Mary (Winston) Jackson

Mary (Winston) Jackson (1921 - 2005)

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Mary Jackson formerly Winston
Born in Hampton, Virginia, United Statesmap
Ancestors ancestors
[spouse(s) unknown]
[children unknown]
Died in Hampton, Virginia, United Statesmap
Profile last modified | Created 12 Oct 2018 | Last significant change: 1 Dec 2018
16:36: Gene Ellison edited the Birth Date for Mary (Winston) Jackson (1921-2005). (correcting errors from suggestions) [Thank Gene for this]
This page has been accessed 16 times.

Contents

Biography

Mary Winston Jackson was an African American mathematician and aerospace engineer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA),[1] which in 1958 was succeeded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She worked at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, for most of her career. She started as a computer at the segregated West Area Computing division. She took advanced engineering classes and in 1958 became NASA's first black female engineer.[2]

After 34 years at NASA, Jackson had earned the most senior engineering title available. She realized she could not earn further promotions without becoming a supervisor. She accepted a demotion to become a manager of both the Federal Women’s Program, in the NASA Office of Equal Opportunity Programs, and of the Affirmative Action Program. In this role, she worked to influence both the hiring and promotion of women in NASA's science, engineering, and mathematics careers. [3]

Career

Mary Jackson (Engineer).
After graduation, Jackson taught mathematics for a year at a black school in Calvert County, Maryland.[4] At that time public schools were still segregated across the South. She also began tutoring high school and college students, which she continued to do throughout her life. [5]

By 1943, she had returned to Hampton, where she became a bookkeeper at the National Catholic Community Center there. She worked as a receptionist and clerk at the Hampton Institute's Health Department; she returned home for the birth of her son. In 1951 she became a clerk at the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces at Fort Monroe.[6]

In 1951 Jackson was recruited by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which in 1958 was succeeded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).[7] [8] [9] She started as a research mathematician, or computer, at the Langley Research Center in her hometown of Hampton, Virginia. She worked under Dorothy Vaughan in the segregated West Area Computing Section.[10]

In 1953 she accepted an offer to work for engineer Kazimierz Czarnecki in the Supersonic Pressure Tunnel. The 4 by 4 foot (1.2 by 1.2 m), 60,000 horsepower (45,000 kW) wind tunnel used to study forces on a model by generating winds at almost twice the speed of sound.[11] Czarnecki encouraged Jackson to undergo training so that she could be promoted to an engineer. She needed to take graduate-level courses in mathematics and physics to qualify for the job. They were offered in a night program by the University of Virginia, held at the all-white Hampton High School. Jackson petitioned the City of Hampton to allow her to attend the classes. After completing the courses, she was promoted to aerospace engineer in 1958, and became NASA's first black female engineer.[12][13] [14] She analyzed data from wind tunnel experiments and real-world aircraft flight experiments at the Theoretical Aerodynamics Branch of the Subsonic-Transonic Aerodynamics Division at Langley. Her goal was to understand air flow, including thrust and drag forces, in order to improve United States planes. [15]

Jackson worked as an engineer in several NASA divisions: the Compressibility Research Division, Full-Scale Research Division, High-Speed Aerodynamics Division, and the Subsonic-Transonic Aerodynamics Division. [16] She ultimately authored or co-authored 12 technical papers for NACA and NASA.[17][18][19] She worked to help women and other minorities to advance their careers, including advising them how to study in order to qualify for promotions.[20]

By 1979, Jackson had achieved the most senior title within the engineering department. She decided to take a demotion in order to serve as an administrator in the Equal Opportunity Specialist field. After undergoing training at NASA

Mary Jackson
Headquarters, she returned to Langley. She worked to make changes and highlight women and other minorities who were accomplished in the field. She served as both the Federal Women’s Program Manager in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs and as the Affirmative Action Program Manager, and she worked to influence the career paths of women in science, engineering, and mathematics positions at NASA.[21] She continued to work at NASA until her retirement in 1985.[22]



Personal Life

Jackson was married with two children. Their names are Levi Jackson Jr. and Carolyn Marie Lewis. She was married to Levi Jackson Sr. She died on February 11, 2005, aged 83.[23]

Sources

  1. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Jackson_(engineer)
  2. Timmons, Greg (December 6, 2016). "Mary Winston-Jackson". Biography.com. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  3. Mary W. Jackson (PDF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, October 1979, retrieved August 16, 2016
  4. Shetterly, Margot Lee. "Mary Jackson Biography". NASA. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  5. Mary W. Jackson (PDF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, October 1979, retrieved August 16, 2016
  6. Mary W. Jackson, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, October 1979, retrieved August 16, 2016
  7. Warren, Wini (1999). Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-253-33603-3.
  8. Lewis, Shawn D. (August 1977). "The Professional Woman: Her Fields Have Widened". Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. 32 (10). ISSN 0012-9011.
  9. "Mary Winston Jackson". Human Computers at NASA. Macalester College. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  10. Shetterly, Margot Lee. "Mary Jackson Biography". NASA. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  11. Shetterly, Margot Lee. "Mary Jackson Biography". NASA. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  12. Loff, Sarah (2016-11-22). "Mary Jackson Biography". NASA. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
  13. Lewis, Shawn D. (August 1977). "The Professional Woman: Her Fields Have Widened". Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. 32 (10). ISSN 0012-9011.
  14. Shetterly, Margot Lee. "Mary Jackson Biography". NASA. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  15. Warren, Wini (1999). Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-253-33603-3.
  16. Mary W. Jackson (PDF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, October 1979, retrieved August 16, 2016
  17. Czarnecki, K. R.; Jackson, Mary W. (September 1958), Effects of Nose Angle and Mach Number on Transition on Cones at Supersonic Speeds (NACA TN 4388), National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, retrieved January 3, 2017
  18. Czarnecki, K. R.; Jackson, Mary W. (January 1961), Effects of Cone Angle, Mach Number, and Nose Blunting on Transition at Supersonic Speeds (NASA TN D-634), NASA Langley Research Center, retrieved January 3, 2017
  19. Jackson, Mary W.; Czarnecki, K. R. (July 1961), Boundary-Layer Transition on a Group of Blunt Nose Shapes at a Mach Number of 2.20 (NASA TN D-932), NASA Langley Research Center, retrieved January 3, 2017
  20. Champine, Gloria R. "Mary Jackson" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  21. Champine, Gloria R. "Mary Jackson" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  22. Mary Winston Jackson". Legacy. Daily Press. February 13, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  23. "U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007," Name Mary Winston Jackson |[Mary W Jackson] |[Mary Winston Winston] |Gender Female| Race Black|Birth Date 9 Apr 1921|Birth Place Hampton Eliz, Virginia| Death Date 11 Feb 2005|Father Frank C Winston| Mother Ella F Scott|SSN 227327450|Notes Aug 1945: Name listed as MARY WINSTON JACKSON; 05 Mar 2005: Name listed as MARY W JACKSON | Members in Household Frank C Winston Ella F Scott


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