Edward IV (York) of York
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Edward (York) of York (1442 - 1483)

Edward (Edward IV) "King of England" of York formerly York
Born in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Francemap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 1 May 1464 in married privately at manor house of bride's father in Grafton Regis, Northamptonshiremap
Descendants descendants
Died at age 40 in Westminster, Middlesex, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 9 Feb 2012 | Last significant change: 24 Jul 2022
18:42: Laura DeSpain edited the Biography for Edward (York) of York (1442-1483). (Formatting. ) [Thank Laura for this]
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Preceded by
Henry VI
Edward IV of England
04 Mar 1461 – 03 Oct 1470 Deposed
Succeeded by
Henry VI
Preceded by
Henry VI
Edward IV of England
Restored 11 Apr 1471 – 09 Apr 1483
Succeeded by
Edward V

Contents

Biography

Edward IV (b. 28 Apr 1442 Rouen), son of Richard 'the protector', 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, was the first Yorkist king.[1]

He inherited his father's titles, Duke of York, Earl of Ulster, and Earl of Cambridge on 30 December 1460. On 4 March 1461, Parliament proclaimed him the King of England. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 28 June 1461. He was deposed in favour of King Henry VI on 3 October 1470. On 11 April 1471, he was restored to the throne. During this time two major events occurred, the War of the Roses began and he secretly married Elizabeth Wydeville.[1]

He married Elizabeth Wydeville on 1 May 1464 at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire.[2] They had 10 children[3] He enlarged the park around Greenwich Palace and stocked it with deer, and presented it to Elizabeth, his Queen.[4][5] Edward also had at least 4 illegitimate children.[3]

Edward spent the first half of his reign involved in the Wars of the Roses, until he finally beat the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Peace lasted from 04 May 1471 until he died 09 April 1483, at Westminster Palace.[3] He was buried at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle at Windsor, Berkshire, England.[3]

Children

Queen Elizabeth Wydeville. Issue:

m.1 Ralph Scrope, Esq. They had no issue.
m.2 John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles. They had two daughters, Elizabeth (wife of Thomas Stanley). She died the same year. and Anne (died young).
m.3 Thomas Kyme. They had no issue.
  • 4. Edward V, K.G., (04 Nov 1470 – 1483?). Generally accepted to have died young.
  • 5. Margaret "died young" (19 Apr 1472 – 11 Dec 1472).
  • 6. Richard, K.G., K.B. (17 Aug 1473 – 1483?). He married on 15 Jan. 1477. They had no issue, and he died young.
  • 7. Anne (02 Nov 1475 – 23 Nov 1511) m. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. They had one son, Thomas.
  • 8. George, (otherwise George Of Windsor) (Mar 1477 – Mar 1479). Died young.
  • 9. Katherine (14 Aug 1479 – 15 Nov 1527). She married William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon. They had two sons, Henry, K.G. [19th Earl of Devon, Marquess of Exeter], and Edward, and one daughter, Margaret.
  • 10. Bridget, (10 Nov. 1480 – 1517); nun.[6][7]

mistress Elizabeth Wayte, Lady Lucy (d.after1467).[8] Issue:

  • 1. Margaret (c.1464) m. Thomas Lumley, Knt. of Lumley, Durham. (1462 - 13 Nov. 1507). They had four sons, and three daughters. Note: often incorrectly named as Elizabeth.
  • 2. Arthur, (otherwise Arthur Wayte), K.G. 1st Viscount Lisle (1460/70s – 3 Mar 1542). He married (1st) 12 Nov. 1511 Elizabeth Grey. They had three daughters. His wife, Elizabeth, was living 10 august 1530. He married (2nd) before 20 Feb. 1530/1 Honor Grenville. They had no issue.

alleged mistress. Katherine Clavenger, dau. of Sir Robert Clavenger, Yeoman of the King's Chamber. Issue:

  • 1. Elizabeth.

unknown mistresses. Issue:

  • 1. Grace (went to Elizabeth Woodville's funeral in 1492).
  • 2. Isabel Mylbery, married John Tuchet, second son of 6th Baron Audley. No issue. [9][10]
  • 3. Mary, married Henry Harman of Ellam. Henry was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth Harman. He left a will, dated 31 March 1501, naming his deceased wife, Agnes, his living wife Mary, and eleven children, George, William, Thomas, Roger, John, Henry, Robert, Elizabeth (wife of _____ Sparke), Alice, Beatrice, and Anne. The maternity of the children is uncertain. but at least the two youngest sons were by Henry Harman's last wife, Mary.

claimed child (imposter)

  • Perkin Warbeck[11]

Titles

  • King of England and France (1461-1470) and (1471-1483)[3]
  • Duke of York[3] (1460-1483)
  • Earl of March from birth [12][13]
  • Earl of Cambridge (1460) [3]
  • Earl of Ulster[3]
  • 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece[citation needed]

Timeline

  • 04 Mar 1461: Declared king[3]
  • 1461: Battle of Towton[3]
  • 28 Jun 1461: Coronation. Westminster Abbey[3]
  • May 1464: Battle of Hexham; Secret m. Elizabeth Wydville or Woodville[3]
  • 03 Oct 1470: Deposed[3]
  • 11 Apr 1471: Restored[3]
  • 1475: Will
  • 09 Apr 1483: Death

Will

Edward's only surviving will is dated 1475. The one from his death bed that hands over the reins to Richard III disappeared. But in the 1475 version, he gives his wife (chief executor), care of his son. "No provision was made for a minority. The Queen was to have any household goods she wanted and the power to dispose of the rest. Her daughters were also to be governed and ruled by her in their choice of husbands."[14]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. United Kingdom: Random House, 2011.
  2. Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge. 'Chronicles of London'. Pgs. 178-179. Published by Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1905. (accessed 2022)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Ashley, 2008
  4. "Grafton Regis," in A History of the County of Northampton: Volume 5, the Hundred of Cleley, ed. Philip Riden and Charles Insley (London: Victoria County History, 2002), 142-176. British History Online, accessed December 31, 2021, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/northants/vol5/pp142-176.
  5. Edward Walford. "Greenwich," in Old and New London: Volume 6, (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1878), 164-176. British History Online, accessed December 13, 2020, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/old-new-london/vol6/pp164-176.
  6. Children listed in Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, V. p. 462-471
  7. Weir, Alison. Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World. United States: Random House Publishing Group, 2013.
  8. Issue: 1 or 2 (Princes in the Tower, 2011, p.19)
  9. Richardson, 2013.
  10. Wikipedia: Elizabeth Bourchier (died 1557)
  11. Wikipedia: Edward IV of England
  12. (Ashley, 2008)
  13. Britain's Royal Families, 2008
  14. The Princes in the Tower, n.d., p.63, epub

See also:

  • Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2013); Vol IV, page 129; "Groby 16", Vol. III, pp. 160-161; Vol. V., p. 426, pp. 457-8; "York 13", Vol V, pp. 460-471,
    • Illegitimate children of Edward IV of England, by a mistress, Elizabeth Wayte, widow of _____ Lucy, and daughter of Thomas Wayte, Esq., of Hampshire.
  • ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET, married before 1477 THOMAS LUMLEY, Knt.,
  • ARTHUR PLANTAGENET (otherwise ARTHUR WAYTE), K.G., probably born about 1470. He married ELIZABETH GREY, daughter and heiress of Edward Grey, Knt., 3rd Viscount Lisle), by his 1st wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John Talbot, Knt., 1st Viscount Lisle.
  • Ashley, M (2002). A Brief History of British Kings and Queens, (pp.211-216). Philadelphia, PA: Running Press Book Publishers. Print.
  • Cawley, C. (2006). "House of York: Descendants of Edmund of Langley." Medieval Lands v3. fmg.ac.
  • Weir, A. (2008). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. eBook.
  • Weir, A. (2011). The Princes in the Tower. Random House Publishing Group. Google Books.
  • Wikipedia: Edward IV of England


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Comments: 26

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Of York-21 and York-1159 appear to represent the same person because: Based on parents names and name of his wife, these two profiles are intended to be the same person and must be merged according to WikiTree policy. Please disregard the death date of before 1700 on Of_York-21 as this is incorrect. Also York is the preferred LNAB according to naming policy.
posted by John Atkinson
Thanks, John, merge now completed.
posted by Michael Cayley
posted on Of York-21 (merged) by Robin Lee
Thanks, Robin, merge now completed.
posted by Michael Cayley
pages 59-61 of a PhD theses by Anna M Duch, History, Univ of York, dated 2016 entitled "The Royal Funerary and Burial Ceremonies of Medieval English Kings, 1216-1509" gives some further insight into the last few days and hours of his life

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/77022468.pdf

also of note perhaps is the report by Mancici suggesting he may have caught what we would call pneumonia - cf e.g. https://www.thewarsoftherosescatalogue.com/post/the-death-burial-and-grave-of-edward-iv?msclkid=73aecc65d0a011ecaaac4e6b50a40fe8

i post these only because little has been written in the Biogrpahy about his death, perhaps to avoid controversy, whereas there seems to be little need to fear any, so long as no one writes he was possibly murdered by Richard III

posted by Jeremy Stroud
Plantagenet-1753 and York-1159 appear to represent the same person because: based on son, this is intended to be the same person. Please ignore the dates on -1753, the member used these dates to avoid the necessary certification for Pre-1500
posted by Robin Lee
I bet this rumour came from the Lancastrians or the Tudors who were masters at propaganda
posted by Roger Churm
Several comments have mentioned speculation as to whether Edward was illegitimate. here's an article from History Files making the case that he was legitimate: Was Edward IV Illegitimate?: The Case for the Defense
posted by Chase Clift
For info: a new blog posted on History of Parliament Online discusses Edward and the battle of Mortimers Cross: HPO
posted by Traci Thiessen
Source: Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols, ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City: the author, 2013), volume V, page 206 TUDOR 14.

Children of Henry VII Of England, by Elizabeth Plantagenet:

  • continued from comment before ...
ii. Margaret Tudor, born 28 (or 29) Nov. 1489. She married (1st) James IV, King of Scotland; (2nd) Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus; (3rd) Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven.
iii. Henry Tudor (Henry VIII Of England) ....
iv. Elizabeth Tudor, born 2 July 1492, died 14 Nov. 1495.
v. Mary Tudor, born 18 March 1494/5. She married (1st) 9 October 1514 Louis XII Of France, King of France. They had no issue. She married (2nd) privately shortly after 4 Feb 1514/5 and publicly 13 May 1515 (as his 3rd wife) Charles Brandon. They had one son, Henry, and two daughters, Frances and Eleanor. His wife, Mary, Dowager Queen of France, died 25 June 1533. He married (4th) Katherine Willoughby. They had two sons, Henry, [Duke of Suffolk] and Charles [Duke of Suffolk]. By an unknown mistress (or mistresses), he had one illegitimate son, Charles, and one illegitimate daughter, Frances (wife of Andrew Billesby).

Thank you!

Source: Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols, ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City: the author, 2013), volume V, page 206 TUDOR 14.

Henry Tudor was born 21 (or 28) Jan. 1456/7. He married 18 Jan. 1485/6 Elizabeth Plantagenet (also known as Elizabeth Of York), eldest daughter of Edward IV, King of England, by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Wydeville. She was born 11 Feb. 1465/6.

Children of Henry VII Of England, by Elizabeth Plantagenet:

i Arthur Tudor, married Katherine Of Aragon. They had no issue. Arthur, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, died at Ludlow Castle, 2 April 1502. Arthur's widow, Katherine, married (2nd) his younger brother, Henry Tudor (afterwards Henry VIII, King of England).
  • children continue in next comment
Michael's comment on the doco he watched is intriguing. Cecily's "affair" and Edward's alleged illegitimacy were used for character building in ...I think in the "White Rose" on Starz. I don't think they ever mentioned it was an "archer" in the mini-series ... but I'll have to rewatch it now:)
posted by [Living Ogle]
In a documentary from 2004 called 'Britain's Real Monarch,' hosted by Tony Robins, it's stated that Edward IV was not the son of Richard 3rd Duke of York. But was in reality the illegitimate son of an English archer named 'Blaybourne.' The documentary even states Edward's mother, Cecily Neville, herself signed a document stating Edward was illegitimate. The Royal descent should have been by way of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, whose direct heir is todays Simon Abney-Hastings, 15th Earl of Loudoun; (and Rightful King of England). This in effect makes all titles and land grants granted by the English Monarchy since 1461 to this very day invalid, spurious, improper and illegitimate. The documentary can be seen for free on YouTube. - Michael D. Barnes
posted by [Living Barnes]
I put the wikilinks in the big list of children, which is common on wikitree and particularly useful in this case because there are children not in wikitree, and it would be good to make it easy for editors to see that so they can work on it. Mary is especially an interesting case for genealogy because her descendants can be traced into modern times.
posted by Andrew Lancaster
Should LNAB for Edward IV (York-1159), (1442 - 1483) be Plantagent?

"Royal Ancestry" D. Richardson, 2013, Vol. V. p. 460.

EDWARD IV PLANTAGENET, 4th duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 10th Earl of Ulster, etc. 2nd but eldest surviving son and heir. born 22 dec. 1445.

Thank you!

York and Lancaster are Cadet Branches of the House of Plantagenet. I've always believed that John "of Gaunt" should be listed as LNAB Plantagenet but as Lancaster. The use of Plantagenet has some doubts in the first place. Royals did not use Surnames, still don't, really. In the cast of Edward IV, he's several generation from the founding of the House of York. If the War of the Roses had finalized by the Houses of Lancaster and York re combining to Plantagenet, I could, maybe see Edward IV as Plantagenet. Although the marriage of Henry VIII Tudor and Elizabeth of York marked the end of the War of the Roses, the House of Tudor was the result.
posted by John Akard III