Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams.
Elizabeth died in 1757, soon after the birth of her stillborn child. In 1764, Samuel married Elizabeth "Betsy" Wells, who became mother to young Samuel and Hannah, although she had no children of her own.
Samuel struggled to make a living for his family. He lacked interest in the accounting career for which he had trained. Then, he inherited the family brewery business, but nothing motivated him like politics and the evolution of a new nation.
In the fifteen years before the American Revolution, that is, 1760 to 1775, Samuel Adams was above all the other patriots of that era, foremost in encouraging his fellow men to open rebellion. The Tories of that day said that Samuel was "the first man to speak of Independence," which to British sympathizers meant treason. It was Samuel Adams who rallied the Bostonians to proclaim their opposition to the Stamp Tax in 1755. It was Samuel Adams who got his fellow citizens to vote against the trade tax that Parliament imposed on sugar.
It was Samuel Adams who organized the Boston Tea Party. When the early Patriots banded themselves together and called themselves the Sons of Liberty, the British called this organization "Sam Adams Mohawks". The greatest personal drive for independence in America prior to the Battle of Bunker Hill was coaching skill and leadership of Samuel Adams, yet this man sought no credit for it all. Probably the greatest tribute made in regard to this man was made by the Tory Boston Governor Hutchinson when he said, "Samuel Adams is leader of the greatest adventure in democracy this world has ever seen."
In 1774, Samuel Adams was chosen by the Massachusetts House of Representatives to represent his state at the First Continental Congress. At the Second Continental Congress, he became part of the committee to write the Articles of Confederation and encouraged the formation of a Continental Army. Then, on 4 Jul 1776, he signed the Declaration of Independence. After the new U.S. Constitution was written, Adams argued for a Bill of Rights to be added, and this was done in 1791. Samuel Adams was Governor of Massachusetts 1793-1797.
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