Edward (Wessex) of England

Eadweard (Wessex) of England (abt. 0871 - 0924)

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Eadweard (Edward) "Edward the Elder, Se Ealdr, King of England" of England formerly Wessex aka of the West Saxons
Born about in Wessex, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married [location unknown]
Husband of — married [location unknown]
Husband of — married in Wessex, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Farndon-on-Dee, Farrington, Berkshire, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 2 Jan 2011 | Last significant change: 1 Dec 2018
00:11: J-M Mustchin answered a question about Edward (Wessex) of England [Thank J-M for this]
This page has been accessed 17,263 times.

Categories: House of Wessex | Battle of Tettenhall.

Contents

Biography

The House of Wessex crest.
Edward (Wessex) of England is a member of the House of Wessex.
British Aristocracy
Edward (Wessex) of England was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.
Join: British Royals and Aristocrats Project
Discuss: british_aristo
Preceded by
Alfred "the Great"
King of the West Saxons
26 October 899 – 17 July 924
Succeeded by
Æthelstan

Biography

The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son. Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father.[1]

Vitals

Old English: Eadweard se Ieldra[2]
King of the Anglo-Saxons[3] 899 - 924.[4]
b. unknown.[5]
d. 17 July 924 Farndon-Upon-Dee[6]
Burial: New Minster, Winchester, Hampshire. Later Hyde Abbey.[7]

Formerly buried at Hyde Abbey. Now buried at St. Lawrence in the Square Church, Hampshire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burial_places_of_British_royalty

Early Life

p. Alfred the Great (Ælfred se Greata) and Ealhswith m. 868. Issue: 5
  • Æthelflæd (Ethelfleda), Lady of the Mercians[8]
  • Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.[11]

Family

  • Married 3 times[13]
  • legitimate issue: 14
  • possible illegitimate issue


m. abt. 898 Ecgwynn.[14] Issue:

  • King Athelstan
  • (disputed) Edgyth of Polesworth m. 926 Sihtric of Northumbria[1]


m.2 899 Ælfflæd[15] Issue:[16]

  • king Ælfweard
  • Eadgyth m. Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Edgiva aka Edgifu m.1 Charles the Simple;
  • Eadhild m. Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris
  • Ælfgifu m.Conrad of Burgundy
  • Eadflæd (nun)
  • Eadhild (nun)

m.3 ab 919 Edgiva (Eadgifu)[17] Issue:

  • Edmund
  • Edred
  • Saint Edburga of Winchester
  • Eadgifu m. Louis l'Aveugle

Achievements

  • Extended control of Wessex over Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918.
  • By end of reign, Norse, Scots and Welsh acknowledged him as "father and lord".[18]
  • Reorganized Wessex church.[19]


Sources

  1. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king.
    Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were about ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status. As well as greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.
  2. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf.
  3. Note: The title 'King of England' was not used until later centuries.
  4. 1. Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings & Nobles, Eng. 104, p. 342-47
    2. The Royal Line of Succession, A16A225, p. 6-7
    3. Hist. of the Anglo-Saxons, Eng. 36, v. 2, p. 143-197
    4. Plantagenet Ancestry, Eng. 116, p. 21
    5. Keiser und Koenig Hist., Gen. Hist. 25, pt 1, p. 12-13, 96-97
    6. Burke's Peerage, Eng. P, 1949, pref. p. 251
    7. Tab. Gen. Souv., France 22, Tab. 4, 5
    8. Anderson's Royal Gen., Eng. 132, p. 738
    9. Betham's Gen. Tab., Eng. 133, Tab. 601, 602
  5. probably btw 874 - 877.
  6. died leading army against Welsh-Mercian rebellion.
  7. he established New Minster in 901. After Norman Conquest, the minster it was replaced by Hyde Abbey where Edward was reburied. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.
  8. eldest child; b. soon after 868; m. 883
  9. second-born and oldest son.
  10. intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury.
  11. Asser's Life of King Alfred: Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth.
  12. youngest child; educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life.
  13. some sources state extramarital relationship and 2 marriages
  14. union status uncertain; She was a young woman of low birth. Nothing more is known her. Her name was recorded after the Conquest. When he became king in 899, Edward left her.
  15. dau. Æthelhelm, ealdorman of Wiltshire.
    William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae: Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.
  16. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia, the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933 was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.
  17. dau. Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent.
    Eadgifu outlived husband and sons; living during reign of grandson, King Edgar.
  18. recognition of overlordship in Scotland led to successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.
  19. Created new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. But there is little indication Edward was religious. Pope told to him to pay more attention to religious responsibilities.
See also: http://www.maximiliangenealogy.co.uk/burke1/Royal%20Descents/hughesofgwerclas_1.htm http://www.maximiliangenealogy.co.uk/burke1/Royal%20Descents/hughesofgwerclas_2.htm http://www.maximiliangenealogy.co.uk/burke1/Royal%20Descents/hughesofgwerclas_3.htm http://www.maximiliangenealogy.co.uk/burke1/Royal%20Descents/hughesofgwerclas_4.htm

Acknowledgements

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Memories: 1

On 31 Jan 2012 Paul Lee wrote:

Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 – 17 July 924) was King of England (899 – 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd se Grēata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899.

Three marriages:

A: Ecgwynn - three children

1. Ælfred

2. Æthelstan, King of Wessex

3. Eadgyth, married Sithric, King of York

B: Ælfflæd Æthelhelmsdottir of Wiltshire, eight (nine) children:

4. Ædfletha

5. (?) Æthelfletha

6. Eadgifu, married Charles III and Herbert

7. Ælfweard

8. Eadwine

9. Æthelhild

10. Eadhild, married Hugues Capet

11. Eadgyth, married Otto von Germania

12. Ælfgifu, wrongly assumed married to Boleslaw

C: Eadgifu daughter of Sigehelm of Kent

four children:

13. Edmund the Magnificent

14. Eadburgha

15. Eadgifu, married Ludwig Graf im Thurgau

16. Eadred

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#SihtricYorkdied927


(Wikipedia article cont.)

He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England.

Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".

The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son. Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status. As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.

When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900

In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick.

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (Æðelflǣd). Ethelfleda's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord". This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.

He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest.

When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933 was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu, the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.


References

1. ^ a b N. J. Higham, David Hill, Edward the Elder, 899-924, p. 57.

2. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 67

3. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 206.

4. ^ Higham & Hill, pp. 73, 206.

5. ^ ODNB; Yorke.

6. ^ ODNB; Yorke; Asser, c. 75.

7. ^ ODNB; PASE; S 348; Yorke.

8. ^ ODNB; S 356; Yorke.

9. ^ Asser, c. 13; S 340; Yorke. Check Stafford, "King's wife".

10. ^ "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder.

11. ^ "Edward the Elder: Reconquest of the Southern Danelaw". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?doget&typeperson&id=EdwardtheElder#4.

12. ^ "Edward the Elder: "Father and Lord" of the North". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?doget&typeperson&id=EdwardtheElder#5.

13. ^ "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm.

14. ^ "Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?doget&typeperson&id=EdwardtheElder.

15. ^ Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. pp. 98,99.

16. ^ a b Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. p. 99.

17. ^ Chart of Kings & Queens Of Great Britain (see References)

Sources

  • anglo-saxons.net
  • David Nash Ford's Early British Kingdoms
  • Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. pp. 98,99.

Eadweard I, King of Wessex (1)

M, #102434, b. circa 871, d. 17 July 924

Last Edited=6 Apr 2007

Eadweard I, King of Wessex was born circa 871 at Wantage, Dorset, England. (3) He was the son of Ælfræd, King of Wessex and Eahlwið, Princess of Mercia. He married, firstly, Ecgwyn (?). (3) He married, secondly, Ælflæd (?), daughter of Ethelhelm, Ealdorman and Elswitha (?), circa 901. (4) He married, thirdly, Eadgifu (?), daughter of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent, circa 920. (5)

He died on 17 July 924 at Farndon-on-Dee, England. (6)

He was also reported to have died on 7 July 924 at Farndon, Cheshire, England. He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England. (6)

Eadweard I, King of Wessex also went by the nick-name of Edward 'the Elder' (?). (1) He succeeded to the title of King Eadweard I of Wessex on 26 October 899. (3) He succeeded to the title of King Eadweard I of Mercia on 26 October 899. (3) He was crowned King of Wessex and Mercia on 31 May 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames, London, England. (3)

Edward together with his sister Ethelfleda of Mercia, fought stoutly against the Danes. Ethelfleda built many forts notably at Chester, Hereford, Bridgenorth, Shrewsbury, Warwick, Gloucester and Tamworth. Known as The Lady of the Mercians, she died in 918 and Mercia was then united with Wessex. In 914, Edward secured the release of the Bishop of Llandaff (Cardiff) who had been captured by the Norsemen and following this, the princes of both North and South Wales pledged their perpetual allegiance to him. Edward doubled the size of the kingdom during his reign. It is now generally acknowledged that Edward died on the 7th July 924 but some historians give the date as 925.

Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Ecgwyn (?)

-1. Alfred (?) (4)

-2. Saint Edith (?) d. c 927

-3. Æthelstan, King of England7 b. c 895, d. 27 Oct 939

Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Ælflæd (?)

-1. Edwin (?)7 d. 933

-2. Eadflæd (?) (8)

-3. Æthelhilda (?) (8)

-4. Eadgyth (?)+7 d. 26 Jan 946

-5. Edgiva (?) (7)

-6. Eadhilda (?)7 d. 26 Jan 947

-7. Ælfweard, King of England4 d. 1 Aug 924

-8. Elfleda (?)5 d. c 963

-9. Ethelfleda (?) (5)

-10. Eadgifu (?)+7 b. 902, d. c 953

Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Eadgifu (?)

-1. Saint Edburga (?)7 d. 15 Jun 960

-2. Eadgifu (?)

-3. Eadmund I, King of England+1 b. bt 920 - 922, d. 26 May 946

-4. Eadræd, King of England1 b. bt 923 - 925, d. 23 Nov 955

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10244.htm#i102434


Edward the Elder, King of England, 901-925,


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder

Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 – 17 July 924) was King of England (899 – 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd se Grēata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899.

He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England.

Contents [hide]

1 Ætheling

2 Succession and early reign

3 Achievements

4 Family

5 Genealogy

6 References

7 Sources

8 External links


[edit] Ætheling

Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [1]

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[2]

The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[3] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[4] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[5]

[edit] Succession and early reign

When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [6]

In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[7]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick.

[edit] Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (Æðelflǣd). Ethelfleda's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[8] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[9]

He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

[edit] Family

Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [10][11]

When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [12] Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[13] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[12] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder

Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] – 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister.

All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] The chroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder" was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Ætheling

Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [6]

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7]

The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10]

[edit] Succession and early reign

When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Æthelwold, the son of King Æthelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Æthelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Æthelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11]

In 901, Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Æthelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13]

[edit] Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Ætheflæd's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[14] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[15]

He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

[edit] Family

Edward had four siblings, including Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric Cáech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest.[16][17]

When he became king in 899, Edward married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[18] Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[19] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[18] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Ælfflæd, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.

[edit] Genealogy

For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Wessex_family_tree#House_of_Wessex_family_tree

Reign 26 October 899 – 17 July 924

Coronation 8 June 900, Kingston upon Thames

Predecessor Alfred the Great

Successor Athelstan of England and/or Ælfweard of Wessex

Spouse Ecgwynn, Ælfflæd, and Eadgifu

Father Alfred the Great

Mother Ealhswith

Born c.874-77

Wantage, Wessex, England

Died 17 July 924

Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England

Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey.


Edward the Elder

King of the English


Reign 26 October 899 - 17 July 924

Coronation 8 June 900, Kingston upon Thames

Predecessor Alfred the Great and

Ealhswith

Successor Ælfweard of Wessex and

Athelstan of England

Spouse Ecgwynn, Ælfflæd, and Edgiva

Father Alfred the Great

Mother Ealhswith

Born c.870

Wessex, England

Died 17 July 924

Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England

Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey

Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 – 17 July 924) was King of England (899 – 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd se Grēata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899.

He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England.


Ætheling

Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [1]

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[2]

The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[3] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[4] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[5]

Succession and early reign

When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [6]

In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[7]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick.

Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (Æðelflǣd). Ethelfleda's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[8] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[9]

He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Family

Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [10][11]

When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [12] Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[13] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[12] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder


He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England,


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder


Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] – 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister.

All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] The chroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder" was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Contents

[show]

  • 1 Ætheling
  • 2 Succession and early reign
  • 3 Achievements
  • 4 Family
  • 5 Genealogy
  • 6 Ancestry
  • 7 References
  • 8 Sources
  • 9 External links

[edit] Ætheling

Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[6]

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7]

The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10]

[edit] Succession and early reign

Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.

When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Æthelwold, the son of King Æthelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Æthelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Æthelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11]

In 901, Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Æthelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13]

[edit] Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Ætheflæd's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[14] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[15]

He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

[edit] Family

Edward had four siblings, including Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, (or according to some sources, an extramarital relationship and two marriages).

Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric Cáech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Conflicting information about Ecgwynn is given by different sources, none of which pre-date the Conquest.[16][17]

When he became king in 899, Edward married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[18] Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[19] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[18] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Ælfflæd, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.

[edit] Genealogy

For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see House of Wessex family tree.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder


Succession and early reign

Edward's succession to his father was not assured. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Aethelred I, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [1]

In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[2]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians returned the favour by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the Humber River.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick.

[edit]Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (Æðelflǣd). Ethelfleda's daughter, Aelfwinn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[3] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[4]

He died leading an army against a Cambro-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and King Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

[edit]Family

Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders .

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [5][6]

When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [7] Their son was the future king, Ælfweard, and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia, the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[7] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis d'Aveugle, King of Arles.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.

[edit]


Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] – 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister.

All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] The chroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder" was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Contents [hide]

1 Ætheling

2 Succession and early reign

3 Achievements

4 Family

5 Genealogy

6 Ancestry

7 References

8 Sources

9 External links


[edit] Ætheling

Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[6]

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7]

The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10]

[edit] Succession and early reign


Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Æthelwold, the son of King Æthelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Æthelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Æthelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11]

In 901, Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Æthelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle.

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13]

[edit] Achievements

Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering l



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Images: 5
Edward the First King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1
Edward the First King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1

Edward was Eadweard se Ieldra of Wessex Image 1
Edward was Eadweard se Ieldra of Wessex Image 1

King Edward I King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1
King Edward I King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1

Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1
Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons Image 1

Chart of Paternal Royal and Noble Ancestors
Chart of Paternal Royal and Noble Ancestors

Collaboration

On 23 Aug 2017 at 16:17 GMT Helen (Coleman) Ford wrote:

Unknown-221774 and Wessex-32 appear to represent the same person because: same death date (not birth) both called Edward the Elder

On 1 Aug 2017 at 03:49 GMT Emma (McBeth) MacBeath M.Ed MSM wrote:

When you have a spare moment, it would be great if you changed the Last Name at Birth to Wessex and moved King of the Anglo Saxons to the Nickname box where titles should go.

Thanks! Emma :-)

On 1 Aug 2017 at 03:48 GMT Emma (McBeth) MacBeath M.Ed MSM wrote:

On the surface, https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/King_of_the_Anglo-Saxons-3 Looks like the same person as this profile. If not, they need to be set as a rejected match so others will not try to merge.

Thanks! Emma :-)

On 4 Jan 2017 at 18:13 GMT James LaLone wrote:

On 4 Jan 2017 at 18:12 GMT James LaLone wrote:

Spouses and children mentioned in this profile - Wessex-32, actually belong here.

On 4 Jan 2017 at 17:29 GMT James LaLone wrote:

The information given here I have as belonging to his brother Edward I King_of_the_Anglo-Saxons-3 . For this person I have married unknown, b. btwn. 868-880, d, 16 Oct 922 and had children: Turketil, Elfwine & Ethelwine. References: Williamson, David, Kings and Queens of England, 1998, p.14; Schwennicke, Detlev, Europaische Stammtafeln, Neue Folge Bd. II, table 78; Paget, Gerard, the Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, v.1, p.5;

On 29 Apr 2015 at 17:42 GMT Robin Lee wrote:

De Cumbe-6 and Cumbe-2 appear to represent the same person because: same dates, alternate spelling of name

On 6 Feb 2015 at 08:03 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

Unknown-241349 and Wessex-32 appear to represent the same person because: Dates are the same, nickname 'the elder' is the same

On 7 Dec 2014 at 21:51 GMT Tim Perry wrote:

Wessex-32 and Wessex-422 appear to represent the same person because: These appear to be the same person, dates same, rank same.

On 3 Aug 2013 at 17:02 GMT Roger Travis Jr. wrote:

Hi; this profile needs to have open (white) privacy. Please change it when you have a chance.



Edward is 27 degrees from George Bush, 30 degrees from Rick San Soucie and 23 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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