Richard (York) of York
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Richard (York) of York (1411 - 1460)

Richard "3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March" of York formerly York aka Plantagenet
Born in Castle, Yorkshire, Englandmap [uncertain]
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married before 18 Oct 1424 in Conisbrough, West Riding, Yorkshire, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in slain at the Battle of Wakefield, in Sandal Magna (Castle of Sandal) near Wakefield, West Yorkshire, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 3 May 2012 | Last significant change: 29 Jun 2020
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The House of York crest.
Richard (York) of York is a member of the House of York.
Preceded by
Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York
Duke of York
Succeeded by
Edward IV of England


Richard, 3rd Duke of York

British Aristocracy
Richard (York) of York was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.
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Titles of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York: (Royal Ancestry)

3rd Duke of York
6th Earl of March
9th Earl of Ulster
lord of Mortimer in Herefordshire and Clare in Suffolk
Lieutenant-General and Governor of France and Normandy 1436-7, 1440-7
Captain of Rouen 1437
Justice of the Forest south of Trent 1446, 1450-3
Lieutenant of Ireland 1447-53, 1457-9
Constable of Aberystwyth, Caerkeny, Carmarthen and Rockingham Castles
Captain of Calais 1454-5
Keeper of the king's mines in Devon and Cornwall 1454
Protector and Defender of the Realm 1454 and again 1455-6

Richard, 3rd Duke of York (21 Sep 1411 – 30 Dec 1460), was a leading English magnate and great-grandson of Edward III. He inherited great estates and served in various offices in France at the end of the Hundred Years War. He also governed England as Lord Protector during Henry VI's madness. He fathered both Edward IV and Richard III.[1]

His conflicts with Margaret of Anjou and other members of Henry's court were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses.

Richard attempted to claim the throne but was dissuaded; it was agreed he would become king on Henry's death. Within weeks of this agreement, he died in battle.

Having lost to Lancastrians, his head was put on a pike and displayed over Micklegate Bar at York, wearing a paper crown. His remains were later moved to Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay


m. Cecily Neville before 18 Oct1424 Yorkshire


Anne, Duchess of Exeter
Edward IV of England m. Elizabeth Woodyville
Edmund, Earl of Rutland[2]
Elizabeth, Duchess of Suffolk
Margaret of York
George, 1st Duke of Clarence, Executed
Richard III of England

Death and burial

30 Dec 1460 (age 49) Battle of Wakefield
Buried: Pontefract. St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay.

(Royal Ancestry) Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was slain at Wakefield 30 December 1460, leading his men at the base of the Castle. Cecily, Duchess of York, died at Berkhamstead Castle, Hertfordshire 31 May 1495. Duke Richard and his wife were buried on the north side of the high altar in the church of Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.

(Royal Tombs of Medieval England) Richard, Duke of York was made Protector of England in 1454, and claimed the succession after the Battle of Northampton, near the River Nene, Northamptonshire on 10 July 1460. Five months later he was killed at the Battle of Wakefield together with his son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland. York's head was displayed on Micklegate Bar in York, and the two bodies interred in the priory of St. John the Evangelist near Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. In 1461 York's head was interred at Pontefract following Edward IV's victory at the Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on March 29. The following year, the duke's anniversary masses were sung at St. Paul's in London. The same year Edward refounded the Yorkist collegiate church at Fotheringhay in Northamptonshire, founded in 1398, and extended the chantry dedication in include his father, brother and Richard II, the last reflecting Yorkist claims that the Lancastrian kings had usurped the crown.

On 21 June 1476 Edward IV had the bodies of the Duke of York and Earl of Rutland exhumed and placed in hearses installed in the choir of Pontefract priory church. York's coffin was draped in cloth of gold with a white cross and had an image of the Duke dressed in a dark blue mantle and purple cap. The coffin-carriages proceeded to Fotheringhay accompanied by the duke's son Richard of Gloucester and other lords and arrived there on 29 July. York's coffin and effigy were installed in the choir and Rutland's coffin similarly arranged in the Lady Chapel. In 1496 York's wife, Cicely Neville, was buried beside him as instructed by her will made the same year.

Fotheringhay surrendered to the crown in 1538, during Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries, but appears to have been relatively unchanged until 1548. There is no mention of the tombs in a Fotheringhay inventory made in 1546. After the 1550s the choir turned to ruins. In 1573 the choir was demolished, and the Yorkist remains reinterred beneath neo-classical monuments at the east end of the old nave. Richard, Duke of York and Cicely Neville lie north of the high altar, with Edmund, Earl of Rutland and Edward, Duke of York to the south.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

3rd Duke of York
6th Earl of March
4th Earl of Cambridge
7th Earl of Ulster
Orders: Knight of the Garter
  • Originator of the Yorkist claim to the throne via Clarence (maternal) and York (paternal).
  • Coronet of a male line great-grandson of a Sovereign
  • Escutcheon: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, quarterly, France moderne, and England, overall a label pf three points each charged with three torteaux Gules, 2nd, quarterly, Castile and Leon, 3rd, quarterly, Mortimer and de Burgh, and overall and inescutcheon Gules, three passant guardant Or, a bordure Argent.
  • Symbolism: As the Duke of York, Richard inherited the arms of his grandfather, Edmund of Langley.[3] These arms were differentiated by a three-pointed label argent, each bearing three torteaux gules.


  • Knighted by Duke of Bedford on 19 May 1426 in Leicester, Leicestershire, England
  • Protector of England, Earl of March & Ulster, Earl of Cambridge[4]
  • First to use surname Plantagenet. His mother was the great granddaughter of Edward III through Lionel f[4]
  • His father was the grandson of Edward III through Edmund Duke of York[4]


  1. Wikipedia: Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
  2. d. Battle of Wakefield
  3. York.svg
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Mac 14Febxx.FTW
  • Royal Ancestry D. Richardson 2013 Vol. V p. 452-460
  • Royal Tombs of Medieval England M. Duffy 2003 p. 241-242
  • The royal lineage of our noble and gentle families, pg 181 [1]


  • S562 Mac 14Febxx.FTW
  • Our Kingdom Come. Eileen McKinnon-Suggs ( updated Oct 10, 2004. Accessed Dec 2, 2005.

Johanna Amnelin Maude Randol.

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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Richard by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:

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Comments: 4

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Richard York is my 15th great grandfather.
posted by Anonymous Rankin
In a documentary from 2004 called 'Britain's Real Monarch,' hosted by Tony Robins, it was stated that Edward IV, was not the son of Richard 3rd Duke of York. But was instead the illegitimate son of an English archer named 'Blaybourne.' The documentary even states that Edward's mother herself signed a document stating Edward was illegitimate. The documentary is available for free viewing on YouTube. - Michael D. Barnes
posted by [Living Barnes]
We are second cousins, 19Xremoved & our first common ancestor is : my 20th great grandfather.
posted by Linda Kendrick
York-1210 is 18th Great Grandfather of Blackstone-170
posted by Donnie Blackstone

Richard is 22 degrees from Mary McCauley, 24 degrees from B. W. J. Molier and 3 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.