Richard III (York) of England KG is a member of the House of York.
Richard, Duke of Gloucester (b. 2 Oct 1452 Fotheringhay Castle, co. Northants - d. 22 Aug 1485 Bosworth Field), was the last Yorkist king. As Richard III, he reigned from 1483 until he was slain at Bosworth Field in 1485
m. (bef. May 1484) William Herbert, Earl of Huntingdon
Gloucester's wife and only legitimate child were dead, before Henry Tudor landed in Pembrokeshire with his army on 07 August 1485. Tudor's forces inevitably killed Gloucester at Bosworth Field on 22 August.
"displayed in the Lancastrian mausoleum of St. Mary in the Newarke, co. Leics. 'naked and despoiled to the skyne, and nothynge left above hym not so much as a clowe to cover his pryve members', before burial in the choir of the Franciscan friary church, Leicester, a church with no tradition of royal or aristocratic burial.
Duffy (2013), also states Gloucester has no surviving will, and that the monarch did not choose a burial location or commission a moment. Instead, it appears that Henry VI commissioned Gloucester's tomb.
A transcript for wardrobe accounts, dating to the 18th century, lists a payment in c. 1495 for "King Richard tombe," to James Keyley. Duffy (2013), thought the item, may have been the monument discussed at a Chancery Court hearing in c. 1496, which involved a contract between the royal commissioners, drawn up in c. 1495 at Newark.
Discovery of remains in 2012
Thanks to a collaboration between Leicester University and the Richard III, society, Gloucester's remains were resurrected from a parking lot in August 2012.
Gloucester's hands were still tied when his skeleton was found in August 2012. The body is clearly intact, disproving claims that his bones were scattered.
They used DNA to confirm his identity, then revealed that Gloucester's death at Bosworth was brutal.
His body suffered ten injuries in all. Eight of them were blows to the skull, but Tudor forces refrained from outright facial mutilation in order to prove Gloucester was dead.
The curvature of his spine showed signs of scolios, and his body was described as, "unusually slender."
Forensic analysis found that Gloucester was indeed, 'a hunchback.' The description was not a later invention of Tudor and subsequent chroniclers." Examination proved that Gloucester had, severe thoracic scoliosis with a raised right shoulder.
Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, KG (b c.16 Oct 1744 – d. 11 Oct 1803), was the only son of Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort and Elizabeth Berkeley.
Initial findings of King et. al (2014), could not pin down the date of the affair:
The Y-chromosome haplotype ... does not match that of male-line relatives of Richard III, ... a false-paternity event could have occurred in any of the intervening generations.
Rincon (2014), states that, 'female infidelity ... could have occurred anywhere in the numerous generations separating Richard III from the 5th Duke of Beaufort (1744-1803), whose living descendants provided samples of male-line DNA to be compared against that of Richard.'
Dr Anna Whitelock (2020), states that:
"It's important to note that Henry VII claimed the throne "by right of conquest" not blood or marriage - his claim was extremely tenuous.
"Henry VII was descended from Edward III from the Beaufort line - the Beauforts were legitimized by half-brother Henry IV but not in succession. Royal succession has been based on many things in the past: ability to lead troops, religion, connections - not always seniority by royal blood."
"The Queen's right to reign is based on the 1701 Act of Settlement that restricted succession to Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover. Medieval false paternity does not challenge the current Queen's right to reign."
Richard's re-interment at Leicester Cathedral began on 22 March 2015. The date of the ceremony is 26 March 2015.
Cardinal Vincent Nichols led Requiem Mass, and stated that Richard, "reshaped vital aspects of the legal system, developing the presumption of innocence, the concept of blind justice and the practice of granting bail rather than being held in jail. He established the Court of Requests to give wider access to justice and insisted on the translation into English of all written laws and statutes so that they were readily accessible to all." He also described Richard as, "a man of prayer," with, "an anxious devotion."
of Gloucester and Ogmore Castles, Kingston Lacy etc.
Chief Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster (northern parts).
lord of Bergavenny, Glamorgan & Morgannwg in Wales (wife's right).
children 2 known: John of Gloucester & Katherine. ... There's also stories about another DISPUTED illegit son, Richard [Plantagenet] of Eastwell, who was a bricklayer. The evidence is viewed as poor.
21:13, 28 December 2019 (father's status changed from uncertain to confident).
00:08, 2 July 2020 (format reorganized; start).
Lewis, M. (2014, May 30). Sir Richard III Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Gloucester #27003, b. 2 October 1452, d. 22 August 1485. ORTNCA, citing various works by Douglas Richardson, Gerald Paget & G.E. Cokayne. Web.
Cannon, J. & Griffiths, R. (2000). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, p. 268, 294, 296, 657. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.
Collier's Encyclopedia, 1985, 10, p. 310, p. 68. NY: Macmillan Education Co.
"Rhys ap Thomas was an important Welsh magnate who closely supported Henry Tudor. He and his retainers would have formed the close guard around Henry during the battle of Bosworth in 1485. That, together with the fact that he was knighted by Henry on the battlefield, and later claims that he used a poleaxe to kill Richard, certainly make him one of the prime candidates to have delivered that fatal blow."
↑ 23.023.123.2 Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, p. 265.
see copy in WikiTree changes 18:06, 24 Feb 2016. (caution - Duffy repeats unfounded rumors, disproven by archaeology).
Tradition has it that Gloucester's, "displaced tomb-chest was later used as a water-trough. Leland's account of the friary church in the 1530s records Gloucester's burial but does not mention a tomb."
Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, p. 265.
The Discovery of Richard III. University of Leicester. Web. Retrieved 01 July 2020.
<https://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/index.html>. The excavation site was thought to be the site of Grey Friars friary in co. Leics., where Gloucester was buried.
↑ Speed claimed Richard's tomb had an alabaster effigy, which was broken up after the surrender of the Leicester friary in 1538 under Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries, at which time the king's bones were scattered," (Duffy, 2003).
c. 1483 his mother Cecily was rumored to have had an affair, and Edward IV's paternity was questioned. Some believe the rumor was intended to bolster Gloucester's claim to the throne. For more see...
Gareth (2016, February 24). Could Edward IV have been illegitimate? Royal History Geeks. Weblog. Retrieved 02 July 2020.
Wilson, T. (2014, July 27). "Was Edward IV Illegitimate?: The case for the defence," in Medieval Britain. The History Files. Weblog. Retrieved 02 July 2020.
It may be possible to confirm family relationships by comparing test results with Richard III or other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA.
Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:
Richard III (York) of England:
Y-Chromosome Test 22 markers, haplogroup G-P287, MitoYDNA ID Z10009[compare]
Mitochondrial DNA test-takers in the direct maternal line:
Richard III (York) of England:
Mitochondrial DNA Test Full Sequence, haplogroup J1c2c3, MitoYDNA ID Z10198[compare]