Richard III (York) of England KG
Privacy Level: Open (White)

Richard (York) of England KG (1452 - 1485)

Richard (Richard III) "King of England, Duke of Gloucester" of England KG formerly York aka Plantagenet, of York
Born in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married before 18 Mar 1472 in Westminster Abbey, London, Englandmap
Died in Leicestershire, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 14 May 2012 | Last significant change: 24 Apr 2021
17:53: Janet Gunn proposed a merge of Of England-292 and York-1245. [Thank Janet for this]
This page has been accessed 25,681 times.
English flag
Richard III (York) of England KG is managed by the England Project.
Join: England Project
Discuss: england
Preceded by
Ed. V
Richard III, King of England
26 Jun 1483 – 22 Aug 1485
Succeeded by
Hen. VII

Contents

Biography

The House of York crest.
Richard III (York) of England KG is a member of the House of York.

Richard, Duke of Gloucester (b. 2 Oct 1452 Fotheringhay Castle, co. Northants - d. 22 Aug 1485 Bosworth Field), was the last Yorkist king. As Richard III, he reigned from 1483 until he was slain at Bosworth Field in 1485[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Family

Gloucester's parents were:

His wife Anne Neville (b. 11 Jun 1456 - d. 16 Mar 1485, bur. Westminster Abbey), was the daughter of:[15][16]

Their only child Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales (b. abt. 1476 Middleham - d. 09 Apr 1484 Middleham), died young.[16][17]

Portrait of Anne Neville (1456-85), wife of Richard III of England.
Portrait of Anne Neville (1456-85), wife of Richard III of England.

Gloucester also had two acknowledged illegitimate children:

m. (bef. May 1484) William Herbert, Earl of Huntingdon

Death

Gloucester's wife and only legitimate child were dead,[15][17] before Henry Tudor landed in Pembrokeshire with his army on 07 August 1485. Tudor's forces inevitably killed Gloucester at Bosworth Field on 22 August. [2][7][8][19][20]

[21]

Some believe that Sir Rhys ap Thomas, KG, killed Gloucester with a poleaxe.
Some believe that Sir Rhys ap Thomas, KG, killed Gloucester with a poleaxe.
[22]

According to Duffy (2013), Gloucester's body was:

"displayed in the Lancastrian mausoleum of St. Mary in the Newarke, co. Leics. 'naked and despoiled to the skyne, and nothynge left above hym not so much as a clowe to cover his pryve members', before burial in the choir of the Franciscan friary church, Leicester, a church with no tradition of royal or aristocratic burial.[23]

Duffy (2013), also states Gloucester has no surviving will, and that the monarch did not choose a burial location or commission a moment. Instead, it appears that Henry VI commissioned Gloucester's tomb.[23][24]

A transcript for wardrobe accounts, dating to the 18th century, lists a payment in c. 1495 for "King Richard tombe," to James Keyley. Duffy (2013), thought the item, may have been the monument discussed at a Chancery Court hearing in c. 1496, which involved a contract between the royal commissioners, drawn up in c. 1495 at Newark.[23]

Archaeology

Discovery of remains in 2012

Thanks to a collaboration between Leicester University and the Richard III, society, Gloucester's remains were resurrected from a parking lot in August 2012.[25][26]

Gloucester's hands were still tied when his skeleton was found in August 2012. The body is clearly intact, disproving claims that his bones were scattered.
Gloucester's hands were still tied when his skeleton was found in August 2012. The body is clearly intact, disproving claims that his bones were scattered.
[27]

They used DNA to confirm his identity, then revealed that Gloucester's death at Bosworth was brutal.

His body suffered ten injuries in all. Eight of them were blows to the skull, but Tudor forces refrained from outright facial mutilation in order to prove Gloucester was dead.[26]

The curvature of his spine showed signs of scolios,[26][21][28][29][30] and his body was described as, "unusually slender."[26]

Forensic analysis found that Gloucester was indeed, 'a hunchback.' The description was not a later invention of Tudor and subsequent chroniclers." Examination proved that Gloucester had, severe thoracic scoliosis with a raised right shoulder.
Forensic analysis found that Gloucester was indeed, 'a hunchback.' The description was not a later invention of Tudor and subsequent chroniclers." Examination proved that Gloucester had, severe thoracic scoliosis with a raised right shoulder.
[31]

DNA

Gloucester's, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),[32] matched two female relatives of his eldest sister Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, but yDNA showed false-paternity when the line for male descendants of Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort was analyzed.[33][34] [35][14][13][28]

Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, KG (b c.16 Oct 1744 – d. 11 Oct 1803), was the only son of Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort and Elizabeth Berkeley.
Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, KG (b c.16 Oct 1744 – d. 11 Oct 1803), was the only son of Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort and Elizabeth Berkeley.

Initial findings of King et. al (2014), could not pin down the date of the affair:

The Y-chromosome haplotype ... does not match that of male-line relatives of Richard III, ... a false-paternity event could have occurred in any of the intervening generations.[28]

Rincon (2014), states that, 'female infidelity ... could have occurred anywhere in the numerous generations separating Richard III from the 5th Duke of Beaufort (1744-1803), whose living descendants provided samples of male-line DNA to be compared against that of Richard.'[36]

Dr Anna Whitelock (2020), states that:

"It's important to note that Henry VII claimed the throne "by right of conquest" not blood or marriage - his claim was extremely tenuous.[37]
"Henry VII was descended from Edward III from the Beaufort line - the Beauforts were legitimized by half-brother Henry IV but not in succession. Royal succession has been based on many things in the past: ability to lead troops, religion, connections - not always seniority by royal blood."[37]
"The Queen's right to reign is based on the 1701 Act of Settlement that restricted succession to Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover. Medieval false paternity does not challenge the current Queen's right to reign."[37]

Re-interment

Richard's re-interment at Leicester Cathedral began on 22 March 2015.[38] The date of the ceremony is 26 March 2015.[39]

Cardinal Vincent Nichols led Requiem Mass,[39] and stated that Richard, "reshaped vital aspects of the legal system, developing the presumption of innocence, the concept of blind justice and the practice of granting bail rather than being held in jail. He established the Court of Requests to give wider access to justice and insisted on the translation into English of all written laws and statutes so that they were readily accessible to all." He also described Richard as, "a man of prayer," with, "an anxious devotion."[40]

Timeline

  • of Gloucester and Ogmore Castles, Kingston Lacy etc.[41]
  • Chief Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster (northern parts).[41]
  • lord of Bergavenny, Glamorgan & Morgannwg in Wales (wife's right).[41]
  • 1465: Knight of the Garter[5][6]
  • 1462: Admiral of the Sea [41]
  • 1469: Chief Steward of the Principality of Wales [41]
  • 1469-71: Chief Justice of North Wales[41] [19]
  • 1469-70, 1472: Constable of England[41] [19]
  • 1470: Warden of the West Marches Toward Scotland [41]
  • 1470-71: Chief Justice and Chamberlain of South Wales[41]
  • 1471: Chief Justice of Chester and North Wales [41]
  • 18 May 1471: Great Chamberlain of England.[16][41]
  • 1472: Warden of the Forests north of Trent [41]
  • 1475-83: Sheriff of Cumberland[41]
  • 1480-83: Lieutenant-General in the North [41]
  • 6 July 1483: King of England [41]
  • Sun 06 July 1483: Dei Gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae et Dominus Hiberniae (by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland).[4][6]
  • 30 Apr-26 Jun 1483: Lord Protector of England.[4]
  • 1483: Protector and Defender of the Realm [41]
  • 2012: Richard's skeleton found by archaeologists.
  • 22 Mar 2015: re-interred at Leicester Cathedral.[38]

Notes

  • Living relatives: Close maternal-line relatives of Richard III, in The Discovery of Richard III. University of Leicester. 'pedigree used to identify DNA'. PDF.
  • King, T., Fortes, G., Balaresque, P. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat Commun 5, 5631 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6631
  • children 2 known: John of Gloucester & Katherine. ... There's also stories about another DISPUTED illegit son, Richard [Plantagenet] of Eastwell, who was a bricklayer. The evidence is viewed as poor.[18][42]

CHANGES

  • 15:36, 14 May 2012 (initial content).[3]
  • 20:07, 25 May 2012.[4]
  • 4 February 2013 (BBC report).[5][6][7]
  • 5 February 2013.[8][9]
  • 7 November 2013.[10]
  • 00:03, 14 March 2014.[11]
  • 21:24, 31 May 2014 (spine of skeleton).[12]
  • 19 December 2014 (mtDNA match template).[13] ...later removed for DNA updates, see below
  • 06:09, 20 January 2015 (early life & nick).[14]
  • 17:36, 10 February 2015 (early life; titles; wikipedia & Markham).[15]
  • 22:12, 22 March 2015 (re-interment).[16]
  • 22:17, 22 March 2015 (re-interment).[17]
  • 16:04, 23 March 2015 (re-interment).[18]
  • 16:08, 23 March 2015 (re-interment).[19]
  • 19:55, 23 March 2015 (re-format/edit).[20]
  • 01:12, 23 February 2016 (Royal Ancestry titles - copy added).[21]
  • 01:15, 23 February 2016 (marriage date alt).[22]
  • 18:06, 24 February 2016. (Duffy, 2003 copy added ... [caution - Duffy repeats some unfounded burial rumors, disproven by archaeology).[23]
  • 16:52, 31 May 2016. (Richardson, n.d. appended).[24]
  • 03:45, 20 July 2016. (Richardson, n.d. appended).[25]
  • 03:06, 16 December 2016. (citations edited).[26]
  • 03:32, 16 December 2016. (citations edited).[27]
  • 21:12, 2 May 2017 (Hope, 1901 appended).
  • 03:13, 7 December 2017 (DNA template removed and mtDNA info updated).[28]
  • 15:08, 7 December 2017 (mtDNA info updated again).[29]
  • 14:39, 27 June 2018. (MERGE Plantagenet-1748 >> York-1245 ... adds Burke's peerage http://www.maximiliangenealogy.co.uk/burke1/Burkeindex.htm).[30]
  • 21:13, 28 December 2019 (father's status changed from uncertain to confident).[31][43]


  • 00:08, 2 July 2020 (format reorganized; start).[32]

Sources

  1. Lewis, M. (2014, May 30). Sir Richard III Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Gloucester #27003, b. 2 October 1452, d. 22 August 1485. ORTNCA, citing various works by Douglas Richardson, Gerald Paget & G.E. Cokayne. Web.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cannon, J. & Griffiths, R. (2000). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, p. 268, 294, 296, 657. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.
  3. Collier's Encyclopedia, 1985, 10, p. 310, p. 68. NY: Macmillan Education Co.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Wikipedia: Richard III of England
  5. 5.0 5.1 Weir, A. (1996). The Wars of the Roses. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. Print.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Markham, C. (1906). Richard III: His Life & Character Reviewed in the Light of Recent Research. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Gutenberg.org. eBook.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ashley, M. (2002). A Brief History of British Kings & Queens, p. 442. New York, NY: Carroll & Graff Publishers. Print.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Seymour, W. (1977). Battles in Britain 1066 - 1746, p. 184. Herts: Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
  9. Wikipedia: Duke of Gloucester
  10. for argument against Gloucester usurping the throne see:
    Ashdown-Hill, J. (2015). 6 myths about Richard III. History Extra. Web. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/myths-facts-richard-iii-murder-princes-tower-shakespeare-york-leicester-car-park/>.
  11. Milner, E. (1904). Records of the Lumleys of Lumley Castle, p.14. Edith Benham, ed. London: George Bell & Sons. Google Books.
  12. DNA MATCHES
    MATERNAL relationship confirmed by an exact HVR1 and HVR2 match between:
    MATERNAL relationship confirmed by an exact HVR1 and HVR2 match between
  13. 13.0 13.1 Knapton, S. (2014, December 02). Richard III DNA shows British Royal family may not have royal bloodline. Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk
  14. 14.0 14.1 Greenspan, J. (2014, December 3). New Richard III Mystery Comes to Light. 'History.' www.history.com
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Lewis, M. (2014, March 11). Anne Neville #55080, b. 11 June 1456, d. 16 March 1485. [ORTNCA]. Web.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Chronology of the House of York,, (n.d.). Richard III Society. Web.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Lewis, M. (2014, March 11). Sir Edward Plantagenet, Duke of Cornwall, Earl Salisbury & Chester, Prince of Wales #55079, b. 1476, d. 9 April 1484. ORTNCA. Web.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Wikipedia: John of Gloucester
    "Royal Bastardy in Mediaeval England: Part Two," (1993, September). Back to the Basics. WayBack Machine. Web.
    Hammond, P.W. (n.d.). Richard III. Wayback Machine. Web.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Weir, A. (1995). The Princes in the Tower, New York, NY: Ballantine Books, August 1995, p 215
  20. Henry Tudor’s Wales and the Route to Bosworth tour. HistoryPoints.org. Web. Retrieved 02 July 2020. <https://historypoints.org/index.php?page=henry-tudor-s-route-to-bosworth-tour>.
    Map of Henry Tudor's route to Bosworth. HistoryPoints.org. Google Maps. <https://historypoints.org/index.php?page=henry-tudor-s-route-to-bosworth-tour-map>
  21. 21.0 21.1 University of Leicester (2013, February 4). Richard III - Injuries to the Remains. Youtube. Video. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://youtu.be/QwrIka8x9_w>.
  22. "Rhys ap Thomas was an important Welsh magnate who closely supported Henry Tudor. He and his retainers would have formed the close guard around Henry during the battle of Bosworth in 1485. That, together with the fact that he was knighted by Henry on the battlefield, and later claims that he used a poleaxe to kill Richard, certainly make him one of the prime candidates to have delivered that fatal blow."
    Rowe, H. (2013, February 6). Rhys ap Thomas and the fatal blow that killed Richard III on Bosworth Field. Heritage of Wales News. Weblog. Retrieved 02 July 2020. <http://heritageofwalesnews.blogspot.com/2013/02/rhys-ap-thomas-and-fatal-blow-that.html> (see also: Wikipedia: Rhys ap Thomas).
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, p. 265.
    see copy in WikiTree changes 18:06, 24 Feb 2016.[1] (caution - Duffy repeats unfounded rumors, disproven by archaeology).
  24. Tradition has it that Gloucester's, "displaced tomb-chest was later used as a water-trough. Leland's account of the friary church in the 1530s records Gloucester's burial but does not mention a tomb."
    Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, p. 265.
  25. The Discovery of Richard III. University of Leicester. Web. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/index.html>. The excavation site was thought to be the site of Grey Friars friary in co. Leics., where Gloucester was buried.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 'Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's', (2013, February 4). BBC News. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-leicestershire-21063882>.
  27. Speed claimed Richard's tomb had an alabaster effigy, which was broken up after the surrender of the Leicester friary in 1538 under Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries, at which time the king's bones were scattered," (Duffy, 2003).
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 King, T.E. (2014). Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms6631
  29. "Richard III: Team rebuilds 'most famous spine'," (2014, May 29). BBC. [2]
  30. Richard III, (n.d.). BBC History. bbc.com
  31. Byard, R.W. King Richard III revisited. Forensic Sci Med Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-019-00215-1
  32. "Homo sapiens isolate Greyfriars Skeleton 1 mitochondrion, complete genome." v. GenBank: KM676292.1. Retrieved 02 July 2020. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KM676292>.
  33. DNA Results: Mitochondrial DNA, in The Discovery of Richard III. University of Leicester. Web. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/science/resultsofdna.html>.
  34. Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's, (2013, Feb 04). BBC. bbc.com.
  35. Wikipedia: Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort
  36. Rincon, P. (2014, December 02). Richard III's DNA throws up infidelity surprise. BBC. Web. Retrieved 01 July 2020. <https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30281333>.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Rincon, P. (2014, December 2). Richard III's DNA throws up infidelity surprise. BBC News. Retrieved 2020, July 01.
  38. 38.0 38.1 "Richard III: Leicester welcomes king's remains," (2014, March 22). BBC. bbc.com
  39. 39.0 39.1 Richard III: More than 5,000 people visit Leicester Cathedral coffin, (2015, March 22). BBC. bbc.com
  40. Cardinal commends soul of King Richard III to God so his remains may rest in peace, (2015, March 22). Catholic News. www.catholicnews.org.uk
  41. 41.00 41.01 41.02 41.03 41.04 41.05 41.06 41.07 41.08 41.09 41.10 41.11 41.12 41.13 41.14 41.15 Titles of Richard III [Plantagenet]
    Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, III: 533, IV: 128, V: 458-460
  42. Wikipedia: Richard Plantagenet (Richard of Eastwell)
  43. c. 1483 his mother Cecily was rumored to have had an affair, and Edward IV's paternity was questioned. Some believe the rumor was intended to bolster Gloucester's claim to the throne. For more see...
    Gareth (2016, February 24). Could Edward IV have been illegitimate? Royal History Geeks. Weblog. Retrieved 02 July 2020.
    Wilson, T. (2014, July 27). "Was Edward IV Illegitimate?: The case for the defence," in Medieval Britain. The History Files. Weblog. Retrieved 02 July 2020.

See Also



More Genealogy Tools



Sponsored Search




Sponsored Search by Ancestry.com

DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships by comparing test results with Richard III or other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:
  • Richard III (York) of England: Y-Chromosome Test 22 markers, haplogroup G-P287, MitoYDNA ID Z10009 [compare]
Mitochondrial DNA test-takers in the direct maternal line:
  • Richard III (York) of England: Mitochondrial DNA Test Full Sequence, haplogroup J1c2c3, MitoYDNA ID Z10198 [compare]

Have you taken a DNA test? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Ancestry DNA.

Sponsored by Ancestry ®

Family History Search.

Simplified.

Enter a grandparent's name. Just one grandparent can lead you to many discoveries.

Comments: 24

Leave a message for others who see this profile.
There are no comments yet.
Login to post a comment.
Of England-292 and York-1245 appear to represent the same person because: clear duplicate for King Richard III
posted by Janet Gunn
Hello to all the members of the Trusted List! The England Project has taken over Project Management of this profile from the British Royals and Aristocrats Project as explained in [https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/1095774/england-project-take-management-english-euroaristo-profiles this G2G Please contact me if you have any questions.

Jo, England Project Managed Profiles team

posted by Jo Fitz-Henry
Very interesting profile with great information. Richard III is my 5th cousin 14 X removed. We share my 18th great grandfather.
posted by Carol Baldwin PhD, RN
King Richard is my first cousins 18 times removed. My 18 great grandfather was his grandfather. Thought that was something. I’m more kin to the King then the Queen of England is.
posted by Pamela (Hall) Ratliff
Did some more clean-up ... added some of the suggested sources and reviewed changes to check citations and see where previous copy orginates. Put it in the Notes section for editors, since profile needs more work.
posted by Bree Ogle
edited by Bree Ogle
documentary- Search for Richard III - "King in a Car Park" - Archeological Dig of car park to find his gravesite.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mx8oo9MAMZo

Canadian descendant of Richard III invited to the burial- Documentary of how remains were found, and determined to be him. How King Richard III Remains Were Discovered and Confirmed - Documentary- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1Bxx2phuAE

Additional - Injuries to the Remains of Richard III (from University of Leicester)- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwrIka8x9_w

Documentary- The Reburial of Richard III - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSwWgbPObB0

posted by Arora (G) Anonymous
edited by Arora (G) Anonymous
The full mtDNA sequence of the Greyfriars Skeleton is in GenBank at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KM676292
posted by Nathan Kennedy
WOW thank you to a cousin who shared this information with me. To inform me that I am King Richard III 1st cousin 17 times removed . Through Neville. What a nice surprise
posted by Mary (Gulish) Gi.
father unknown.
posted by Raymond Nichols ,DD
Well I don't know about these dates where did they come from? I found the sources! not sure if they are accurate.
posted by David Martin
Myy 2nd cousin 19Xremoved with our first common ancestor being my 20th great grandfather: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Plantagenet-66
posted by Linda Kendrick
Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

posted by Michele Britton
Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

posted by Michele Britton
Physical Appearance:

Add to this section the discovery that his DNA indicates that Richard III was likely born with blonde hair (which may have darkened with age) and blue eyes.

King, T. E. et al. Identification of the remains of King Richard III. Nat. Commun. 5:5631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6631 (2014)

posted by Michele Britton
The graphic titled "The House of York in 1475" under "Pedigree" has been shown to be incorrect and it should be taken down.

The male line family tree for the House of York as confirmed by DNA and historical research at the University of Leicester is located at:

http://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/science/familytreeMale.html

The female line (mtNDA) descending from from Cecily Neville, also verified at the same university, is located at:

http://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/science/familytree.html

posted by Michele Britton