Friedrich II 'der Fromme' (the Pious) was the younger son of Bernhard I, Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Lüneburg, and his wife Margaretha von Sachsen-Wittenberg. He was of the Mittleres-Haus-Lüneburg or Middle House of the Dukes of Brunswick in Luneburg based in Celle.
His birth date is unknown; although a number of Wikipedia articles, probably all based on the German) one give a birth date of 1418, which appears to be unsourced. However his parents although married in 1386, were first betrothed on 10 November 1373, and even if Friedrich's mother was very young at that time, born about 1370, it would still mean she was mid-late forties when Friedrich was born. Not impossible but perhaps unlikely.
A 1418 birth date would also mean that Friedrich was only about 12 years when his own marriage took place (see below) and only 14 when his eldest son was born, which again seems unlikely. A birth date of about 1410 and probably earlier is a better estimate.
Friedrich's elder brother Otto I, succeeded their father as Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1434, perhaps jointly with Friedrich, but Otto died without issue in 1445 and Friedrich ruled alone.
Friedrich had founded a Franciscan cloister (Franziskanerkloster or Grauemönchskloster - Grey monks cloister) in 1452 and in 1457 he resigned the government in favour of his eldest son Bernhard II and retired to the monastery. This is probably where he gained his nickname of 'der Fromme' (the Pious).
However the death of his son Bernhard II in 1464 followed by that of his younger son Otto V in 1471, leaving a three year old heir, forced Friedrich out of retirement and he again assumed the government of Celle, ostensibly ruling jointly with his grandson Heinrich, until his own death on 19 March 1478 at Celle. He was buried in the Franciscan Cloister.
Friedrich had married on 16 September 1430 or possibly 3 July in 1429 at Schloss Tangermünde, Magdalena von Brandenburg, the daughter of Friedrich I, Kurfürst von Brandenburg, and his wife Elisabeth von Bayern. She was probably born about 1412, and definitely before 5 November 1415. She died at Schanebeck, 27 October 1454 and was buried there.
They had three children;
The English Wikipedia article for Friedrich also has a third son, Gottfried, born 1441, died 1465 but the article doesn't appear to cite any sources specifically for this child, and he is not mentioned in any other sources.
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