitimized by Parliament, all claims of this line were not valid until the direct male line of John of Gaunt became extinct.[4]

Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, had married Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V and daughter to Charles VI of France. Their son Edmund, being the half brother of Henry VI, was created Earl of Richmond. He married Margaret Beaufort, only daughter of John, Duke of Somerset, and died more than two months before their son Henry Tudor, was born.[4]

Battle of Bosworth

Jasper and Henry sailed to join the uprising against King Richard III in 1483 but were unable to land. On 25 Jan 1484 he was attainted in his absence.[1] Despite these failed revolts and his Lancastrian connections, Henry eventually won the throne.[3]

On 1 Aug 1485 Henry sailed from Harfleur, landing at Milford Haven. His forces defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 and he seized the crown as Henry VII, King of England. He was crowned 30 October 1485 at Westminster Abbey.[1][5][1]

While Henry's claim to the throne was weak and possibly illegal,[6] he dated his reign from the day before Bosworth.[7]

In an act of attainder Parliament declared that Richard of Gloucester was a traitor who usurped the throne and 'by great and continued deliberation, traitorously levied war against our said sovereign lord and his true subjects'.[8]

Marriage

On January 18, 1486 at Westminster, Henry married Elizabeth of York (b. 11 Feb 1466 Westminster Palace - d. 11 Feb 1503). She was eldest daughter and heiress of Edward IV and Elizabeth Wydeville.

The marriage was an act to gain Yorkist support, and bring an end to civil war by uniting the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York.[4]

Elizabeth of York died in childbirth. She was buried in Westminster Abbey. [1]

children

Henry VII & Elizabeth of York had eight children. Four of them died during their infancy or in youth.

  1. Arthur (b. 20 Sep 1486 St Swithun’s Priory, Winchester - dvp. 02 Apr 1502 Ludlow Castle, co. Salop; buried Worcester Cathedral), was Duke of Cornwall from birth. He was created Prince of Wales & Earl of Chester 29 Nov 1489.

    Arthur married Catherine of Aragon by proxy, then in person at St. Paul's Cathedral, London 14 Nov 1501.

    Infanta doña CATALINA de Aragón (b. 16 Dec 1485 - d. 7 Jan 1536), dau. of FERNANDO V of Aragon & Isabel I of Castile, later remarried to Henry VIII of England. She was born in Alcala de Henares;d died in Kimbolton Castle, co. Hunts; and buried in Peterborough Cathedral.[1]
  2. Margaret (b. 28 Nov 1489 Westminster palace - d. 18 Oct 1541 Methven Castle, Perthshire; bur. Carthusian Monastery of St John, Perth), Queen Regent of Scotland, died of palsy.

    She married by proxy, then in person at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh 8 Aug 1503, James IV of Scotland (b. 17 Mar 1473 - d. 09 Sep 1513 Battle of Flodden). He was the son of James III of Scotland and Margarethe of Denmark.

    Margaret & James had six children. James was slain in co. Northumb. & buried in Sheen Abbey, co. Surrey.

    Margaret remarried to Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus (b. 1490 d. Jan 1557 Tantallon Castle; bur. Abernethy), at Kinnoul Church on 6 Aug 1514 as his second wife. He was the son of George Douglas, Master of Angus and Elizabeth Drummond. They divorced 11 Mar 1527.

    Margaret married for the third time before 2 Apr 1528 to Henry Stewart (b. 1495 x 1500), as his second wife. He was the son of Andrew Stewart, Lord Avondale and Margaret Kennedy, and died soon after 10 Oct 1551. He was created Lord Methven 17 Jul 1528. [1]
  3. Henry (b. 28 Jun 1491 Greenwich Palace, co. Kent - d. 28 Jan 1547 Whitehall; bur. St George's Chapel, Windsor), suc. 22 Apr 1509 as Henry VIII.[1]
  4. Elizabeth, born 2 Jul 1492 at Eltham Palace, Kent, died 7 Oct or 14 Nov 1495, buried in Westminster Abbey.[1]
  5. Mary (b. 18 Mar 1496 Richmond Palace, Surrey or Westminster - d. [24/26] Jun 1533 Westhorpe Hall, Suffolk; bur. 22 Jul Abbey Church, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk). Her body was transferred to St Mary’s Church, Bury St Edmunds. She was crowned Queen of France 5 Nov 1514 at St Denis Cathedral, Paris.

    Her first husband was Louis XII of France (b. Château de Blois 27 Jun 1462 - d. Hôtel royal des Tournelles, Paris 1 Jan 1515; bur. église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Mary was his third wife.

    They married by contract, then by proxy [more than once], finally in person at Abbeville Cathedral, Somme 9 Oct 1514. Louis' was the son of Charles, Duc d'Orleans & his third wife Maria von Kleve.

    Mary's second marriage to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk (b. 1484 - d. The Palace, Guildford, co. Surrey 22 Aug 1545; bur. St George’s Chapel, Windsor), took place in secret at the Chapel in the Palais de Cluny, Paris [4/20] Feb 1515 and 31 Mar 1515. They later wed publicly at Greyfriars Church, Greenwich Palace 13 May 1515. She was his third wife and had 3 children by this marriage. Suffolk's parents were William Brandon & his wife Elizabeth Bruyn.[1]
  6. Edmund (b. 21 Feb 1499 Greenwich Palace, co. Kent - d. 19 Jun 1500 Old Palace, Bishop’s Hatfield, co. Herts.; bur 22 Jun Westminster Abbey).[1]
  7. Edward (d.y.; bur. Westminster Abbey. [1]
  8. Katherine (b. 02 Feb 1503 Tower of London - d. inf. 18 Feb 1503 Tower of London; bur. Westminster Abbey.[1]

Death

He died in Richmond Palace, Surrey 21 April 1509 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. [1] He was buried on 11 May 1509 at Westminster Abbey.

(Royal Tombs of Medieval England)[9] -- Henry VII planned his tomb well before he died. Henry had a dynastic point to make and was forced to give his monument early consideration because the most senior burial positions in the Confessor's Chapel at Westminster were occupied. In 1496 Henry had began the rebuilding of the chapel of St. Edward at Windsor for his tomb, but by 1504 had transferred his plans from Windsor to Westminster, when he founded a chantry there for himself, his wife, Elizabeth of York, his parents and ancestors. In 1506 Margaret Beaufort founded a Westminster chantry of her own. Henry VII's will of 1509 boasts his grandmother's twin royal status of being the wife of an English king (Henry V) and daughter of a French one (Charles VI) and cites her burial at Westminster as one reason why he wished to be buried there himself. Work on his chapel continued until Henry's death in 1509, with his will providing considerable funds for its completion. In 1507 Henry appears to have commissioned a new tomb featuring gilt effigies of himself and Elizabeth of York with a tomb-chest executed in black and white marble.

Henry died at Richmond on 21 April 1509. His new chapel, unfinished, was consecrated the day before in preparation of burial. The king's coffin was taken to St. Paul's in London bearing a funeral effigy dressed in parliamentary robes with crown, scepter and orb. The coffin lay beneath a canopy of cloth of gold with its carriage drawn by seven horses wearing funerary trappings accompanied by 330 torchbearers and with knights carrying royal and religious banners. The coffin was installed before St. Paul's high altar for the singing of Mass and then the coffin was returned to its carriage for the journey to Westminster. At Charing the carriage was met by abbots of the various cathedrals and Westminster monks. Accompanied by a further 100 torchbearers the carriage continued to the west door of the abbey church, with the coffin being installed either before the high altar or in Henry's new chapel, that part not being recorded. Mass was sung and the coffin was interred.

The foundations of Henry's new chapel incorporated a large vault at the east end, and it was here that Henry and his wife Elizabeth of York were buried.

Henry's tomb was commissioned in 1512 and completed until around 1518. It has gilt-bronze effigies with a black and white marble tomb-chest. The effigies show the couple with hands clasped in prayer. The only sign of royal status being two gilt crowns were lost. Both are clearly portraits with Henry's effigy probably modeled on a death mask.

In 1867 the vault beneath the tomb was opened and found to contain three lead coffins. The coffins of Henry VII and James I (d.1625) were identified by inscriptions and a third coffin bearing a large cross but without inscription almost certainly being that of Elizabeth of York. [10]

Notes

Possible additional child

  • Roland de Velville (b. 1471 x 85 - d. 1535), poss. illegit. son by a Breton woman, born while Henry exiled in Brittany. Constable of Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey 1509-1535.]
m. Agnes [Griffith] ferch Gwilym Fychan of Penrhyn, Chamberlain of North Wales & second wife Gwenllian ferch Iowerth ap David. Agnes died in 1542.[1]

Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 Charles Cawley. Medieval Lands Database. England, Kings 1066-1603. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20Kings%201066-1603.htm. Accessed June 28, 2016
  2. See genealogical table for the House of York and Wikipedia: Henry VII of England.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Britannia.com
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Luminarium.org
  5. "Bosworth," in Luminarium.org.
  6. The Beaufort Legitimation www.r3.org.
  7. wisc.edu.
  8. Parliamentary Record DATE: November, 1485. AUTHOR: King and council. TEXT: “Rotuli Parliamentarium,” ed. J. Strachey, 6 vols.(London, 1767-83), VI, p. 176. (English; spelling modernized.) reproduced at www.r3.org
  9. Duffy, M. (2003). Ryoyal Tombs of Medieval England, pp. 277-289
  10. (note: more information about other parts of his bio and reign at Luminarium and Britannia)

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DNA Connections
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Comments: 13

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Henry VII is Mentioned in “The” Works Of William Shakespeare, Volume 1https://books.google.ca/books?id=IkVhAAAAcAAJ&pg=PP71&lpg=PP71&dq=Paternal+ancestry+of+Henry+VIII&source=bl&ots=CV87gMBLtM&sig=fVfupfHZmn-yjDWX2UvbVGp-LQc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjW9Z7mh5beAhViqlkKHQIzAGU4KBDoATAGegQIAxAB#v=onepage&q=Paternal%20ancestry%20of%20Henry%20VIII&f=false
posted by [Living Scott]
Greetings,

We are 11th cousins, 15 times removed, and are both descendants of Richard (Lucy) de Lucy.

Regards, Michael Griffiths, New Zealand

posted by Michael Griffiths
Henry VII's mother was only 13 years of age when he was born. It has always been assumed the pregnancy damaged her hence she bore no children to either her 2nd or 3rd husband.
Tudor-792 and Tudor-18 appear to represent the same person because: same family and death
posted by Robin Lee
His mother was b. 1443 and he was b. 1457? Somewhere there is an error
posted by Steven Beall
Bio gives exact date of birth but the birth date field is not precise. This lack of precision is triggering a Find A Grave related error here at wikitree. Please enter exact date of birth. (I'm not doing it myself due to Project Protected status)
posted by Donna (Friebel) Storz
Howe-1317 and Tudor-18 do not represent the same person because: Different birth dates and different surnames.
Howe-1317 and Tudor-18 appear to represent the same person because: Year of birth given for Howe-1317 is actually the year Henry VII was crowned.
posted by John Elkin
Henry married Elizabeth of York, not her mother Elizabeth Woodville. Removing Elizabeth Woodville as his wife.
posted by Bob Fields

Rejected matches › Henry ap Owen Tudor (1455-)

Henry VII is 18 degrees from Laurie Giffin, 30 degrees from Toni Morrison and 1 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.