Richard  (York) of England KG

Richard (York) of England KG (1452 - 1485)

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Richard (Richard III) "King of England, Duke of Gloucester" of England KG formerly York aka Plantagenet, of York
Born in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married before in Westminster Abbey, London, Englandmap
Died in slain in the Battle of Bosworth Field, Leicestershire, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 14 May 2012 | Last significant change: 21 Jan 2018
22:34: Marty (Lenover) Acks edited the Biography for Richard III (York) of England KG. (DB error cleanup: 861 Inline citation doesn't start with + bad Collier link) [Thank Marty for this | 1 thank-you received]
This page has been accessed 10,755 times.

Categories: Royalty | 15th Century | Knights Companion of the Garter | Dukes of Gloucester | Yorkists, Battle of Bosworth Field | Shakespearean Characters | House of York.

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Richard III (York) of England KG is a member of royalty, nobility or aristocracy in the British Isles.
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Preceded by
Edward V
King of England
26 Jun 1483 – 22 Aug 1485
Succeeded by
Henry VII
The House of York crest.
Richard III (York) of England KG is a member of the House of York.

Titles of Richard III Plantagenet: (Royal Ancestry)

King of England 6 July 1483
of Gloucester and Ogmore Castles, Kingston Lacy etc..
Admiral of the Sea 1462
Constable of England 1469-70, 1472[1]
Chief Justice of North Wales 1469-71[1]
Chief Steward of the Principality of Wales 1469
Chief Justice and Chamberlain of South Wales 1470-71
Warden of the West Marches Toward Scotland 1470
Great Chamberlain of England 1471-2, 1478
Chief Justice of Chester and North Wales 1471
Warden of the Forests north of Trent 1472
Sheriff of Cumberland 1475-83
Chief Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster (northern parts)
Lieutenant-General in the North 1480-3
Protector and Defender of the Realm 1483

and in the right of his wife:

lord of Bergavenny, Glamorgan amd Morgannwg in Wales

Richard III, (02 Oct 1452 – 22 Aug 1485)[2][3] was the last Yorkist king. His brief reign lasted from 1483 until he was killed at Bosworth Field in 1485.[1][3][4][5][6] This event is sometimes regarded as the end of the English Middle Ages.[citation needed]

After Edward IV died, the Duke of Gloucester rushed to London to be proclaimed Protector of the Kingdom[7], and usurp Edward V, the Prince in the Tower.[8]

On 7 August 1485, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, came out of exile in France, and landed in England with an army to fight at Bosworth. Although Richard's forces were larger than Henry's, many of his most powerful nobles defected at a critical moment. But Richard stood ground and died fighting, [1][5][6][4] effectively ending the reign of the Plantagenets [citation needed]

Contents

Burial of Richard III

(Royal Tombs of Medieval England) Richard III died at Bosworth on 22 August 1485. His body was displayed with some irony in the Lancastrian mausoleum of St. Mary in the Newarke, Leicester, 'naked and despoiled to the skyne, and nothynge left above hym not so much as a clowe to cover his pryve members', before burial in the choir of the Franciscan friary church, Leicester,[4] a church with no tradition of royal or aristocratic burial. Richard appears to have had a tomb commissioned by Henry VII himself. An eighteenth-century transcript of wardrobe accounts record the payment in 1495 to James Keyley for 'King Richard tombe'. This may have been the monument that was the subject of a Chancery Court hearing in 1496, involving a contract drawn up the previous year at Newark between the royal commissioners. Speed claimed Richard's tomb had an alabaster effigy, which was broken up after the surrender of the Leicester friary in 1538 under Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries, at which time the king's bones were scattered. Tradition has it that Richard's displaced tomb-chest was later used as a water-trough. Leland's account of the friary church in the 1530s records Richard's burial but makes no mention of a tomb. No will survives for Richard III, and there is no evidence that he considered his burial place or commissioned a monument during his lifetime.

Remains In 2012, archaeologists found Richard's skeleton in a Leicester parking lot. Examination of his DNA matched maternal descendants, but disputes Richard's paternal line.[9][10][11][12]

"When they checked the male line — the unnamed descendants of Henry Somerset, the 5th Duke of Beaufort (16 Oct 1744 – 11 Oct 1803)[13] ... DNA did not match Richard's ... an ... affair had broken the paternal chain. ... If it occurred around the time of Edward III (1312–1377) it could call into question whether ... Henry VI, Henry VII and Henry VIII had royal blood, and ... the right to rule."[10]

That said, the initial findings of King et. al (2014), could not pin down the date of the affair. Since it's unknown if it happened before or after Richard's existence, DNA can't be relied upon to identify the correct genetic genealogical pedigree:[9]

"The Y-chromosome haplotype from Skeleton 1 does not match that of male-line relatives of Richard III, ... a false-paternity event could have occurred in any of the intervening generations."[9]

Physical Appearance Remains also revealed that Richard's spine was curved,[9] but supposedly didn't effect his appearance. While the initial analysis of Richard's skeletal remains dubbed this condition "severe",[9] later reports by the BBC state his deformity could be hidden by clothing.[14][15][16]

Reburial Richard's re-interment at Leicester Cathedral began 22 March 2015.[17] The date of the ceremony is 26 March 2015.[18]

Cardinal Vincent Nichols led Requiem Mass,[18] and stated that Richard, "reshaped vital aspects of the legal system, developing the presumption of innocence, the concept of blind justice and the practice of granting bail rather than being held in jail. He established the Court of Requests to give wider access to justice and insisted on the translation into English of all written laws and statutes so that they were readily accessible to all." He also described Richard as, "a man of prayer," with, "an anxious devotion.'"[19]

Vitals

Alias: (possible) "Dickon."[20][21]
b. 2 Oct 1452, at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire.[3][5][16][2]
reinterred: 22 Mar 2015 Leicester Cathedral.[17]

Titles

  • 01 Nov 1461: Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Carlisle, and Earl of Richmond.[22][1]
  • Sun 06 July 1483: Dei Gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae et Dominus Hiberniae (by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland).[20][16][23]
  • 30 Apr-26 Jun 1483: Lord Protector of England.[20]

Parents

Mother: Cicely Nevill, the 'Rose of Raby.'[16][24][25][26][27]
Father: Richard, 3rd Duke of York[10][11]

Pedigree

DNA

  • DNA from skeleton matches two of Richard III's maternal line relatives. Leicester genealogist verifies living relatives of Richard III's family
  • Ten wounds discovered on skeleton - Richard III killed by trauma to the back of the head. Part of the skull sliced off ... likely killed by one of two fatal injuries it, one possibly from a sword and one possibly from a halberd.
  • Feet truncated at unknown point in past, but significant time after the burial


Sources

Footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Alison Weir. The Princes in the Tower, New York, New York: Ballantine Books, August 1995, p 215
  2. 2.0 2.1 Collier's Encyclopedia (Macmillan Education Company, New York, copyright 1985), Collier's Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 310., Volume 20, p 68
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Allison Weir, The Wars of the Roses. New York City, New York: Ballantine Books, July 1996
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 John Cannon & Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy (University of Oxford, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX26DP, England: Oxford University Press, 2000), Pages 268, 294, 296, 657
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Mike Ashley. British Kings & Queens, A Brief History of British Kings & Queens, New York, NY:Carroll & Graff Publishers , 2002, p 442
  6. 6.0 6.1 William Seymour, Battles in Britain 1066 - 1746 (Cumberland House, Crib Street, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 9ET England: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1977), Page 184
  7. 04 May 1483
  8. See Weis, A. Princes in the Tower.[citation needed]
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 King, T.E., Fortes, G.G., Balaresque, P., Thomas, M.G., Balding, D., Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, P.M., Neumann, R., Parson, W., Knapp, M., Walsh, S., Tonasso, L., Holt, J., Kayser, M., Appleby, J., Forster, P., Ekserdjian, D., Hofreiter, M. & Schürer, K. (2014). Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms6631
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Knapton, S. (2014, December 02). Richard III DNA shows British Royal family may not have royal bloodline. Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Greenspan, J. (2014, December 3). New Richard III Mystery Comes to Light. History. www.history.com
  12. University of Leicester. Lead archaeologist Richard Buckley. (See DNA section for sources.); "Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's," (2013, Feb 04). BBC. bbc.com.
  13. p. Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort and Elizabeth Berkeley (Wikipedia: Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort)
  14. "Richard III: Team rebuilds 'most famous spine'," (2014, May 29). BBC. [1]
  15. Richard III, (n.d.). BBC History. bbc.com
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Markham, Sir Clements E. K.C.B (1906). Richard III: His Life & Character Reviewed in the Light of Recent Research. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Richard III: Leicester welcomes king's remains," (2014, March 22). BBC. bbc.com
  18. 18.0 18.1 Richard III: More than 5,000 people visit Leicester Cathedral coffin, (2015, March 22). BBC. bbc.com
  19. Cardinal commends soul of King Richard III to God so his remains may rest in peace, (2015, March 22). Catholic News. www.catholicnews.org.uk
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Wikipedia: Richard III of England
  21. According to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth: "Jack of Norffolke be not to bolde, For Dyckon thy maister is bought and solde".[citation needed]
  22. 22.0 22.1 Wikipedia: Richard III of England. (See Kendall, Paul Murray (1956). Richard the Third. W. W. Norton.); or Immediately after the coronation of Edward IV, 4 June 1461, Richard was declared Duke of Gloucester,
  23. coronation: Westminster Abbey; Richard was king for 26 months, one of the shortest reigns in English history[citation needed]
  24. Milner, E. (1904). Records of the Lumleys of Lumley Castle, (pp.14). Edith Benham, ed. London: George Bell & Sons. Google Books.
  25. Maternal relationship is confirmed by an exact HVR1 and HVR2 match between this mtDNA test of King Richard III and this mtDNA test for his 15th great nephew Michael Ibsen and this mtDNA test of his 17th great niece Wendy Duldig.
  26. this mtDNA test for Michael Ibsen and this mtDNA test of his direct maternal line 14th cousin twice removed Wendy Duldig and this mtDNA test of his direct maternal line 15th great uncle King Richard III.
  27. Maternal relationship is confirmed by an exact HVR1 and HVR2 match between this mtDNA test for Michael Ibsen and this mtDNA test of his direct maternal line 14th cousin twice removed Wendy Duldig and this mtDNA test of his direct maternal line 15th great uncle King Richard III.
  • Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson, Vol. III, p. 533
  • Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson, Vol. IV, page 128
  • Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson, publ. 2013, Vol. V, pp. 458-460
  • Royal Tombs of Medieval England M. Duffy, publ. 2003, p. 265
  • Hope, Sir William Henry St. John. The Stall Plates of the Knights of the Order of the Garter, 1348-1485 (A. Constable and Co., ltd., Westminster, 1901) Plate LXXIV


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DNA Tested
Richard III of England's DNA has been tested for genealogical purposes. It may be possible to confirm family relationships by comparing test results with Richard III or other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:
  • Richard III (York) of England: Y-Chromosome Test 22 markers, haplogroup G-P287, Ysearch 45AER
Mitochondrial DNA test-takers in the direct maternal line:
  • Richard III (York) of England: Mitochondrial DNA Test Full Sequence, haplogroup J1c2c3, Mitosearch T227G
  • Michael Ibsen : Mitochondrial DNA Test Full Sequence, haplogroup J1c2c3, Mitosearch 3UNYB
  • Wendy Duldig : Mitochondrial DNA Test Full Sequence, haplogroup J1c2c3, Mitosearch 5FEB5

Have you taken a DNA test for genealogy? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Family Tree DNA.



Images: 7
Richard III York Image 1
Richard III York Image 1

Richard III 2012 Forensic Facial Reconstruction
Richard III 2012 Forensic Facial Reconstruction

Richard III Excavation
Richard III Excavation

Richard III Excavation 3
Richard III Excavation 3

Richard III Skull
Richard III Skull

view all


Collaboration

On 17 Feb 2017 at 14:29 GMT Dave Martin wrote:

Well I don't know about these dates where did they come from? I found the sources! not sure if they are accurate.

On 25 Nov 2016 at 22:30 GMT Linda Kendrick wrote:

Myy 2nd cousin 19Xremoved with our first common ancestor being my 20th great grandfather: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Plantagenet-66

On 6 Apr 2016 at 06:54 GMT Gillian (Platts) Causier wrote:

On 12 Feb 2016 at 07:09 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

On 12 Feb 2016 at 07:07 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

On 12 Feb 2016 at 07:06 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

On 12 Feb 2016 at 06:57 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

The graphic titled "The House of York in 1475" under "Pedigree" has been shown to be incorrect and it should be taken down.

The male line family tree for the House of York as confirmed by DNA and historical research at the University of Leicester is located at:

http://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/science/familytreeMale.html

The female line (mtNDA) descending from from Cecily Neville, also verified at the same university, is located at:

http://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/science/familytree.html

On 12 Feb 2016 at 06:35 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

The citation for the academic article by the science team investigating the Richard III DNA question is:

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

The article may be downloaded in .pdf format at:

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141202/ncomms6631/full/ncomms6631.html

I would be happy to volunteer to write a revised bio to use on this profile, should I be considered competent to do so. Or, if there are already volunteers to complete the revisions - removing York-1210 as father since the eighteen (18) academics who authored this peer reviewed paper agree that York-1210 did not father Richard III - replacing him with "Unknown" in the father field - and rewriting the biography to reflect current research.

On 11 Feb 2016 at 08:48 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

(Cont from commentary) is if we, as geneaologists and historians accept the fact that the source material we have on these families is false and must be rewritten with the assistance of genetic scientists.

On 11 Feb 2016 at 08:45 GMT Michele (Britton) Camera wrote:

Upon reading the full article cited in part 3 of my comments, it becomes clear that the opinion stated in this profile under the heading "Remains" which states 'Since it's unknown if it happened before orvafter Richard's existence, DNA can't be relied upon to identify the correct genetic genealogical pedigree.' is FALSE.

The article reveals that the Science Museum in London has Turi King, a geneticist, and Kevin Schurer, a genealogy expert, working on the case. Additional DNA samples will be sought, tested and evaluated to identify where the paternal line was broken.

Since we now KNOW that the history books are wrong about the houses of Plantagenet, York, Lancaster, Stuart, Tudor and Windsor, the ONLY way we will be able to publish the true history (cont)

more comments


Richard III is 22 degrees from AJ Jacobs, 28 degrees from Carol Keeling, 12 degrees from George Washington and 16 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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