Arthur was born about 1776. He was the son of Arthur Cayley and Anne Schulz. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was admitted, age 16, in 1792. He graduated in 1796 as 4th Wrangler, and, according to the New Dictionary of National Biography, was refused a fellowship on account of his political opinions. He was an occasional contributor to the Anti-Jacobin Review, which started publication in 1798.
On 30 May 1803 he married his cousin Lucy Cayley.
He was ordained priest in 1813 and was Rector of Thormanby, Yorkshire from 1814 to his death. He passed away in 1848.
He was author of
Reviewing the Raleigh biography, The London Monthly Review said, "He is either no favourite of the historic muse, of he does not pay her sufficiently assiduous court, for he can as yet boast of few of the fascinations and enchantments which she places at the disposal of her successful suitors."
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